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Keyword: lionelcasson

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  • An Ocean of Data: The New Way to Find Sunken Treasure

    02/18/2012 5:51:57 AM PST · by SunkenCiv · 26 replies
    Popular Science ^ | February 9, 2012 | Brooke Borel
    As much as Foley likes discovering shipwrecks -- he's found or helped find 26 in the past 14 years -- he doesn't much like spending time looking for them, at least not in the conventional ways. Rather than sending dive teams down to survey 1,000-foot transects one fin kick at a time, Foley prefers to use autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs) to survey huge tracts of seafloor. Where the robots don't work well, Foley sends down divers armed with closed-circuit rebreathers and thrusters, allowing them to cover more ground. He wants to go faster, he says, because he needs a lot...
  • Ancient oracles offered guidance and allayed fears [ Oracle of Delphi ]

    08/07/2011 11:09:34 AM PDT · by SunkenCiv · 14 replies
    Ekathimerini ^ | Monday, January 3, 2011 | John Leonard
    ...the rituals and divine utterances of Apollo's oracle at Delphi were subjects recorded and commented upon by numerous ancient writers through the centuries, including Pliny the Elder, Diodorus Siculus, Plato, Aeschylus, Cicero, Strabo and Plutarch, a Boeotian native who gained fame in late 1st century AD Rome for his essays and biographies, provides a firsthand account of the oracle at Delphi. As a senior priest who long served in the sanctuary, Plutarch recorded detailed observations of the Pythian priestess's trance-like, occasionally erratic behavior during sacred rituals... a multidisciplinary team of specialists in the late 20th century uncovered tangible proof that...
  • Bulgarian Archaeology Finds Said to Rewrite History of Black Sea Sailing

    09/14/2011 2:56:24 AM PDT · by SunkenCiv · 22 replies
    Novinite ^ | Monday, September 12, 2011 | Sofia News Agency
    Massive ancient stone anchors were found by divers participating in an archaeological expedition near the southern Bulgarian Black Sea town of Sozopol. The expedition, led by deputy director of Bulgaria's National Historical Museum Dr Ivan Hristov, found the precious artifacts west of the Sts. Cyricus and Julitta island. The 200-kg beautifully ornamented anchors have two holes in them -- one for the anchor rope and another one for a wooden stick. They were used for 150-200-ton ships that transported mainly wheat, but also dried and salted fish, skins, timber and metals from what now is Bulgaria's coast. The anchors' shape...
  • Secrets of Egypt: 'Spectacular' archaeological site provides details of ancient life

    06/12/2011 11:11:01 AM PDT · by SunkenCiv · 21 replies
    University of Delaware UDaily ^ | June 7, 2011 | Ann Manser
    On the edge of Egypt's eastern desert, known to natives as "the red land," Berenike thrived as a trading port for goods from Europe, Asia and southern Arabia. Sidebotham's digs have turned up such varied items as Indian-made pottery and beads, a figurine of Venus, timbers made of cedar from Lebanon, a clay jar containing decorative silver pieces, Roman glass, sapphires and other gems, a mother-of-pearl cross and sliver of Turkish marble used as veneer for walls. One large jar found embedded in the courtyard floor of a temple contained nearly 17 pounds of black peppercorns, which had been imported...
  • Bronze Age shipwreck found off Devon coast [UK]

    02/15/2010 11:05:23 AM PST · by SunkenCiv · 32 replies · 636+ views
    Telegraph ^ | Saturday, February 13, 2010 | Jasper Copping
    ...Archaeologists have described the vessel, which is thought to date back to around 900BC, as being a "bulk carrier" of its age. The copper and tin would have been used for making bronze -- the primary product of the period which was used in the manufacture of not only weapons, but also tools, jewellery, ornaments and other items. Archaeologists believe the copper -- and possibly the tin -- was being imported into Britain and originated in a number of different countries throughout Europe, rather than from a single source, demonstrating the existence of a complex network of trade routes across...
  • Coast-2-Coast AM Saturday Sept 26th -Mysterious Artifact (Antikythera mechanism)

    09/25/2009 4:12:01 PM PDT · by Perdogg · 42 replies · 1,467+ views
    Science journalist and author Jo Marchant will discuss the century-long quest to understand the purpose of a mysterious Greek artifact buried beneath the sea for 2,000 years.
  • First indication for embalming in Roman Greece

    07/31/2008 8:42:55 AM PDT · by SunkenCiv · 7 replies · 175+ views
    AlphaGalileo ^ | Wednesday, July 30, 2008 | unattributed
    A Swiss-Greek research team co-lead by Dr. Frank Rühli from the Institute of Anatomy, University of Zurich, found indication for embalming in Roman Greek times. By means of physico-chemical and histological methods, it was possible to show that various resins, oils and spices were used during embalming of a ca. 55 year old female in Northern Greece. This is the first ever multidisciplinary-based indication for artificial mummification in Greece at 300 AD. The remains of a ca. 55-year old female (ca. 300 AD, most likely of high-social status; actual location: Archaeological Museum of Thessaloniki, Greece) shows the preservation of various...
  • Replica of 3,300-year-old shipwreck arrives in Bodrum [ Uluburun II ]

    07/02/2006 6:51:33 PM PDT · by SunkenCiv · 12 replies · 1,126+ views
    Turkish Daily News (thanks, curmudgeonII) ^ | Wednesday, June 28, 2006 | unattributed
    The Uluburun II, which is on display in Bodrum and sponsored by the Bodrum Peninsula Promotion Foundation started to be built in 2004 using late Bronze Age techniques and was launched in 2005... The [original] Uluburun sank in the 14th century 8.5 kilometers southeast of Kafl in Uluburun Bay while carrying copper and tin from Alexandria to Crete. It was discovered in 1982 by a diver. The remains of the shipwreck were unearthed by an excavation team consisting of archaeologists and divers and the process has lasted over 20 years. Considered to be one of the most significant archaeological finds...
  • Salvaging Caligula [Nemi Ships, Caligula, and Mussolini]

    11/25/2005 4:40:21 PM PST · by SunkenCiv · 27 replies · 7,719+ views
    Time ^ | Feb. 4, 1929 | staff
    Nineteen centuries of foundered orgy looked up at the hydroairplane which last week waltzed high over Lake Nemi in the Alban hills back of Rome. And Giuseppe Cultrera, Etruscan scholar in the plane,* looked down from the vantage of his flying height through Nemi's waters and could see what none but groping divers theretofore had seen—the sunken Golden Barge whereon epileptic Emperor Caligula, great-grandson of Augustus, and his minions held their carouses.
  • Unearthing the Treasures of the Mediterranean

    07/09/2005 2:56:13 PM PDT · by SunkenCiv · 14 replies · 634+ views
    Skin Diver ^ | February 2000 | Isabelle Croizeau
  • Mycenaean Port Of Athens Found

    04/28/2005 11:00:05 AM PDT · by blam · 20 replies · 843+ views
    Kathimerini ^ | 4-28-2005
    Mycenaean port of Athens found? Archaeologists in the capital’s southern coastal suburb of Palaio Faliro have uncovered what appear to be traces of ancient Athens’s first port before the city’s naval and shipping center was moved to Piraeus, a report said yesterday. A rescue excavation on a plot earmarked for development has revealed artifacts and light structures dating, with intervals, from Mycenaean times to the fifth century BC, when the port of Phaleron — after which the modern suburb was named — was superseded by Piraeus, according to Ta Nea daily. “This is a port associated with two myths —...
  • Indian Town Sees Evidence Of Ancient Tsunami (1500 ya)

    01/15/2005 4:03:42 PM PST · by blam · 33 replies · 1,112+ views
    MSNBC/AP ^ | 1-15-2005
    Indian town sees evidence of ancient tsunamiOnce-powerful city on same spot 'swallowed by the sea' Gautam Singh / APThis ancient Thirupallavaneeswaram Temple is one of the few remnants of ancient Poompuhar, which was a thriving capital city until it was "swallowed by the sea" more than 1,500 years ago.The Associated Press Updated: 2:33 p.m. ET Jan. 14, 2005POOMPUHAR, India - For generations, the people of Poompuhar have spoken of the days when their sleepy fishing town was the capital of a powerful kingdom, and traders came from Rome, Greece and Egypt to deal in pearls and silk. .
  • Sailing the Wine-Dark Sea: International Trade and the Late Bronze Age Aegean

    08/28/2004 4:49:39 PM PDT · by SunkenCiv · 27 replies · 886+ views
    George Washington University ^ | 1994 | Eric H. Cline
    The traditional circular sea route by which merchants are thought to have sailed around the ancient Mediterranean runs counter-clockwise: from the Greek Mainland to Crete, south to Egypt, up to Syro-Palestine and Cyprus, west to the Aegean via the southern coast of Anatolia, then to Rhodes and the Cycladic Islands, and ending up again at Crete and Mainland Greece. Longer routes incorporated the Central and Western Mediterranean as well. Merchants may, of course, have started in on this route at any point, for instance in Italy or Syro-Palestine rather than Crete. Recent evidence has demonstrated that a clockwise route...
  • Tamil Trade

    09/11/2004 8:07:01 PM PDT · by SunkenCiv · 16 replies · 1,393+ views
    INTAMM ^ | 1997 | Xavier S. Thani Nayagam
    Whatever study has been made so far of the Tamil texts side by side with comparable data available in Strabo, Pliny, the Periplus Maris Erythraei and Ptolomey, and with the archaeological and numismatic finds in Southern India, has shown that the Tamil texts contain illuminating corroborative evidence. Discussions of Roman Tamil trade made by Jean Filliozat, Mortimer Wheeler, Pierre Meile, E.H. Warmington and M.P. Charlesworth have taken into consideration the tests interpreted by V. Kangasabai Pillai in his book the "Tamils one thousand eight hundred years Ago". 1904.
  • Vast and Deadly Fleets May Yield Secrets at Last

    07/25/2004 6:26:36 PM PDT · by SunkenCiv · 14 replies · 691+ views
    New York Times ^ | April 20, 2004 | William J. Broad
    The Persian Wars may be famed in history, but few artifacts and material remains have emerged to shed light on how the ancient Greeks defeated the Asian invaders and saved Europe in what scholars call one of the first great victories of freedom over tyranny. It is well known that a deadly warship of antiquity, the trireme, a fast galley powered by three banks of rowers pulling up to 200 oars, played a crucial role in the fierce battles. Its bronze ram could smash enemy ships, and armed soldiers could leap aboard a foe's vessel in hand-to-hand combat with...
  • The Antikythera Mechanism: Physical and Intellectual Salvage from the 1st Century B.C.

    08/14/2004 3:01:21 PM PDT · by SunkenCiv · 39 replies · 1,380+ views
    The Antikythera mechanism was an arrangement of calibrated differential gears inscribed and configured to produce solar and lunar positions in synchronization with the calendar year. By rotating a shaft protruding from its now-disintegrated wooden case, its owner could read on its front and back dials the progressions of the lunar and synodic months over four-year cycles. He could predict the movement of heavenly bodies regardless of his local government's erratic calendar. From the accumulated inscriptions and the position of the gears and year-ring, Price deduced that the device was linked closely to Geminus of Rhodes, and had been built on...
  • Did The Ancient Greeks Make A Computer?

    11/01/2003 9:21:03 AM PST · by Holly_P · 98 replies · 2,361+ views
    An Article | 1977 | Lionel Casson
    ....At the western entrance to the Aegean Sea, midway between the islands of Crete and Kythera, rises little Antikythera. It was off that island in 1900 that a sponge diver found, on the bottom, the wreck of an ancient ship loaded with statues, amphorae and other objects. ....This wreck was the first great under water find of modern archaeology. It yielded not only a rich hoard of art treasures but an astonishingly sophisticated scientific instrument. But while the marble and bronze statues and the pottery were recognized at once as the work of Greek artisans around the time of Christ,...
  • Syracusia [Ships of the World: An Historical Encyclopedia]

    01/28/2006 8:46:55 PM PST · by SunkenCiv · 13 replies · 1,156+ views
    Ships of the World: An Historical Encyclopedia ^ | prior to 2006 | Houghton Mifflin
    One of the most complete descriptions of a ship from antiquity is that described by the Greek writer Athenaeus. Writing in the second century ce, but basing his account on more contemporary descriptions (now lost), he described a huge grain ship built by Hieron II, king of Syracuse from 269 to 215 bce. Lionel Casson considers this to be the largest ship built in antiquity... There were cabins for 142 first-class passengers on the second deck in addition to accommodations for steerage, the lower deck being reserved for cargo and the upper deck for soldiers, said to number 400. The...
  • Top food was olives in time of the ancient mariner

    08/15/2010 10:35:46 AM PDT · by SunkenCiv · 41 replies
    al-Reuters ^ | Thursday, August 12, 2010 | Michele Kambas (ed by Paul Casciato)
    A huge quantity of olive stones on an ancient shipwreck more than 2,000 years old has provided valuable insight into the diet of sailors in the ancient world, researchers in Cyprus said Thursday. The shipwreck, dating from around 400 B.C. and laden mainly with wine amphorae from the Aegean island of Chios and other north Aegean islands, was discovered deep under the sea off Cyprus's southern coast. Excavation on the site, which started in November 2007, has determined that the ship was a merchant vessel of the late classical period. "An interesting piece of evidence that gives us information on...