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Keyword: cuneiform

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  • Decoding Cuneiform, One of the Earliest Forms of Writing

    11/11/2020 5:55:50 PM PST · by BenLurkin · 20 replies
    Discover ^ | November 5, 2020 8:15 PM | Avery Hurt|
    It’s not a language. It’s not an alphabet, either, exactly. The ancient system of writing is one of, if not the, oldest. It was invented around 3,500–3,000 B.C. by the Sumerians and used in the region for more than 3,000 years. [The symbols were initially pictograms, they soon became quite stylized and are indeed made up of varying arrangements of lines and triangles or wedges. Rather than using, for example, a picture of a cow to represent a cow, cuneiform used a symbol that was sort of a stripped-down image of a cow. This made it much more efficient. As...
  • Ancient Hittite cuneiform scripts will soon be accessible online

    10/18/2020 11:33:50 PM PDT · by SunkenCiv · 26 replies
    Phys dot org ^ | October 2020 | Universitaet Mainz
    They used clay tablets to keep records of state treaties and decrees, prayers, myths, and summoning rituals, using a language that researchers were only able to decipher around 100 years ago. Now, the Hittites' texts, which were written in cuneiform, are being made fully accessible online. The collection will be based on around 30,000 documents, most of which are written in the Hittite language, but other languages such as Luwian and Palaic will also be represented to a lesser extent. Participating in the joint project are researchers from the universities of Mainz, Marburg, and Würzburg, as well as of the...
  • United States Files Civil Action to Forfeit Rare Cuneiform Tablet Bearing Portion of the Epic of Gilgamesh

    07/14/2020 7:00:41 PM PDT · by ransomnote · 21 replies ^ | May 18, 2020 | U.S. Attorney’s Office Eastern District of New York
    The “Gilgamesh Dream Tablet” Was Sold to Hobby Lobby Using a False Provenance Earlier today, the United States filed a civil complaint to forfeit a rare cuneiform tablet bearing a portion of the epic of Gilgamesh, a Sumerian epic poem considered one the world’s oldest works of literature.  Known as the Gilgamesh Dream Tablet, it originated in the area of modern-day Iraq and entered the United States contrary to federal law.  The tablet was later sold by an international auction house (the “Auction House”) to Hobby Lobby Stores, Inc. (“Hobby Lobby”), a prominent arts-and-crafts retailer based in Oklahoma City,...
  • Forced Resettlement and Immigration at Tel Hadid

    07/13/2020 7:26:36 PM PDT · by SunkenCiv · 2 replies
    Biblical Archaeology Review 46:3 ^ | Summer 2020 | Ido Koch, Dan Warner, Eli Yannai, Lin Lawson Pruitt, Dennis Cole, James Parker
    Among the individuals mentioned in those texts, 12 had Mesopotamian names, five had probably Aramaic names, one bore an Egyptian name, and one had a name with the Yahwistic component Yhw -- Netanyahu. The appearance of the foreign names in the documents, coupled with the scarcity of Yahwistic elements in them, points to the policy of forced resettlement for which the Neo-Assyrian state was notorious. The refugees' displacement in times of war -- a phenomenon, unfortunately, so familiar to us today -- was coupled with forced movements of conquered populations. The kings of the Neo-Assyrian Empire formulated and used this...
  • 9 Things You May Not Know About the Ancient Sumerians

    03/25/2020 8:25:48 PM PDT · by SunkenCiv · 29 replies
    History Channel dot com ^ | Original: Dec 16, 2015 Updated: Feb 5, 2019 | Evan Andrews
    Along with inventing writing, the wheel, the plow, law codes and literature, the Sumerians are also remembered as some of history's original brewers... dating back to the fourth millennium B.C. The brewing techniques they used are still a mystery, but their preferred ale seems to have been a barley-based concoction so thick that it had to be sipped through a special kind of filtration straw. The Sumerians prized their beer for its nutrient-rich ingredients and hailed it as the key to a "joyful heart and a contented liver." ... The Sumerian invention of cuneiform -- a Latin term literally meaning...
  • Israeli Authorities Arrest Antiquities Dealers In Connection With Hobby Lobby Scandal

    07/31/2017 8:23:47 PM PDT · by Timpanagos1 · 13 replies
    NPR ^ | 9/31/17 | DANIEL ESTRIN
    At 3:30 a.m. on Sunday, Israeli police say, authorities arrested five Palestinian antiquities dealers in Jerusalem and confiscated items dating back thousands of years from their homes and shops: papyrus fragments from the Egyptian Book of the Dead, the bust of an Etruscan woman, a fresco from Pompeii depicting swimming fish. They also seized more modern objects — two black luxury Audi vehicles — and more than $200,000 in cash.
  • Billionaire Hobby Lobby owners probed in ‘looting’ of artifacts for Bible museum

    10/27/2015 8:39:42 AM PDT · by Olog-hai · 21 replies
    New York Post ^ | October 27, 2015 | 9:13am | Emily Saul
    The billionaire owners of craft giant Hobby Lobby are under federal investigation for allegedly looting hundreds of ancient artifacts from the Middle East for use in their personal “Museum of the Bible,” according to a report. The Green family has been under investigation since 2011, the Daily Beast reports, when Memphis customs seized nearly 300 clay tablets en route to the Hobby Lobby headquarters in Oklahoma City. …
  • Controversial Cuneiform Tablets Tell Tales of Security Dogs and a Lost City

    01/08/2020 12:29:11 PM PST · by Red Badger · 28 replies ^ | 8 January, 2020 - 16:58 | Ashley Cowie
    An archaeologist has admitted that around 1,400 cuneiform tablets might have been stolen from Irisagrig, a 4,000-year-old lost Sumerian city in modern day Iraq. While the robbers obviously know the location of the ancient city, the authorities don’t! In a Live Science article we learn that ‘only looters have the location’ of this ancient city and perplexed archaeologists said this haul of newly examined tablets describes not only the palace of Irisagrig and the animals kept on the grounds, including lions and dogs; but that they also detail a festival held in a temple dedicated to a god of mischief....
  • 3,000-year-old tablet describing Babylonian Noah's Ark tale could be 'earliest ever example..[tr]

    11/27/2019 1:49:22 PM PST · by TomServo · 44 replies
    Fox News ^ | 11/26/2019 | By Chris Ciaccia | Fox News
    A scholar at the University of Cambridge in the U.K. has suggested that the "earliest ever example of fake news" exists in a 3,000-year-old Babylonian tablet that describes the story of Noah and the Ark, widely believed to be the inspiration for the Biblical story.
  • Assyrian Deportation and Resettlement

    10/02/2019 5:09:00 PM PDT · by SunkenCiv · 5 replies ^ | circa 2019 | Dr.Ido Koch
    Assyria conquered the kingdom of Israel, and deported many of the residents of Samaria and its surroundings to other Assyrian provinces, and brought deportees from other conquered territories to Samaria to take their place. Excavations at Tel Hadid, near Lod in Israel, have unearthed material remains that contribute to our understanding of these transformative years. Deportation of residents from rebellious vassal states was one of the ways Mesopotamian empires maintained control of their territory. This practice was devised, and largely used, during the Neo-Assyrian Empire... Mass deportations and resettlement of conquered peoples served as a fundamental tool of statecraft, economic...
  • History of Writing & Printing:

    08/24/2019 6:22:49 PM PDT · by bitt · 34 replies ^ | 8/24/2019 | Bill Federer
    Victor Hugo on Gutenberg's Press, "The Invention of Printing ... is the Mother of Revolution." HISTORY OF WRITING The invention of "writing" was around 3300 BC. Richard Overy, editor of The Times Complete History of the World, stated in "The 50 Key Dates of World History" (October 19, 2007): "No date appears before the start of human civilizations about 5,500 years ago and the beginning of a written or pictorial history." Astrophysicist Neil deGrasse Tyson stated in the Cosmos TV series (2014,, episode 10, "The Immortals"): "It was the people who once lived here, around 5,000 years ago, who...
  • Mathematical mystery of ancient Babylonian clay tablet solved

    08/25/2017 9:41:11 AM PDT · by Red Badger · 83 replies ^ | 08-24-2017 | Provided by: University of New South Wales
    The 3,700-year-old Babylonian tablet Plimpton 322 at the Rare Book and Manuscript Library at Columbia University in New York. Credit: UNSW/Andrew Kelly ================================================================================ UNSW Sydney scientists have discovered the purpose of a famous 3700-year old Babylonian clay tablet, revealing it is the world's oldest and most accurate trigonometric table, possibly used by ancient mathematical scribes to calculate how to construct palaces and temples and build canals. The new research shows the Babylonians beat the Greeks to the invention of trigonometry - the study of triangles - by more than 1000 years, and reveals an ancient mathematical sophistication that had been...
  • 3,700-year-old Babylonian tablet rewrites the history of maths - and shows the Greeks [tr]

    08/25/2017 3:41:48 AM PDT · by C19fan · 51 replies
    UK Telegraph ^ | August 24, 2017 | Sarah Knapton
    A 3,700-year-old clay tablet has proven that the Babylonians developed trigonometry 1,500 years before the Greeks and were using a sophisticated method of mathematics which could change how we calculate today. The tablet, known as Plimpton 332, was discovered in the early 1900s in Southern Iraq by the American archaeologist and diplomat Edgar Banks, who was the inspiration for Indiana Jones.
  • 3,700-year-old Babylonian tablet rewrites the history of maths - and shows the Greeks did not...

    08/24/2017 7:42:25 PM PDT · by BenLurkin · 77 replies
    The tablet, known as Plimpton 332, was discovered in the early 1900s... Babylonian mathematics used a base 60, or sexagesimal system, rather than the 10 which is used today. Because 60 is far easier to divide by three, experts studying the tablet, found that the calculations are far more accurate. ... Hipparchus, who lived around 120BC, has long been regarded as the father of trigonometry, with his ‘table of chords’ on a circle considered the oldest trigonometric table. A trigonometric table allows a user to determine two unknown ratios of a right-angled triangle using just one known ratio. But the...
  • Who are the Luwians?

    07/16/2019 8:10:29 AM PDT · by SunkenCiv · 39 replies
    Luwian Studies ^ | up to and including 2019 | unattributed
    A gap between linguistics and prehistoryThanks to the over 33,000 documents from Hattusha, the capital of the Hittite Kingdom, linguists have been able to gain a comprehensive insight into Luwian culture. Some fundamental publications include the book Arzawa, by Susanne Heinhold-Krahmer (1977); The Luwians, edited by H. Craig Melchert (2003); and Luwian Identities, edited by Alice Mouton and others (2013). Field-oriented excavating archaeologists, on the other hand, never mention Luwians in their explanatory models. The current knowledge regarding the Aegean Bronze Age has been summarized in a number of recently published voluminous works, without attention to any Luwian culture....
  • A Biblical Interpretation of World History

    04/13/2003 10:04:27 AM PDT · by restornu · 11 replies · 369+ views
    Chapter 3: EARLY CIVILIZATION, A SHORT HISTORY OF THE MIDDLE EAST FROM 3000 TO 1000 B.C. PART I The first civilizations after Babel were founded in the Tigris, Euphrates and Nile River valleys. Civilization also occurred at a very early date in the Indus and Yellow River valleys, but they are beyond the scope of this work. In this chapter we will concentrate on the two main civilizations of the "Fertile Crescent," Egypt and Mesopotamia, and conclude with a look at the smaller nations nearby, like the Phoenicians and Minoans. Map 4: The Middle East, about 2300 B.C. Shown here...
  • Freedom Speaks Hurrian: A Cuneiform Song of Liberation

    08/11/2019 2:05:24 AM PDT · by SunkenCiv · 16 replies
    Biblical Archaeology Review ^ | August 05, 2019 | Marek Dospel
    The tablets containing the Song of Liberation were excavated in 1983 under a Byzantine period church in the Hittite capital city of Hattusha. Writing for the July–October 2019 issue of Biblical Archaeology Review, Eva von Dassow of the University of Minnesota reports on an intriguing, fictitious account of subjugation and liberation from Late Bronze Age Levant. The epic poem was originally composed in the Hurrian language, around 1600 B.C.E., but the surviving text comes from a Hurrian-Hittite bilingual edition from around 1400 B.C.E. It is recorded in cuneiform writing on a series of clay tablets, which came to light only...
  • Pharaonic inscription found in Saudi Arabia

    11/13/2010 6:10:38 AM PST · by SunkenCiv · 16 replies · 1+ views
    Arab News ^ | Sunday, November 7, 2010 | Rodolfo C. Estimo Jr.
    Saudi archaeologists have discovered an ancient hieroglyphic inscription mentioning an Egyptian pharaoh on a rock near the ancient oasis of Tayma, Tabuk province. The discovery, about 400 km north of Madinah and northeast of the ancient Nabatean site Madain Saleh, marks the first confirmed hieroglyphic inscription discovered in the Kingdom. "The rock was bearing an inscription of King Ramses III, one of the kings who ruled ancient Egypt from 1192 1160 B.C.," said SCTA Vice President for Antiquities and Museums Ali Ibrahim Al-Ghabban at a news conference on Sunday at the Commission on National Museum. Al-Ghabban said the discovery...
  • Mesopotamian King Sargon II envisioned ancient city Karkemish as western Assyrian capital

    04/22/2019 7:06:25 PM PDT · by SunkenCiv · 15 replies
    EurekAlert! ^ | April 18, 2019 | University of Chicago Press Journals
    In "A New Historical Inscription of Sargon II from Karkemish," published in the Journal of Near Eastern Studies, Gianni Marchesi translates a recently discovered inscription of the Assyrian King Sargon II found at the ruins of the ancient city of Karkemish. The inscription, which dates to around 713 B.C., details Sargon's conquest, occupation, and reorganization of Karkemish, including his rebuilding the city with ritual ceremonies usually reserved for royal palaces in capital cities. The text implies that Sargon may have been planning to make Karkemish a western capital of Assyria, from which he could administer and control his empire's western...
  • The Newly Discovered Tablet II of the Epic of Gilgamesh

    04/11/2019 8:19:00 PM PDT · by Beowulf9 · 42 replies ^ | April 9, 2019 | Osama Shukir Muhammed Amin
    Acquisition In 2011 CE, the Sulaymaniyah (Slemani) Museum in Iraqi Kurdistan purchased a large number of clay tablets. After the dramatic fall of Saddam's regime on April 9, 2003 CE and the ransacking of the Iraq Museum as well as other museums, the Sulaymaniyah Museum (guided by the Council of Ministers of Iraqi Kurdistan) started an initiative, as part of an amnesty program. The museum paid smugglers to 'intercept' archaeological artefacts on their journey to other countries. No questions were asked about who was selling the relic or where it came from. The Sulaymaniyah Museum believed that this condition kept...