Skip to comments.Origins Of The Black Death Traced Back To China, Gene Sequencing Has Revealed; A Plague That Killed Over a Third of Europe's Population
Posted on 02/27/2020 9:06:24 AM PST by SeekAndFind
Gene sequencing, from which scientists can gather hereditary data of organisms, has revealed that the Black Death, often referred to as The Plague, which reduced the world’s total population by about 100 million, originated from China over 2000 years ago, scientists from several countries wrote in the medical journal Nature Genetics. Genome sequencing has allowed the researchers to reconstruct plague pandemics from the Black Death to the late 1800s.
Black Death and The Plague – the plague is an infectious disease caused by a bacterium called Yersinia pestis. The Black Death is one huge plague event (pandemic) in history.
The Black Death is known as one of the deadliest and widespread pandemics in history. It peaked in Europe between 1348 and 1350 and is thought to have been a bubonic plague outbreak caused by Yersinia pestis, a bacterium. It reached the Crimea in 1346 and most likely spread via fleas on black rats that travelled on merchant ships. It soon spread through the Mediterranean and Europe. The Black Death is thought have destroyed 30% to 60% of Europe’s population – experts say it took 150 years for Europe to recover its population size. The plague came back several times until the 19th century, when it left Europe for good. Most victims died with two to seven days of becoming infected.
The authors in this new study say the plague evolved around the area of China over 2000 years ago and spread globally several times as deadly pandemics. They compared 17 complete plague genome sequences as well as 933 variable DNA sites on a unique worldwide collection of bacterial strains (plague isolates), allowing them to follow pandemics that took place in history around the world, and to work out the age of different waves of them.
The majority of pandemics were associated with known major historical events, such as the Black Death. As none of the collections of isolates from individual scientific institutions were globally representative, the scientists explained that in order to understand the historical sources of plagues, all the institutions would have to work together.
In order to prevent bioterrorism, access to Yersinia pestis – the bacterium known to be the cause of the plagues – is seriously restricted; therefore, assembling a comprehensive collection of them is impossible. An international team of scientists from the UK, USA, Ireland, Germany, Madagascar, China and France had to collaborate for a decentralized analysis of DNA samples.
Their findings reveal a detailed history of the pandemic spread of a bacterial disease in a way never seen before.
Pandemic infectious diseases have affected humans ever since we set foot on this planet, the authors explain. They have shaped the form of civilizations.
The researchers reveal that the plague bacillus developed near or in China, and via multiple epidemics was transmitted through several different routes, such as into West Asia through the Silk Road and Africa between 1409 and 1433 by Chinese travelers under explorer Zheng He. The Black Death made its way through Asia, Europe and Africa from 1347 to 1351, and probably brought the world’s then 450 million population down to 350 million. Approximately 50% of China’s population perished, while Europe’s went down by a third and Africa by an eighth.
University of Cork communiqué writes:
The last plague pandemic of 1894 spread to India and radiated to many parts of the globe, including the USA, which was infected by a single radiation still persisting today in wild rodents. Detailed analyses within the USA and Madagascar showed that subsequent country-specific evolution could be tracked by unique mutations that have accumulated in their genomes, which should prove useful to trace future disease outbreaks.
Project leader, Professor Mark Achtman, Department of Microbiology, based in the Environmental Research Institute in University College Cork, Ireland, said:
What I felt was so amazing about the results is that we could link the genetic information so accurately to major historical events.
Marmots are a reservoir for the plague bacteria. Steppe people eat marmots. If under cooked the bacteria survive infecting the eater.
How come nobody ever goes out in public and catches something beneficial?
I believe there is a solid link
between GSM(Grand Solar Minimum)s and
major plagues that originate in China.
Something to do with the magnetosphere?
We know far more about such things now but
the population(density) is much larger so
Watch and Pray.
Looks like it took over a generation to get from (thailand?) before 1320 to NW Europe.
What an interesting paper, thanks for posting this.
I am just wondering... what is it about China that makes it susceptible to viral and bacterial outbreaks?
What? Squirrel and dumplings can kill you? I always thought it was kinda creepy with them little skulls floating in it but deadly? Really?
Sounds like a good use of research funds.
But, but, but ACE-2 receptors.
There was a Traveldoc show with someone hanging out with modern day Mongolians. His host shot a marmot for dinner. He cooked it by stuffing hot coals into the belly. The narrator mentioned this method of cooking is dangerous because it doe s not get hot enough to kill the plague bacteria.
what is it about China that makes it susceptible to viral and bacterial outbreaks?......Poor education, poor hygiene, little clean running water,and an utter disregard for your neighbor citizens wellbeing.
Oh, don't be ridiculous. Trump's not nearly that old!
That might need 1000 pages to answer. One thing is for sure - Chinas present top-down communist structure of government is, in effect, really no different from its previous imperial system.
The plague of Justinian’s era (believe to be bubonic & pneumonic) was much worse. Probably set the Middle East up for the Muslim invasions. its thought that the nascent Islamic Arab state centering around Mecca\Medina was off primary trade route trail and missed the full force of the plague. later they burst out of the desert and hit this empty sack of Roman & Sassanid Persian garrisons. The rest is history.
Large population - allows diseases to incubate and spread.
Presence of domesticated animals - lots of diseases come from livestock....less advanced societies don’t get nearly as many
I always wondered why all nasty diseases originate in China.
I am a Bubonic Plague survivor. I contracted it from a defective batch of vaccine in 1970. I was hospitalized for 23 days. It is as bad as the stories tell.
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