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Keyword: huntergatherers

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  • Albanian Neolithic Remains Evidence Oldest Known Case of Osteopetrosis

    11/06/2020 10:24:40 AM PST · by SunkenCiv · 3 replies
    Explaining Albania ^ | October 24, 2020 | Alice Taylor
    German researchers have discovered the oldest known case of osteopetrosis or "stone bone" disease in the remains of a man from the Neolithic lacustrine settlement of Maliq in southeast Albania. Osteopetrosis is a rare disorder which manifests through the hardening and solidifying of bones, making them more susceptible to fracture. The study was conducted by palaeopathologist Julia Gresky of the German Archaeological Institute and colleagues. The researchers describe the area as having an important role in the Neolithisation of the Balkan region as it was home to some of the first agricultural economies in the area. The bones they found...
  • At least five types of dog existed by the end of the Ice Age, 11,000 years ago

    10/30/2020 3:53:23 PM PDT · by BenLurkin · 25 replies
    CNN ^ | October 30, 2020 | Amy Woodyatt,
    Now, a study published Friday in the journal Science has shown that the genetic diversity in modern dogs can be traced back to the end of the last Ice Age, linking Fido and Rex to ancient canine populations. Researchers studied DNA extracted from bones from ancient dogs for clues to evolutionary changes that occurred thousands of years ago, and found that just after the Ice Age, there were at least five types of dog with distinct genetic ancestries. They found that dog lineages have "mixed and combined," and are still present in the dogs of today. ... And while modern...
  • BREAKING: Scientists say dogs align along earth’s north-south axis when pooping

    01/04/2014 7:08:06 AM PST · by mandaladon · 79 replies
    The Daily Caller ^ | 4 Jan 2014 | Eric Owens
    A team of European scientists with way too much time on its hands has discovered that dogs tend to position themselves in alignment with the earth’s magnetic field before they take every big, steamy dump. The Czech and German researchers committed two years of their professional lives to the longitudinal study of canine crap, reports The Christian Science Monitor. The point was to determine magnetic sensitivity in dogs—at least when they poop. The proud scientists say the findings “open new horizons for biomagnetic research.” There were 37 dog owners in Germany and the Czech Republic involved in the study. There...
  • Lactose tolerance spread throughout Europe in only a few thousand years

    09/16/2020 10:11:55 PM PDT · by SunkenCiv · 25 replies
    EurekAlert! ^ | September 3, 2020 | Johannes Gutenberg Universitaet Mainz
    The human ability to digest the milk sugar lactose after infancy spread throughout Central Europe in only a few thousand years. This is the conclusion reached by an international research team led by Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz (JGU). The researchers analyzed genetic material from the bones of individuals who had fallen in a conflict around 1200 B.C. on the banks of the Tollense, a river in the present-day German state of Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania... found that only around one in eight of the assumed warriors had a gene variant that enabled them to break down the lactose in milk. "Of the...
  • World's oldest pet dog? Remains of a domesticated canine that 'lived alongside humans' up to 20,000 years ago are unearthed in Italy

    09/08/2020 11:11:22 AM PDT · by C19fan · 23 replies
    UK Daily Mail ^ | September 8, 2020 | Joe Pinkstone
    Archaeologists have unearthed what they believe could be the oldest ever remains of a domesticated pet dog. It is thought the remains could be between 14,000 and 20,000 years old, spanning back to the very dawn of the special relationship between humans and canines. While dogs are known as man's best friend and one of the most domesticated animals on Earth, the origin of this dynamic is still a relative mystery.
  • Archaeologists uncover 5,700-year-old Neolithic house in north Cork

    09/01/2020 7:57:22 PM PDT · by SunkenCiv · 31 replies
    Irish Examiner ^ | Wednesday, August 26, 2020 | Sean O'Riordan
    The foundations of a 5,700-year-old Neolithic house, evidence of Bronze Age burials and Iron Age smelting have been discovered by archaeologists as a result of excavations at the sites of two road realignment projects in Co. Cork. They were unearthed in a total of eight separate excavations carried out after the county council undertook two road realignment projects on the N73 (the main road between Mallow and Mitchelstown) close to the villages of Shanballymore and Kildorrery. On one of the sites, archaeologists discovered the foundations of a Neolithic house dating back to approximately 3,700 BC, which they believe may have...
  • What bread tasted like 4000 years ago

    08/29/2020 10:30:55 AM PDT · by Oshkalaboomboom · 59 replies
    The Atlantic ^ | 8/29/2020 | KERIDWEN CORNELIUS
    Around 2000 B.C., a baker in the ancient Egyptian city of Thebes captured yeast from the air and kneaded it into a triangle of dough. Once baked, the bread was buried in a dedication ceremony beneath the temple of Pharaoh Mentuhotep II on the west bank of the Nile. There the yeast slept like a microbial mummy for four millennia, until 2019. That’s when Seamus Blackley—a physicist and game designer best known for creating the Xbox—suctioned it up with a syringe and revived it in a sourdough starter. Blackley, an amateur Egyptologist, often thinks about this ancient baker as he...
  • Rapid acceptance of foreign food tradition in Bronze Age Europe

    08/25/2020 1:35:47 PM PDT · by SunkenCiv · 18 replies
    Phys dot org trademark ^ | August 19, 2020 | Claudia Eulitz , Kiel University
    Not just metals, hierarchical societies and fortified settlements: a new food also influenced economic transformations in the Bronze Age around 3,500 years ago. This is evidenced by frequent archeological discoveries of remains of broomcorn millet (Panicum miliaceum L.), a cereal with small, roundish grains. A major study by the Collaborative Research Center 1266 at Kiel University (CAU) was published yesterday (13 August) in the journal Scientific Reports. It shows how common millet got onto the menu in Bronze Age Europe. Intensive trade and communication networks facilitated the incredibly rapid spread of this new crop originating from the Far East. "Wheat,...
  • The first evidence for Late Pleistocene dogs in Italy

    08/22/2020 2:24:21 PM PDT · by SunkenCiv · 10 replies
    Nature ^ | 07 August 2020 | see the author list below
    The identification of the earliest dogs is challenging because of the absence and/or mosaic pattern of morphological diagnostic features in the initial phases of the domestication process. Furthermore, the natural occurrence of some of these characters in Late Pleistocene wolf populations and the time it took from the onset of traits related to domestication to their prevalence remain indefinite. For these reasons, the spatiotemporal context of the early domestication of dogs is hotly debated. Our combined molecular and morphological analyses of fossil canid remains from the sites of Grotta Paglicci and Grotta Romanelli, in southern Italy, attest of the presence...
  • Rat DNA Clues To Sea Migration

    06/08/2004 1:51:08 PM PDT · by blam · 15 replies · 1,192+ views
    BBC ^ | 6-8-2004
    Rat DNA clues to sea migration This carving shows Pacific rats on the face of a Polynesian ancestor Scientists have used DNA from rats to trace migration patterns of the ancestors of today's Polynesians. People are thought to have arrived in Polynesia, comprising the Pacific islands of Fiji, Tonga and Samoa, by boat some 3,000 years ago. Rat data suggests the journey was more complex than the popular "Express Train" theory, which proposes a rapid dispersal of people from South Asia. Details appear in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. Elizabeth Matisoo-Smith and Judith Robins from the University of...
  • New research shows climate was the key factor impacting the movement of the first farmers across Europe

    07/26/2020 9:38:12 AM PDT · by SunkenCiv · 62 replies
    Phys dot org ^ | July 16, 2020 | Dr Lia Betti, University of Roehampton
    The research, a collaboration between the University of Roehampton, the University of Cambridge and several other institutions, combined archeological data with palaeoclimatic reconstructions to show for the first time that climate dramatically impacted the migration of people across Europe, causing a dramatic slowdown between 6,100 BCE and 4,500 BCE. The research team, including Dr. Lia Betti, Senior Lecturer of the University of Roehampton, assembled a large database of the first arrival dates of Neolithic farmers across the continent and studied the speed of their migration in relation to climatic reconstructions of the time. They also re-analysed ancient DNA data to...
  • Tooth decay was major problem for our ancestors 9,000 years ago

    07/18/2020 4:22:28 PM PDT · by SunkenCiv · 39 replies
    Science in Poland ^ | Friday, July 10, 2020 | Szymon Zdzieblowski
    Scientists have found traces of rampant tooth decay in the teeth of people living almost 9,000 years ago in today's Poland. According to the researchers from the Cardinal Stefan Wyszynski University in Warsaw, the disease, which is also known as [cavities], could have been the result of consuming too much fruit and honey. Traditionally, it was thought that tooth decay became common only after man began to lead a sedentary lifestyle and use more processed cereal products. But, with farmers not appearing in Poland until about 7,000 years ago, the 9,000-year-old discovery has taken the scientists by surprise... Professor Jacek...
  • Unusual climate during Roman times plunged Eurasia into hunger and disease

    04/15/2018 6:41:17 AM PDT · by SunkenCiv · 50 replies
    Science News ^ | April 11, 2018 | University of Helsinki
    A recent study indicates that volcanic eruptions in the mid 500s resulted in an unusually gloomy and cold period. A joint research project of the Chronology Laboratory of the Finnish Museum of Natural History and Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke) suggests that the years 536 and 541-544 CE were very difficult... An extended period of little light may make it difficult for humans to survive. The level of production of plants is dependent on the amount of available sunlight. Food production, i.e, farming and animal husbandry, rely on the same solar energy. Humans, meanwhile, become more prone to disease if...
  • Dawn of the chicken revealed in Southeast Asia

    07/02/2020 9:57:22 PM PDT · by SunkenCiv · 60 replies
    Science: Vol. 368, Issue 6498, pp. 1411 ^ | June 26, 2020 | Andrew Lawler
    [Summary] Chickens outnumber all other species of birds by an order of magnitude and they are humanity's single largest source of animal protein. Yet for 2 centuries, biologists have struggled to explain how the chicken became the chicken. Now, the first extensive study of the bird's full genome concludes that people in northern Southeast Asia or southern China domesticated a colorful pheasant sometime after about 7500 B.C.E. People then carried the bird across Asia and on to every continent except Antarctica. The research team also found that the modern chicken's chief ancestor is a subspecies of red jungle fowl named...
  • Olives First Domesticated 7,000 Years Ago in Israel, Study Says

    07/01/2020 10:23:34 PM PDT · by SunkenCiv · 18 replies
    Haaretz ^ | March 11, 2020 | Ariel David
    Villagers in what is today Israel were the first to cultivate olive trees, an international study that pooled data from countries surrounding the Mediterranean Sea has concluded. This start of olive domestication apparently began in the Galilee around 7,000 to 6,500 years ago, the team estimates. Olives and especially olive oil were staples of ancient economies around the Mediterranean Basin: The oil was used for cooking, lighting as well as medicinal and ritual purposes. But so far there has been little agreement among researchers as to where and when people first domesticated the plant. Dating estimates have ranged from more...
  • First evidence that ancient humans ate snakes and lizards is unearthed in Israel

    06/28/2020 12:17:56 PM PDT · by SunkenCiv · 32 replies
    Live Science ^ | June 25, 2020 | Mindy Weisberger
    Human communities in the Levant at this time were known as Natufian. They were primarily hunters and foragers and are considered the first non-nomadic society; the semi-sedentary habits of Natufian culture were likely a precursor to humans settling down and becoming farmers. At the el-Wad Terrace settlement, the site was densely layered with animal remains, of which "a high percentage" belonged to lizards and snakes, the researchers reported in a new study, published online June 10 in the journal Scientific Reports. The quantity of squamate bones at the site was astonishing; that alone hinted at human consumption as a possible...
  • This Giant Severed Wolf Head From 40,000 Years Ago Was Unearthed in Siberia

    06/26/2020 6:22:58 AM PDT · by Red Badger · 33 replies
    www.sciencealert.com ^ | 26 JUNE 2020 | PETER DOCKRILL
    As our planet's permafrosts continue to melt in record-breaking heat, we can expect to find astonishing things from the ancient past. Like this huge wolf head, preserved since the last ice age and unearthed in incredible condition in Siberia in 2018, an estimated 40,000 years since being entombed in frozen wilderness. The giant head, discovered by a local man in 2018 along the shores of the Tirekhtyakh River in the Russian Republic of Sakha (aka Yakutia), measures a whole 40 centimetres in length (about 16 inches), making it unlike any existing wolf specimen scientists have studied from so long ago....
  • Oldest Arrowheads Outside of Africa Have Been Found in The Rainforests of Sri Lanka

    06/15/2020 10:35:56 AM PDT · by BenLurkin · 15 replies
    sciencealert.com ^ | 13 JUNE 2020 | MICHELLE LANGLEY, OSHAN WEDAGE AND PATRICK ROBERTS
    At Fa-Hien Lena, a cave in the heart of Sri Lanka's wet zone forests, we discovered numerous tools made of stone, bone, and tooth – including a number of small arrow points carved from bone which are about 48,000 years old. The invention of the bow and arrow allowed people to hunt prey at a much greater distance. People no longer had to get within "a stone's throw" of prey which could suddenly bolt and escape. This innovation greatly increased the chances of a successful hunt. Bows and arrows also made it much safer to hunt dangerous prey. If you...
  • European Ice Age Hunters Ate Wolf Meat, Say Scientists

    05/31/2020 7:57:03 PM PDT · by SunkenCiv · 36 replies
    Science in Poland ^ | May 21, 2020 | Szymon Zdzieblowski
    "Some marks were left by Palaeolithic hunters when removing skins, but there are also those that can be associated only with dividing the carcass into smaller portions." He added: "Bones of herbivores usually dominate within human settlements from this period, because they were probably more eagerly consumed. "But it seems understandable that in the case of hunting a wolf, discarding meat was a considerable loss, especially during periods of lower availability of food. Therefore, it seems that all parts of the predators' body were used." In Pavlov, in addition to the remains of small and medium-sized predatory animals, researchers also...
  • Brewing beer may be an older craft than we realized in some places

    05/21/2020 7:06:24 PM PDT · by SunkenCiv · 19 replies
    Science News ^ | May 7, 2020 | Maria Temming
    Microscopic signatures of malting could help reveal which prehistoric people had a taste for beer. Ancient beer is difficult to trace, because many of beer’s chemical ingredients, like alcohol, don’t preserve well (SN: 9/28/04). But a new analysis of modern and ancient malted grain indicates that malting’s effects on grain cell structure can last millennia. This microscopic evidence could help fill in the archaeological record of beer consumption, providing insight into the social, ritual and dietary roles this drink played in prehistoric cultures, researchers report online May 7 in PLOS ONE. Malting, the first step in brewing beer, erodes cell...