Skip to comments.Dynasty 0 (Egyptian colonies in Canaan)
Posted on 11/27/2004 9:48:47 PM PST by SunkenCiv
Most of the occurrences of Narmer's name are on jars and jar fragments; an astonishing number of serekhs has emerged in the last 25 years from excavations in Israel and Palestine (Tel Erani, En Besor, Arad, Halif Terrace/Nahal Tillah, Small Tel Malhata, Tel Maahaz, Tel Lod and some more) signifying an apex of commercial contacts between Egypt and Canaan which lasted all through [Early Bronze I] ...These data and the excavation of many Southern Palestine sites, are proof of a very complex series of interrelations between Egypt and peoples centred beyond North Sinai lasting more than two (or three) centuries. It has been ascertained, mainly on the base of ceramic types and fabric, that Egyptian colonies did exist in this area, which must have worked either as tradingposts or as bazaars or points of exchange, storage and forwarding to Egypt of products (wine, oils) and raw materials (wood, ores, copper, resins, honey... In many cases the evidence of imported foreign pottery in Egypt and of Egyptian ceramic types in Palestine (both locally made or imported from Egypt), dates back to early Naqada II (thus before EB Ia, in late Ghassoulian and late Beersheba contexts. Some more serekhs of Narmer have been excavated at Minshat Abu Omar, Tell Ibrahim Awad and Tell Farain-Buto in the Delta and at Kafr Hassan Dawood in a c. 1000 tombs cemetery on the southern limit of the Wadi Tumilat.
(Excerpt) Read more at xoomer.virgilio.it ...
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The Development and Demise of the Early Bronze Age IVThe network of relations between Egypt and Palestine (Canaan), which were established in the Early Bronze Age I, continued into the Early Bronze Age II. The settlements of southern Canaan in which a wealth of Egyptian pottery had appeared, Tel Erani, Tel Halif and others continued to grow. The seal impressions of Egyptian officials found on clay stoppers at En Besor indicate uninterrupted activity at the site until the end of the First Dynasty. These settlements should be viewed as Egyptian trade stations, where Palestinian export shipments to Egypt were prepared. Goods were transported between the two countries along the main road, which passes through northern Sinai. A large number of way stations that protected and provided for the caravans have been discovered along the highway. A predominance of either Egyptian or Palestinian pottery was also found at these way stations. The trade route from Egypt to Palestine passed through almost two hundred kilometres of desert. A survey of this trade route carried out by E. D. Oren revealed fourteen clusters of EB I sites in the sand dunes, each containing concentrations of pottery which may be the remains of campsites and short lived settlements. Therefore, it can be deduced that Egyptians lived in the northern Sinai during this period and had contact with southern Palestine. When the network of relationships between Egypt and Canaan collapsed in the latter half of the Early Bronze Age II (3050-2700 B.C.E.), the trade stations were abandoned and the roadways remained unused for hundreds of years.
by David Arthur Douglas
Commonwealth Open University
Sorry. I'm ignorant about Google scholar. Can you enlighten me?
The Biblical Identity of Tel Halif by Oded Borowski
Egyptian Tomb in Israel by Andrew Kasdan
Gift of Achish (from "Giving Goliath His Due") by Neil Bierling
Desert Project Threatens Pre-Pharaonic EgyptThis area of southern Egypt has been designated the Land of Promise; it is part of the Egyptian governments long-term plan for agricultural expansion. Within about 20 years, the so-called Toshka Project, named for a depression in the Southwest Desert, is supposed to bring six million people to the area, many of them to work on its new farms. Whole cities are being planned, complete with schools, stores, health clinics, businesses and tourist facilities... One endangered site is Nabta Playa, a large kidney-shaped basin 65 miles west of Abu Simbel and 20 miles north of the Sudanese border. Archaeologists Fred Wendorf of Southern Methodist University and Romauld Schild of the Polish Institute of Archaeology and Ethnology have been studying this area for three decades. They have recorded more than 100 sites with houses, hearths, aligned megaliths, stone circles, cattle burials and large-scale constructions dating from about 11,000 to 5,000 years ago, dates that have been determined by carbon-14 tests... Although there is no exact climatic chronology for the Southwest Desert, archaeologists estimate that several wet periods occurred between 600,000 and 300,000 years ago, when large animals were hunted in the area (as suggested by wild ass and warthog bones left behind by early humans). A long period of drought was then followed by another sequence of wet periods from 250,000 to 70,000 years ago, a period archaeologists call the Middle Paleolithic... When Rudolph Kuper and his team of German archaeologists visited the Southwest Desert in the spring of 2002, he was shocked. Having traveled hundreds of miles through the rough dry Sahara, where a few years earlier there had been nothing but sand and rock, he suddenly came upon lakes, high grass, dense bushes, even small trees... Since the mid-1980s, unusually heavy summer rains in Ethiopia have caused periodic flooding of the Nile. The flood water has repeatedly overflowed the banks of Lake Nasser, creating a chain of seven lakes to the west... In 1997 the Egyptian government initiated the Toshka Project to take advantage of overflows from the Nile and Lake Nasser. A canal is to channel water from Lake Nasser to the so-called New Valley, near the Toshka Depression. The Mubarak Pumping Station, one of the worlds biggest designs, will lift 33 million cubic yards of water per day (about 6.5 billion cubic yards yearly) out of Lake Nasser. The pumping station will be powered by electricity generated by the Aswan High Dam. The water will cross a high ridge in the desert before being delivered to selected parts of the New Valley west of Lake Nasser. About 170 miles of canals will supply water to an agricultural area of about 1,600 square miles.
by Rudiger Heimlich
Egyptian tombs may be oldest yetMore than 20 were uncovered at the site of the Helwan cemetery, south-east of Cairo, and date back the more than 5,000 years. The graves feature written Egyptian language and support theories that writing developed independently there and was not brought from ancient Babylon. ABC Television reports the tombs were first uncovered five years ago but have only now been revealed.
Tuesday 29th January 2002Secrets of the DesertIt appears that Egypt was invaded by seafarers from a distant land to the east, and that these newcomers were the crucial cultural and technological influence which triggered early civilisation in north-east Africa. In a later article I will be going into the reasons why this was the historical reality but, for now, I want to concentrate on the discovery of the prehistoric rock art and describe to you a typical expedition to locate and record these amazing images from Egypt's most ancient past... On the opposite side of the wadi is a drawing of a chieftain in a boat with an animal's figurehead at the prow. The chieftain wears two plumes and carries a pear-shaped mace. The latter is a typical Sumerian weapon which was unknown in Egypt before this time - an important clue as to the original homeland of the boat people.
by David M. Rohl
Interactive Dig Hierakonpolis: From the Field
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David Rohl launched a new website this year, http://www.DavidRohl.com . However, I doubt if he reposted this material there, as he has been working on other projects lately, especially the revival of Mandalaband, the band he wrote music for in his college days.
Here are the links to most of the online articles for the ISIS site (Institute for the Study of Interdisciplinary Sciences, David M Rohl et al). Most of them appeared in the JACF (Journal for the Ancient Chronology Forum) issues 2 through 8 (no issue 1 articles are online).Exodus and Conquest - Myth or Reality? Can Archaeology Provide the Answer?The zipped versions are handy ways to get the entire text and all images, in the original online form.
By John J Bimson
Ancient Astronomical Observations and Near Eastern Chronology
By Wayne Mitchell
The Philistines: Their Origins and Chronology Reassessed
By John J Bimson
A Test of Time: Rediscovering Ancient Israel
By David M. Rohl
The el-Amarna Letters and Israelite History
By Bernard Newgrosh, David M. Rohl & Peter G. van der Veen
The el-Amarna Letters and Israelite History (part 2)
By Bernard Newgrosh, David M. Rohl & Peter G. van der Veen
A New Comparative Chronology for the Predynastic-Early Dynastic Transition
By Toby A. H. Wilkinson
Dating the Beginning of the 22nd Dynasty
A criticism of the New Chronology from Carl Jansen-Winkeln
A Test of Time and Comparative Semitism
A debate between Martin Heide and Peter van der Veen
Astronomical evidence in support of the New Chronology
by David Lappin
Khufu knew the Sphinx
by Colin D. Reader
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