Skip to comments.Home gardening offers ways to trim grocery costs [Survival Today, an on going thread]
Posted on 03/23/2008 11:36:40 PM PDT by nw_arizona_granny
Americans finding soaring food prices hard to stomach can battle back by growing their own food. [Click image for a larger version] Dean Fosdick Dean Fosdick
Home vegetable gardens appear to be booming as a result of the twin movements to eat local and pinch pennies.
At the Southeastern Flower Show in Atlanta this winter, D. Landreth Seed Co. of New Freedom, Pa., sold three to four times more seed packets than last year, says Barb Melera, president. "This is the first time I've ever heard people say, 'I can grow this more cheaply than I can buy it in the supermarket.' That's a 180-degree turn from the norm."
Roger Doiron, a gardener and fresh-food advocate from Scarborough, Maine, said he turned $85 worth of seeds into more than six months of vegetables for his family of five.
A year later, he says, the family still had "several quarts of tomato sauce, bags of mixed vegetables and ice-cube trays of pesto in the freezer; 20 heads of garlic, a five-gallon crock of sauerkraut, more homegrown hot-pepper sauce than one family could comfortably eat in a year and three sorts of squash, which we make into soups, stews and bread."
She compares the current period of market uncertainty with that of the early- to mid-20th century when the concept of victory gardens became popular.
"A lot of companies during the world wars and the Great Depression era encouraged vegetable gardening as a way of addressing layoffs, reduced wages and such," she says. "Some companies, like U.S. Steel, made gardens available at the workplace. Railroads provided easements they'd rent to employees and others for gardening."
(Excerpt) Read more at dallasnews.com ...
Citrus fruits have stippled rinds that surround pulp that's tart, juicy, and rich in vitamin C and other nutrients. Most citrus fruits are first peeled, then the pulp is either eaten out of hand or squeezed to make juice, but some, like the kumquat, are eaten peel and all. The peels contain fragrant oils, and their zest is often used to flavor foods. When buying citrus fruit, select specimens that are smaller, thin-skinned, and heavy for their size. They keep longer if you store them in the refrigerator.
bergamot = bergamot orange Pronunciation: BUHR-gah-mot Notes: This is a small acidic orange, used mostly for its peel. Don't confuse it with the herb that goes by the same name. Substitutes: limes
blood orange = pigmented orange Notes: These red-fleshed oranges are more popular in Europe than in the United States. Look for them in the winter and spring. Substitutes: orange (flesh orange, not red, more acidic) OR tangerines (sweeter) Buddha's hand citron = Buddha's fingers citron = fingered citron Notes: This fragrant fruit has hardly any flesh, but the peel can be candied. Substitutes: citron OR lemon
calamansi (lime) See kalamansi (lime).
cedro See citron.
China orange See calamondin (orange).
Chinese grapefruit See pomelo.
clementine orange See mandarin orange.
fingered citron See Buddha's hand citron.
Florida key lime See lime.
grapefruit Notes: A grapefruit is a large, slightly tart kind of citrus fruit. The rind is mostly yellow, and often tinged with green or red. Grapefruits are categorized by the color of their pulp: red, pink, or white (which is more honey-colored than white). The color of the pulp doesn't affect the flavor. When buying grapefruit, select specimens that are smaller, thin-skinned, and heavy for their size. Some varieties are seedless. They're best in the winter and spring. Substitutes: ugli fruit (more flavorful, but don't cook it) OR pomelo (less acidic and less bitter) OR tangelo (tangerine-grapefruit cross)
jeruk purut See kaffir lime.
kabosu = kabosu lime Substitutes: lime
kaffir lime = jeruk purut = leech lime = limau purut = magrood = makroot = makrut Notes: Thai cooks use these golf ball-sized limes to give their dishes a unique aromatic flavor. Kaffir limes have very little juice, usually just the zest is used. Substitutes: citron OR lime OR kaffir lime leaves (One tablespoon of zest from a kaffir lime is equivalent to about six kaffir lime leaves.)
kalamansi = kalamansi lime = calamansi = calamansi lime = musk lime = musklime Notes: The very sour kalamansi looks like a small round lime and tastes like a cross between a lemon and a mandarin orange. It's very popular in the Philippines. Substitutes: calamondin (This is very similar to the kalamansi.) OR lemons OR mandarin oranges
key lime = Florida key lime = Mexican lime Notes: These are smaller and more acidic than the more common Persian limes. Substitutes: limes (Many cooks prefer freshly squeezed Persian lime juice over bottled key lime juice for key lime pies.)
kumquat Pronunciation: KUHM-kwaht Notes: These look like grape-sized oranges, and they can be eaten whole. The flavor is a bit sour and very intense. They peak in the winter months. Substitutes: limequats OR calamondin oranges OR Seville oranges (for marmalade)
leech lime See kaffir lime.
lemon Equivalents: One lemon yields about 2-3 tablespoons lemon juice. Notes: This very sour citrus fruit is rarely eaten out of hand, but it's widely used for its juice, rind, and zest. Varieties include the Eureka lemon, which is what you're most likely to find in markets, the Lisbon lemon, which shows up in the winter and is smaller and smoother than the Eureka, and the trendy Meyer lemon, which is much sweeter and pricier than an ordinary lemon. When buying lemons, select specimens that are smaller, thin-skinned, and heavy for their size. Substitutes: grapefruits (These make an interesting meringue pie.) OR limes OR citrons (These are used only for their peels.) OR lemongrass (in soups and marinades)
limau purut See kaffir lime.
lime Notes: These tart green fruits are similar to lemons, but they're more acidic and have their own unique flavor. Varieties include the common Persian lime = Tahiti lime and the smaller, less juicy, and more acidic Florida key lime = key lime = Mexican lime. When buying limes, select specimens that are dark green, smaller, thin-skinned, and heavy for their size. Equivalents: 1 lime yields about 2 tablespoons lime juice Substitutes: lemon (Lemons have a weaker flavor and are less acidic, so use a bit more to compensate.) OR kalamansi limequat Notes: This is a cross between a lime and a kumquat. It's similar in size and shape to a kumquat, but with a green or yellow-green skin. It has a strong lime flavor. Substitutes: kumquats (very similar in appearance, different flavor)
magrood See kaffir lime.
makroot See kaffir lime.
makrut See kaffir lime.
mandarin orange Notes: These have a pleasant enough flavor, but their big asset is that they come out of their peels and segment easily, so you can eat them in your good clothes. Varieties include the popular tangerine, the seedy but juicy honey tangerine = Murcott, the satsuma orange, the sweet and tiny clementine orange, and the seedy and orange-flavored temple orange. Substitutes: orange
Mexican lime See lime.
Meyer lemon Notes: This is sweeter than an ordinary lemon, and highly prized by gourmet chefs. It's a bit hard to find in supermarkets. Substitutes: ordinary lemons
musk lime See kalamansi (lime).
orange = sweet orange Notes: Most American oranges are produced in Florida and California. Florida oranges are juicier, and better suited to squeezing, while California oranges segment more easily and are better for eating out of hand. The best oranges are smaller, thin-skinned, and heavy for their size. Substitutes: blood orange (less acidic, red flesh) OR mandarin orange Or kumquats OR ugli fruit OR grapefruit OR pomelo (especially for marmalade)
Panama orange See calamondin (orange).
Persian lime See lime.
pigmented orange See blood orange.
pomelo = pummelo = Chinese grapefruit = shaddock Pronunciation: PUHM-uh-low Notes: This has a very thick peel, so you have to work hard to eat it. Many people think it's worth the trouble, for the pulp is milder and sweeter than its closest substitute, the grapefruit. Substitutes: grapefruit (more acidic and more bitter)
pummelo See pomelo.
rangpur lime Notes: This is similar to a mandarin orange, only more acidic. Substitutes: mandarin orange
satsuma orange See mandarin orange.
Seville orange = bitter orange = bigarade orange = sour orange Notes: These are too bitter for eating out of hand, but they make a wonderful orange marmalade and the sour juice is perfect for certain mixed drinks. Substitutes: (for the juice) Mix 1 part lime or lemon juice + 2 parts orange juice OR 2 parts grapefruit juice + 1 part lime juice + dash orange zest OR 2 parts lime juice + 1 page orange juice OR (for marmalade) kumquats OR (for marmalade) oranges
shaddock See pomelo.
Tahiti lime See lime.
tangelo Notes: There are several different varieties of tangelos, each a cross between a tangerine and another citrus fruit. The Mineola, a tangerine-grapefruit cross, is especially popular. Look for them in markets from late fall through winter. Substitutes: mandarin orange OR grapefruit OR orange
tangerine See mandarin orange.
temple orange See mandarin orange.
ugli fruit = Uniq fruit®
This grapefruit-mandarin cross looks like a grapefruit in an ill-fitting suit. It's sweet and juicy, though, and simple to eat since the peel comes off easily and the fruit pulls apart into tidy segments that are virtually seedless.
Americans pronounce the name "ugly," but in Jamaica, where it's grown, it's pronounced "HOO-glee." Some marketers have tried calling it "Uniq fruit®," but the name hasn't caught on much.
Ugli fruit are available from December through April. Most specimens are much uglier than the one pictured here, but don't let that deter you. Select fruits that are heavy for their size, and that give a little when you press them.
Substitutes: grapefruit (not as sweet) OR orange (smaller)
uniq fruit® See ugli fruit.
yuzu See citron.
Copyright © 1996-2005 Lori Alden
Synonyms: drupes = summer fruit
The family of stone fruits includes cherries, plums, apricots, nectarines, and peaches. They all arrive in the summer, though you can sometimes find pricey imports during the off-season. Stone fruits don't become sweeter after they're picked, but growers often harvest them while they're still a bit underripe so that they won't bruise during transit. At the market, select specimens that have the color, if not the softness, of fully ripened fruit, then take them home and let them soften at room temperature for a few days.
acerola = Barbados cherry = Puerto Rican cherry = West Indian cherry Pronunciation: ass-ah-ROH-lah Notes: These are very rich in vitamin C, and somewhat acidic. You can eat them out of hand, but they're probably better suited for making preserves. Equivalents: 1 cup = 98 grams, 1 pitted acerola = 4.8 grams Substitutes: cherries
apricot Notes: Like other stone fruit, apricots are sweetest--and most prone to bruising--when they're allowed to ripen on the tree. But unless you can pick your own, you'll probably have to make do with the slightly underripe, more durable apricots sold in markets. Allow them to soften at room temperature for a few days before eating them. They're best in the summer. Substitutes: apriums OR pluots OR peaches OR nectarines
aprium Notes: This is an apricot/plum cross, with apricot dominating. Substitutes: pluots OR apricots OR plums
Barbados cherry See acerola.
cherry Notes: There are three main categories of cherries: sweet cherries, which are for eating out of hand, sour cherries, which are best suited for making pies, preserves, and sauces, and tart chokecherries. Substitutes: stone fruit
donut peach = saucer peach Notes: These squat peaches have white flesh, and a very good flavor. Use them as you would ordinary peaches. Substitutes: peaches
green almonds Notes: Middle Eastern cooks use these in stews and desserts.
nectarine Pronunciation: nek-tuh-REEN Notes: Nectarines resemble peaches, but they're sweeter and more nutritious. They're best if they're allowed to ripen on the tree. Unfortunately, tree-ripened nectarines bruise easily, so most growers scrimp on flavor and pick and market them while they're still slightly underripe. After buying nectarines, you're supposed to let them ripen for a couple of days at room temperature before eating them. This makes them softer and juicier, but not sweeter. Avoid buying nectarines that are too hard or that have green spots--a sign they were picked way too soon--or those that are bruised. The superior freestone varieties arrive in June and July; the cling varieties that come later aren't as good. Substitutes: peaches (not as sweet) OR apricots
peach Notes: Most of the peaches that are sold in markets are freestone, and de-fuzzed by the grower. Select peaches that are colorful and free of bruises. After you get them home, let them ripen at room temperature for a day or so until they become softer. They're best and cheapest in the summer. Substitutes: nectarines (sweeter) OR apricots OR papaya OR mango
pie cherry See sour cherry.
plum = fresh prune Notes: Plums are juicier than other stone fruits, and have a longer growing season. There are many varieties, some sweet, some acidic, and some best suited for drying into prunes. They're often eaten out of hand, but they also work well in cobblers, compotes, and tarts. Substitutes: pluot (plum/apricot cross, with plum dominating) OR aprium (apricot/plum cross, with apricot dominating) OR loquat OR prunes (rehydrate first in water) pluot = plumcot Notes: This is a plum/apricot cross, with plum dominating. Substitutes: apriots OR plums OR apricots
Puerto Rican cherry See acerola.
saucer peach See peach.
sour cherry = pie cherry = tart cherry = red cherry Notes: While sweet cherries are best for eating out of hand, knowing cooks turn to sour cherries for pie fillings, sauces, soups, and jams. Popular varieties include the Montmorency, Morello, and Early Richmond. Sour cherries don't transport well, so they're difficult to find fresh. Canned sour cherries, though, are almost as good. If you want, boost their flavor a bit by adding one tablespoon of Kirschwasser per cup. Substitutes: chokecherries (for preserves) OR sweet cherries (use less sugar) OR loquats (similar flavor, good in pies and preserves) OR sweet cherries OR dried cherries (Soak these in cherry liqueur before using.)
sweet cherry Notes: These appear in the summer, with the popular and exquisite Bing cherries arriving in June and July. Other varieties have the virtue of arriving before or after the Bings, but they're often not nearly as tasty. Select cherries that are large, deeply colored, and firm. Substitutes: sour cherries (These are the preferred cherries for preserves, sauces, pie fillings, and many desserts because they're more flavorful than sweet cherries when cooked. Add sugar to taste.) OR dried cherries (Soak these in cherry liqueur before using.)
tart cherry See sour cherry.
West Indian cherry See acerola.
Copyright © 1996-2005 Lori Alden
Dried fruit is a terrific snack, but cooks also use it in everything from muffins to stews. Drying has the obvious advantage of letting us enjoy our favorite fruit when it's out of season, but it also serves to concentrate the fruit's flavor and sugar. Since high concentrations of sugar ward off bacteria, dried fruit can last up to a year without refrigeration. If you live in a hot, dry climate, you can dry fruit just by leaving it out in the sun for a few days. If not, you can use an oven or dehydrator. Sulfur dioxide is sometimes added to the fruit to improve its shelf life and color. If you're allergic to it, you can usually find unsulfured dried fruit at health food stores. In a pinch, you can remove some of the sulfur by boiling treated dried fruit for a minute or so, then draining off the liquid.
apple, dried Notes: These are popular additions to trail mixes. They're often treated with sulfur to improve their color and shelf life. Substitutes: dried pear
apricot, dried Notes: Turkish dried apricots are lighter in color and milder in flavor than other varieties. They're often treated with sulfur to improve their color and shelf life. Substitutes: dried peach OR dried nectarines OR dried tomatoes
dried apricot paste = qamar el-deen = ameerdine Notes: People in the Middle East usually make a drink out of this fruit leather by putting it into boiling water. During Ramadan, it's often served before and after the day-long fast. Look for it in Middle Eastern markets.
banana, dried Notes: These usually come in two forms: long spears, which are very sweet and best for cooking, and chips, which are fried in oil, crunchy, and best suited for trail mixes. Substitutes: dried coconut OR other dried fruit
cantaloupe, dried Notes: These are very sweet and have an intense cantaloupe flavor. Substitutes: dried papaya
carrots, dried Notes: These are used to make muffins and cakes.
cherry, dried Notes: These are large and sweet, and they can serve as a refreshing alternative to raisins in many recipes. Substitutes: dried cranberries (not as sweet) OR raisins OR dried apricots OR currants
Chinese date = Chinese red date = red date = senjed = Chinese jujube (dried) = jujube (dried) Pronunciation: JEW-jewb Notes: When fresh, these fruits are crisp like apples and have a mild, sweet flavor. In the United States, they're most often available dried. Substitutes: dates (sweeter) OR dried apples OR prunes OR raisins
Chinese jujube See Chinese date.
Chinese red date See Chinese date.
citrus peel, dried = fruit peel, dried To make your own: Begin with orange, lemon, tangerine, or grapefruit peels, scrape off and discard as much of the bitter white pith as possible, and dry what's left in the sun until hard. Substitutes: grated zest from a fresh peel (Fresh peels are better than dried peels since they have more aromatic oils.)
coconut, grated Notes: Bags of grated coconuts are usually stored among the baking supplies in larger markets. Varieties include dried or desiccated coconut, flaked, angel flake, moist, sweetened and unsweetened, toasted and untoasted, and macaroon coconut. To make your own: To grate, peel off the brown skin, then grate the white flesh with a grater, food processor, or vegetable peeler. To toast, spread unsweetened grated coconut on a baking sheet and bake in a 350°F oven until coconut is golden (about 5 minutes) Substitutes: chopped nuts
Craisins See cranberries, dried.
cranberries, dried Notes: With their flashy color and tangy flavor, dried cranberries are a good alternative to raisins in many recipes. Craisins is a well-known brand. Substitutes: raisins (not as tart) OR dried cherries OR currants
currants = Zante currants = Zante raisins = dried Corinth grapes Notes: These dried Zante grapes look like tiny raisins. Don't confuse them with the fresh sour berry that also called a currant. Substitutes: raisins (larger) OR golden raisins (for baking)
date, dried Notes: If you plan to chop them, look for cooking dates, date pieces, or pressed dates--they're a lot cheaper than the exquisite dessert dates that are intended to be eaten whole. Substitutes: dried figs OR raisins OR fresh dates (crunchier and not as sweet)
fig, dried Notes: These are a great source of calcium. Varieties include the black mission fig, the highly regarded Calimyrna fig (pictured at right), and the juicy green fig. Substitutes: raisins (milder) OR prunes
ghora angur See sumac berries.
golden raisin = Sultana Notes: These are more tart than ordinary raisins. Substitutes: raisins (Ordinary raisins are darker, but very similar to golden raisins.) OR muscat raisins (These are larger and sweeter than golden raisins.) OR currants (smaller) OR dried apricots
jujube See Chinese date.
kokum = kokum ful = cocum Notes: This Indian souring agent is made from dried mangosteen peels. It's often used in fish dishes. Look for it in Indian markets. Substitutes: tamarind paste (Substitute one teaspoon for every piece of kokum call for in recipe.)
leechee nut See litchi nut.
lichee nut See litchi nut.
lichi nut See litchi nut.
litchi nut = lychee nut = lichee nut = lichi nut = leechee nut Notes: These are sun-dried litchis. The outer shells are brown and the meat inside looks like a large raisin. Look for them in Asian markets. Substitutes: prunes (not as crunchy) OR cashews
lychee nut See litchi nut.
mango, dried Notes: These are sometimes coated with sugar. Substitutes: dried papaya
mulberries, dried = toot Notes: These are the size of large raisins, and they taste like very dry figs. Look for them in Middle Eastern markets.
nectarines, dried Notes: These are similar to dried peaches, but often a bit more expensive. They're often treated with sulfur. Substitutes: dried peaches OR dried apricots
papaya, dried Notes: These are sometimes coated with sugar. Substitutes: dried cantaloupe OR dried mango
peach, dried Notes: These are similar to dried apricots, only larger and milder. They're often treated with sulfur. Substitutes: dried nectarines OR dried apricots
pear, dried Notes: These don't have the cloying sweetness of some dried fruits. They're often gassed with sulfur dioxide in the drying process in order to improve their color and shelf life. Substitutes: dried apples
persimmon, dried Substitutes: other dried fruit
pineapple, dried Notes: These are sometimes coated with sugar. Substitutes: dried papaya OR dried mango
plum, dried See prune.
prune = dried plum Notes: In a marketing makeover, producers are starting to call these dried plums instead of prunes. Whatever you call them, they're sweet and just loaded with dietary fiber, iron, and other nutrients. You can eat them whole, chop them into sauces and stews, or make a compote out of them. Substitutes: raisins OR dried figs
raisins = dried grapes Notes: The common raisins we see on supermarket shelves are usually dried Thompson seedless grapes. Golden raisins are amber in color and somewhat tart--many cooks prefer them over ordinary raisins for baking and cooking. Muscat raisins are dark and very sweet, and they work well in fruitcakes. Currants are about one-quarter the size of ordinary raisins, and are typically used in baked goods. Store raisins in the refrigerator after you open the package. Substitutes: prunes OR dried cranberries OR dried apricots OR dried dates OR dried cherries OR chocolate chips OR nuts OR dried figs (stronger flavor)
red date See Chinese date.
senjed See Chinese date.
somagh See sumac berries.
sour prunes Notes: Look for these in Middle Eastern markets. Substitutes: Soak ordinary prunes in vinegar overnight. OR tamarind paste strawberries, dried Notes: These are sweet and chewy, and they're great in trail mixes or granola. Substitutes: dried cherries
sun-dried tomatoes = dried tomatoes Notes: Dried tomatoes have a richer, more concentrated flavor than ordinary tomatoes. They're great for snacking, or tossing in salads or sauces or on pizzas. Dried tomatoes usually come either dry or packed in oil. If they're hard and dry, steep them in boiling water for about 5 minutes before using them. Substitutes: tomato paste (in sauces)
Zante currants See currant.
Zante raisins See currant.
Copyright © 1996-2005 Lori Alden
fresh cheese = unripened cheese = curd cheeses = curd-style cheeses
Most fresh cheese is made by curdling milk with an enzyme, and then draining off the whey. The curds that remain are molded into cheese. Fresh cheeses tend to be bland, so they're often used as vehicles for other flavorings. Some, like cream cheese, are used to make dips or cheesecakes. Others, like ricotta cheese, are used as fillings for dumplings, pasta, crepes, or pastries. Still others, like cottage cheese, can be a meal all by themselves once they're perked up with herbs, fruit, or other flavorings.
Fresh cheeses have a higher moisture content and are usually lower in fat and sodium than other cheeses. Most are highly perishable, so check the expiration date when you buy them and keep them tightly wrapped or covered in the refrigerator. Moist fresh cheeses like cottage cheese and ricotta should be eaten within a week of purchase; firmer cheeses like cream cheese and farmer's cheese can usually be stored for about two weeks. Don't eat fresh cheese if mold appears on it.
Fresh cheese work best in cold dishes.
Fresh cheeses tend to break when added to hot sauces, so add them at the last minute.
Lactose-intolerant people may prefer aged cheese over fresh, since aged cheese contains less lactose.
Alouette Pronunciation: ah-loo-WET Notes: This is one of several spreadable cheeses that combine cream cheese with various flavorings, like herbs, garlic, pesto, and sun-dried tomatoes. You can set them out with crackers for guests, but your gourmet friends probably won't indulge. Substitutes: Boursin (considered better) OR Rondelé
Boursin [boor-SAN] This creamy cheese from France is usually flavored with herbs, garlic or coarse ground pepper. It's mild and delicate, and goes well with fresh bread and dry white wine. Boursin is considered better than some other flavored spreadable cheeses, like Alouette or Rondelé, but none of these cheeses are well regarded by gourmets. Store Boursin in the refrigerator but bring it to room temperature before serving. Eat it within a few days of purchase. Substitutes: Rondelé (a cheaper domestic imitation) OR Alouette (also a cheaper domestic imitation) OR Mix together in a food processor using a steel blade: 8 ounces of cream cheese, 4 tablespoons butter, 1 teaspoon minced parsley, 1 teaspoon Italian seasoning, 1/2 teaspoon minced garlic, 1/4 teaspoon ground pepper. Chill for several hours before serving. OR chèvre frais
buttermilk cheese Notes: You won't find this tangy, creamy cheese in supermarkets, but it's easy to make at home. To make your own: Line a colander with several folds of cheesecloth or a kitchen towel. Pour buttermilk into the cloth, then put the colander into a larger container and let it drain overnight in the refrigerator until it's reduced to a cheeselike consistency. Substitutes: ricotta cheese (especially as a pasta filling) OR cream cheese (especially in cheesecakes)
Caprini Pronunciation: cuh-PREE-nee Notes: This is an excellent Italian fresh cheese that's hard to find in the U.S. Substitutes:
chaka See yogurt cheese.
chevre frais See goat cheese (fresh).
cottage cheese = smierkase Notes: This simple, mild cheese was traditionally produced in Europe's "cottages" from the milk left over from butter making. It's versatile, easy to digest, and a good source of protein. It's sold with either large or small curds, and with fruit or chives sometimes added. Use it within a few days after purchasing and discard if mold appears. It's best served chilled. To make your own: To make 2 cups (one pound), heat a gallon of skim milk to 80ºF (27ºC) using a double boiler (don't use aluminum or cast iron). Dissolve 1/4 tablet of rennet in a few tablespoons of cold water, then stir it into the milk using a whisk for a few minutes. Turn off the heat, cover, and let the mixture sit for about five hours at room temperature. Use a knife to cut the curds into half-inch cubes, then let them sit for about 15 minutes more. Put the double boiler on the stove and gradually bring the temperature of the cheese to 100ºF (38ºC) (it should take about 30 minutes to reach that temperature), and then up to 115ºF (46ºC) (this should take another 15 minutes). Hold it at this temperature for another 30 minutes. Be sure to raise the temperature gradually, or the curds will be hard and rubbery. Stir the mixture while it cooks, more if want small curds, less if you want big curds. Pour the mixture into a cheesecloth-lined colander and drain off the whey for a few minutes. Fill a sink with ice cold water. Pulling together the edges of the cheesecloth, dunk the curds in the water for a few minutes, then put the cheesecloth-wrapped curds back in the colander to drain. (Don't rinse the curds as long if you want your cottage cheese to have a sharper flavor.) If you like, stir in a teaspoon salt and 1/3 cup of cream, milk, or sour cream. Substitutes: ricotta (higher in fat) OR pot cheese (drier) OR fromage blanc (lower in fat) OR buttermilk cheese OR yogurt cheese OR tofu (firm silken)
cream cheese = (in Europe) white cheese = queso crema Equivalents: 2 cups cream cheese = 1 pound Notes: An American favorite, cream cheese is a terrific spread for bagels and nut breads and a key ingredient in cheesecake and other desserts. It comes in low-fat and nonfat versions; these work well as spreads but compromise the flavor and texture of cheesecakes. Cream cheese made without stabilizers is also disappointing in cheesecakes, though it makes for a more acidic and flavorful spread. Store in the refrigerator. Unopened foil-wrapped commercial cream cheese is good for about a month after the "Best when used by" date on the carton. Once opened, you should use it within 10 days. Throw it out if mold appears. Substitutes: Neufchâtel (lower in fat and moister than regular cream cheese) OR equal parts ricotta and yogurt OR soy cream cheese OR tofu (use 3/4 cup tofu + 1/4 cup margarine + 1 tablespoon lemon juice to replace one cup cream cheese). OR yogurt cheese (usually lower in fat than cream cheese) OR buttermilk cheese (usually lower in fat than cream cheese) OR tofu cream cheese To make your own: Combine 2 cups milk and 2 cups whipping cream and heat the mixture in a double boiler (not aluminum or cast iron) until it's about 90ºF (32ºC). Remove from heat and stir in 2 tablespoons cultured buttermilk, cover, and let rest in a warm place for one or two days until it has the consistency of yogurt. Pour the mixture through a colander lined with butter muslin (or several layers of cheesecloth) and drain for several minutes. Replace the muslin or cheesecloth and nest the colander in a deep bowl, wrap tightly with plastic wrap, and put the bowl into the refrigerator and let it continue to drain for a day or so until the cream cheese has the desired consistency. Add salt to taste.
farm cheese See farmer cheese.
farmer cheese = farmer's cheese = farm cheese = pressed cheese = hoop cheese = baker's cheese Notes: This mildly acidic fresh cheese is made by pressing much of the moisture out of cottage cheese. Some varieties resemble a very dry, crumbly cottage cheese, while others have can be sliced. It's primarily used for cooking. To make your own: Wrap cottage cheese in cheesecloth and place in a colander or strainer nested inside a bowl. Place in the refrigerator until much of the liquid has drained into the bowl. Substitutes: queso fresco OR queso blanco OR jack OR Muenster
fresh chevre See goat cheese (fresh).
fresh goat cheese See goat cheese (fresh).
fresh Hispanic cheese = fresh Hispanic-style cheese = fresh Mexican cheese
Hispanic cooks like their cheese bland and salty, the better to complement their spicy sauces. They also want cheese to hold its shape when heated. Monterey jack, the standard substitute for Hispanic cheeses, tends to ooze out of chiles rellenos and enchiladas when baked. Authentic recipes call for panela or queso blanco, which soften but don't melt when heated.
Hispanic fresh cheeses often keep better than other fresh cheeses--some can be stored for months in the refrigerator.
Best for topping casseroles or bean dishes: queso fresco
Best for fried cheese recipes: queso para freir, queso blanco, queso panela
Best for filling casserole dishes like enchiladas: queso panela, queso blanco
Best for salads: queso panela
Best for tacos and burritos: queso panela
Best for refried beans: queso panela
fromage blanc Pronunciation: froh-MAHZH BLAHN Notes: This usually has the consistency of thick yogurt. It's expensive and hard to find, but very tasty and relatively low in fat. It makes a great topping for desserts. Substitutes: quark (very similar) OR yogurt cheese OR buttermilk cheese OR blend equal parts cottage cheese and yogurt until smooth OR cream cheese whipped with cream
fromage de chèvre frais See goat cheese (fresh).
goat cheese (fresh) =chevre frais = chèvre frais = fromage de chèvre frais Pronunciation: SHEHV-ruh FRAY Notes: Don't confuse this mild fresh cheese with aged goat cheese, which is less common and more flavorful. Fresh goat cheese is like fromage blanc, only made with goat's milk. There are several varieties, including Montrachet and cabecou, which is soaked in brandy. Goat cheese is usually vacuum-packed, though many connoisseurs seek out the more perishable but tastier paper-wrapped cheeses at specialty shops. Substitutes: fromage blanc OR bucheron Complements: white wine
hoop cheese Substitutes: pot cheese
Indian curd cheese See paneer cheese.
kefir cheese Pronunciation: keh-FEER To make your own: Line a colander with several folds of cheesecloth or a kitchen towel. Pour unflavored kefir into the cloth, then put the colander into a larger container and let it drain overnight in the refrigerator until it's reduced to half its volume. Substitutes: Neufchâtel OR yogurt cheese OR cream cheese
labanah See yogurt cheese.
labne See yogurt cheese.
labneh See yogurt cheese.
lebna See yogurt cheese.
mascarpone = mascherpone = Italian cream cheese Pronunciation: mas-car-POH-nay Notes: A key ingredient in tiramisu and zabaglione, mascarpone is velvety soft, slightly acidic, and expensive. Although Italian in origin, the name is said to come from the Spanish mas que bueno, "better than good." It's usually sold in tubs. Use it soon after you purchase it since it's highly perishable. Substitutes: Blend 8 ounces softened cream cheese with 1/4 cup whipping cream. OR Blend 8 ounces softened cream cheese with 1/4 cup butter and 1/4 cup cream OR Blend 8 ounces softened cream cheese with 1/8 cup whipping cream and 1/8 cup sour cream. OR Whip ricotta cheese in a blender until smooth (lower in fat)
Mizithra cheese (soft) = myzithra Notes: Don't confuse this with aged Mizithra, which is a hard grating cheese. Substitutes: cottage cheese
Neufchatel = Neufchâtel Pronunciation: new-shuh-TELL OR NEW-shuh-tell Notes: Neufchâtel is very similar in taste and appearance to cream cheese, but it's made from milk instead of cream so it contains less fat and more moisture. Cheesecakes made with it cook more quickly and are more prone to cracking. Use it within a few days after purchasing, and throw it out if mold appears. For best results, serve chilled. Substitutes: cream cheese (typically higher in fat) OR Boursin
paneer cheese = panir cheese = Indian curd cheese Notes: Indians like to serve this bland fresh cheese with spinach or peas. Use within a few days. Substitutes: cubes of firm tofu OR feta cheese (much saltier) To make your own: Bring one gallon of whole milk to a boil, stirring regularly. (It's best to use a double boiler to avoid scalding the milk. Don't use an aluminum or cast iron pan.) Remove from heat, then gradually add lemon or lime juice until the mixture curdles (about 3-4 tablespoons). Cover, and let the mixture sit for a few minutes. Pour the mixture into a cheesecloth-lined colander and allow the curds to drain. Rinse the curds with water and allow to drain some more, then fold the cloth around the cheese and use a weighted plate to press more moisture out of it for a few hours or until it becomes firm.
panir cheese See paneer cheese.
Petit-Suisse = Petit Suisse Pronunciation: puh-TEE SWEES Notes: You can buy small six-packs of this rich fresh cheese all over France, but they're hard to find in the U.S. Gervais is a popular brand. Substitutes: fromage blanc OR quark OR cream cheese
Philadelphia See cream cheese.
pressed cheese See farmer cheese.
quark = quark-curd = topfen = quarg = curd-cheese Notes: This versatile fresh cheese resembles soft cream cheese. Germans (who call is quark) and Austrians (who call it topfen) use it to make everything from cheesecake to gravy. To make your own: Combine one quart whole milk with 1/2 cup buttermilk in a clean container, cover, and let the mixture stand at room temperature for two days. Gently cook the mixture for about 30 minutes. It's done when the curd has thickened slightly and begun to separate from the whey. Let it cool and pour it into a colander lined with several folds of cheesecloth. Put the colander into a larger container, wrap with plastic, and let it drain overnight in the refrigerator until the quark is reduced to the consistency of yogurt. Makes about 1 cup. Substitutes: fromage frais (very similar) OR yogurt cheese (more acidic) OR two parts ricotta cheese and one part sour cream OR strained cottage cheese OR mascarpone
queso blanco Notes: This popular Hispanic fresh cheese is often added to casserole or bean dishes, since it holds its shape well when when heated. It's a good cheese for frying or grilling, though queso para freir is a better choice if you can find it. Substitutes: queso para freir OR queso panela OR farmer cheese OR Monterey jack
queso de metate See queso fresco.
queso fresco = queso de metate Notes: Mexican cooks like to crumble this mild grainy cheese onto soups, salads, casseroles, and bean dishes. It softens but doesn't melt when heated. Where to find: Mexican grocery stores Substitutes: Mix equal parts cottage cheese and feta cheese OR farmer cheese OR cotija cheese OR feta cheese (similar texture but saltier) OR queso anejo OR mild goat cheese OR paneer OR ricotta cheese OR jack cheese queso para freir Notes: This fresh Hispanic cheese is salty and crumbly. It's terrific for making the Caribbean specialty queso frito (fried cheese) since it holds its shape when when heated. Substitutes: queso blanco (Not as salty but also holds its shape well when heated) OR mozzarella (also fries well) OR queso panela (also fries well)
queso panela = panela = queso de canasta Notes: This popular Mexican cheese is mild and crumbly, and it doesn't lose its shape when heated. It's often mixed into bean dishes or casserole fillings or crumbled over salads and tacos. It can be fried, though queso para freir or queso blanco hold their shapes better. Queso panela is sometimes served with tropical fruit as a snack or appetizer. Substitutes: queso blanco OR high moisture mozzarella OR queso para freir OR feta OR ricotta OR drained cottage cheese OR Requeson cheese
Requeson cheese = Requesón Notes: This fresh Hispanic cheese resembles ricotta cheese, and is used to make dips and desserts. Substitutes: ricotta cheese OR Mix equal parts ricotta and cottage cheese, then place in a cheesecloth-lined colander until some of the liquid has drained off.
ricotta cheese Pronunciation: rih-KAH-tuh Notes: This Italian fresh cheese is made from the watery whey that's drained off in the production of mozzarella, provolone, and other cheeses. Ricotta cheese is sweeter and smoother than cottage cheese, and it's much richer in calcium. You can eat it straight from the tub with fresh fruit, but it's more commonly used as an ingredient in pasta dishes and desserts. Italian ricotta cheeses are made exclusively with whey, while American versions add milk as a stretcher. Low-fat versions are available, and they work quite well in cheesecakes. Use the cheese within a few days after purchasing, and throw it out if mold appears or if it tastes too acidic. To make your own: (Note: This recipe won't work with whey from milk that has been curdled with an acid.) Heat whey until it reaches 200ºF (93ºC), stir in a small amount of vinegar, then pour the whey into a colander lined with butter muslin or a cotton pillowcase. After it's drained to the desired consistency, salt to taste. Substitutes: queso fresco OR goat cheese (fresh) OR cottage cheese (lower in fat) OR pot cheese (drier) OR Requeson cheese OR clabber cream (especially as a pasta filling) OR buttermilk cheese (especially as a pasta filling) OR fromage blanc (lower in fat) OR tofu (firm silken tofu is best; mix with Italian herbs and olive oil if using in pasta dishes)
robiola Piemonte Pronunciation: roh-bee-OH-lah pia-MAWN-tay Notes: This creamy fresh cheese from the Piedmond region of Italy is often used for cooking, and it's great on pizza. It's also served as an antipasto along with olive oil and/or fresh herbs. Piedmont robiolas include Langhe Robiola = Robiola delle Langhe, Robiola di Roccaverano, Robiola di Murazzano, and Robiolina di Bosconero. These cheeses are hard to find in the U.S. Don't confuse this with robiola Lombardia, a soft cheese. Substitutes: equal parts ricotta and mascarpone OR ricotta OR mascarpone OR chevre OR Caprini
Rondelé = Rondele Notes: This flavored cream cheese is an inexpensive domestic version of Boursin. Substitutes: Boursin
whey cheeses Most cheese is made from curdled milk that has been drained of the watery whey. Not wanting to waste the nutrient-rich whey, our ancestors discovered that they could extract more cheese from it by cooking it until the remaining proteins coagulated. Examples of modern-day whey cheeses include ricotta, Gjetost, Manouri, Mizithra, and Requeson.
white cheese See cream cheese.
yogurt cheese = chaka = labneh = lebna = labne = labanah Notes: This is a soft, tangy, and nutritious cream cheese substitute. To make your own: Line a colander with several folds of cheesecloth, a kitchen towel, or commercial yogurt strainer. Pour stabilizer-free yogurt into the cloth, then put the colander into a larger container, wrap with plastic, and let it drain overnight in the refrigerator until it's reduced to half its volume. If you like, add herbs or other flavorings. Substitutes: cream cheese (thicker consistency, not as tart, higher in calories) OR buttermilk cheese
Copyright © 1996-2005 Lori Alden
soft cheese = soft paste cheese Cheeses in this category are often spread on bread or crackers to be served as snacks. They're usually not used for cooking. Most soft cheeses should be used within a few days of purchase--they spoil faster than firmer cheeses.
Boursault Pronunciation: boor-SOH Notes: This is a soft-ripened, triple crème French cheese that very rich and mild. For best flavor, serve at room temperature. Substitutes: Brillat-Savarin OR Caprice des Dieux OR St. Andre OR Excelsior OR Brie OR Camembert Brie Pronunciation: BREE Notes: This French cheese is rich, mild, and creamy, and it's soft enough to spread easily on crackers or bread. As with Camembert cheese, the Brie name isn't protected so there are lots of mediocre knock-offs on the market. Look for French Bries--they're much better than their American counterparts. The rind is edible. For best flavor, wait until it's perfectly ripe and warmed to room temperature before serving it. Substitutes: Camembert OR Explorateur OR Paglietta OR Carre de l'Est OR Coulommiers OR Reblochon
Brillat Savarin cheese Pronunciation: bree-YAH sah-vah-RAHN Notes: This soft triple crème French cheese is rich, buttery, and mild, though some find it a bit sour and salty. Substitutes: Boursault OR Caprice des Dieux OR St. Andre OR Excelsior
Brinza cheese = Brynza cheese = Bryndza cheese Pronunciation: BRIN-zuh Notes: Look for this salty sheep's milk cheese in Eastern European markets. It's spreadable when young, but becomes crumbly as it ages. Like Feta, it's good in salads or melted on pizza. Substitutes: feta (saltier)
bryndza See brinza.
brynza See brinza.
Camembert Pronunciation: CAH-muhn-BARE Notes: This popular soft-ripened cheese is buttery rich and wonderful to spread on hot French bread. The name's not protected, so there are lots of Camemberts of varying quality on the market. Try to get a French raw milk Camembert--our pasteurized domestic versions are bland in comparison. Use within a few days after purchasing. For best flavor, serve at room temperature. Substitutes: Brie OR Explorateur OR Paglietta
Caprice des Dieux Pronunciation: cah-PREES-day-DYOO Notes: This oval French cheese resembles Camembert and Brie. Substitutes: Camembert OR Brie OR Brillat-Savarin OR St. Andre OR Boursault
Carré de l'est = Carre de l'Est Pronunciation: kar-RAY-duh-LEST Notes: This is a square washed rind, moderately stinky cheese from France. Substitutes: Epoisses OR Pont-l'Evêque OR Maroilles OR Brie OR Camembert
Chaource cheese Pronunciation: shah-OORSE Notes: This French cheese is similar to Brie and Camembert, but creamier and more acidic. It's good with champagne. Substitutes: Camembert OR Brie
Coulommiers Pronunciation: koo-lum-YAY Notes: This soft-ripened French cheese resembles Brie and Camembert. Substitutes: Brie OR Camembert OR Chaource
Crema Danica = Crema Dania Pronunciation: CREHM-uh DAHN-ik-uh Substitutes: Camembert OR Brie
Crescenza See Stracchino.
Epoisses = Epoisses de Bourgogne Pronunciation: ay-PWAHZ Notes: This well-regarded French cheese is a member of the washed-rind or "stinky" family of cheeses, but it's a bit more subtle than Limburger, Livarot, or other siblings. It's a little runny when ripe. The rind is edible--taste it to see if you like it. Substitutes: Pont-l'Evêque OR Maroilles OR Muenster
Excelsior Substitutes: Boursault OR Brillat-Savarin
Explorateur = l'Explorateur Pronunciation: ex-plor-ah-TUR Notes: This soft, creamy French cheese is rich and complex. Substitutes: Brie OR Camembert feta Pronunciation: FEH-tuh Notes: This salty, crumbly cheese is common in Greek cuisine. It's often stored in brine; if so, you might want to rinse it before using to remove some of the saltiness. Use within a few days after purchasing. For best flavor, serve at room temperature. Substitutes: Brinza (similar but hard to find) OR Haloumi OR cotija OR ricotta salata (better than feta) OR aged chevre
hand = handkäse = handkase = harzer kase = harzer käse Notes: This German washed rind cheese is pungent and stinky. It's good with beer, but it would over-power most wines. Substitutes: Mainz OR Harz OR Limburger
Harz Substitutes: Mainz OR Hand OR Limburger OR Maroilles OR Livarot OR Brick (milder) OR Liederkranz (milder) Notes: Use within a few days after purchasing. For best flavor, serve at room temperature.
Humboldt fog cheese Notes: This excellent soft-ripened goat cheese has a layer of vegetable ash running down the middle. It's an excellent table cheese. The rind is edible, and fairly good. Substitutes: Morbier OR Brie
kochkäse = kochkase Notes: This German cheese is easy to spread. It's great on crackers and rye bread.
Liederkranz Pronunciation: LEE-der-krantz Notes: This cheese was invented by German-American Emil Frey, who wanted to make a domestic version of Limburger cheese. Borden acquired the brand after Frey died, and later sold the brand to a New Zealand outfit. It's hard, and perhaps impossible, to find in the United States. Substitutes: Schloss (very similar) OR Brick OR Limburger (sharper) OR Maroilles OR Livarot OR Harz OR Mainz OR Hand Notes: Use within a few days after purchasing. For best flavor, serve at room temperature.
Livarot Pronunciation: LEE-vah-roh Notes: This excellent French cheese is in the washed-rind or "stinky" family. Though pungent, it's not as overpowering as Limburger. The rind is edible, but it's not for faint-hearted. Substitutes: Maroilles OR Limburger OR Harz OR Mainz OR Hand OR Brick (milder) OR Liederkranz (milder)
Mainz Substitutes: Harz OR Hand OR Limburger OR Brick (milder) OR Schloss (milder) Notes: Use within a few days after purchasing. For best flavor, serve at room temperature.
Manouri cheese Notes: This Greek sheep's and goat's milk cheese is similar to feta, only creamier and less salty. Substitutes: feta OR ricotta salata Maroilles Pronunciation: mahr-WAHL Notes: This is a stinky washed-rind cheese from France that smells worse than it tastes. You probably don't want to eat the pungent rind. Use within a few days after purchasing. For best flavor, serve at room temperature. Substitutes: Livarot OR Pont-l'Evêque OR Reblochon OR Harz OR Mainz OR Hand OR Limburger
Paglietta Notes: This soft Italian cheese resembles Brie and Camembert. Use it within a few days after purchasing. For best flavor, serve at room temperature. Substitutes: Camembert OR Brie
Pont-l'Evêque = Pont l'Eveque Pronunciation: POHN-luh-VEK Notes: This ancient and well-regarded French cheese isn't as stinky as other washed rind cheeses. It's best not to eat the rind. Substitutes: Reblochon OR Camembert (not as stinky) OR Maroilles (stinkier)
Reblochon cheese Pronunciation: reh-bloh-SHOHN Notes: This rich and creamy French cheese is quite mild for a washed rind cheese, but it's complex enough to be popular with gourmets. The rind is edible, but too pungent for many people. Substitutes: Pont-l'Evêque OR Brie OR Beaumont OR Esrom OR Beaufort OR tomme (nuttier taste) OR raclette OR Port Salut OR fontina
ricotta salata Pronunciation: rih-COH-tah sah-LAH-tah Notes: This mild sheep's milk cheese is used more for cooking than snacking. It's great in salads or in pasta dishes. Look for it in Italian markets. Substitutes: feta (more pungent) OR Manouri
robiola Pronunciation: roh-bee-OH-lah Notes: Two distinctly different cheeses go by the name robiola: Robiola Piemonte is a fresh cheese that's often used on pizza, while robiola Lombardia is an aged, tan-colored soft cheese used for snacking.
robiola Lombardia cheese = robiola cheese (aged) Pronunciation: roh-bee-OH-lah Notes: There are different kinds of robiola cheeses; those made in the Lombardy region are washed-rind soft cheeses that are rich and mildly pungent. Don't confuse this with robiola Piemonte, a fresh robiola cheese from the Piedmont region that's often used to top pizzas or melt into fondues. Lombardy robiolas include Robiola Valsassina = Robiola della Valsassina and Substitutes: taleggio OR Reblochon
Schloss = Schlosskäse = Schlosskase = castle cheese Notes: This Austrian cheese is a marvelous choice for people who like strong "stinky" cheeses. It's good with beer, but it would overpower most wines. Substitutes: Limburger OR Brie (not as stinky) Saint André cheese = St. Andre cheese Substitutes: Boursault OR Brillat-Savarin OR Caprice des Dieux Notes: Use within a few days after purchasing. For best flavor, serve at room temperature. Saint Marcellin cheese = St. Marcellin cheese Notes: A young version of this French cheese is so runny it's sold in small pots; a more aged version is wrapped in leaves. Both are rich and exquisite on French bread. Substitutes: Banon OR Stracchino = Crescenza = Stracchino di Crescenza Pronunciation: strah-KEE-noh Notes: This soft Italian cheese is mild and spreadable. It's great on pizza. Use within a few days after purchasing and, for best flavor, serve at room temperature. Substitutes: Taleggio (unripened version of Stracchino)
Teleme Pronunciation: TELL-uh-may Notes: This is a California cheese with a mild, nutty flavor. The rind is edible. Substitutes: Camembert OR jack
Copyright © 1996-2005 Lori Alden
semi-soft cheese Notes: These cheeses are great for snacking or desserts, and a few are heat-tolerant enough to be good cooking cheeses.
Cheeses lose character when frozen, but many semi-soft cheeses can be frozen and thawed without losing too much flavor, though some become crumbly. For best results, first cut the cheese into small (1/2 pound) chunks, and wrap each chunk in an airtight package. Thaw in the refrigerator, and use the cheese soon after it's thawed.
Substitutes: cheese substitutes
asadero = queso asadero = Oaxaca cheese = Chihuahua® cheese Notes: This stringy Mexican cheese melts nicely, so it's great on quesadillas. Substitutes: mozzarella cheese OR jack cheese OR Muenster OR Provolone
Beaumont cheese = Tomme de Beaumont Pronunciation: boh-MAHN Notes: This French cow's milk cheese has a mild, nutty flavor. Substitutes: Muenster OR Reblochon OR Havarti OR Port du Salut
bierkäse = bierkaese = beer kaese = beer cheese = Weisslacker Pronunciation: BEER-kay-suh OR BEER-case Notes: This is a soft, stinky cheese. German like to put it on rye bread along with some sliced onion, and have it with beer. It's too overpowering to serve with wine. Substitutes: Limburger OR Havarti (This has a similar texture, but it's much milder) Bel Paese Pronunciation: BEHL-pie-AY-zeh Notes: This is a mild, semi-soft Italian cheese that's good with apples, pears, and fruity red wines. It's also shredded and used to make pizza, risotto, and pasta dishes. Substitutes: Fontina OR Taleggio OR Gouda OR Havarti OR Samsoe OR jack OR Muenster OR mozzarella
Brick cheese Notes: This is a pungent American washed-rind cheese. Substitutes: Lagerkaese OR Havarti OR Cheddar OR Limburger (more pungent)
buffalo milk mozzarella See mozzarella.
Caciocavallo = Cacciocavallo Notes: This Italian cheese is similar to provolone. Substitutes: Provolone (not as moist, but similar) OR Kashkaval OR Scarmorza OR Kasseri OR mozzarella
California jack See jack.
casero cheese Notes: This is a mild white Mexican cheese. Substitutes: muenster OR jack
Chaubier cheese Notes: This mild French cheese is made with a blend of cow and goat milk.
corsu vecchio cheese Notes: This sheep's milk cheese comes from Corsica.
Danish Port Salut See Esrom.
Esrom = Danish Port Salut Pronunciation: ES-rom Notes: This Danish cheese is semi-soft and only slightly pungent. It's a great melting cheese and a popular ingredient in casseroles. Substitutes: Havarti OR Saint Paulin
Fiore Sardo cheese Notes: This is an Italian sheep's milk cheese. It's a bit crumbly.
Gouda Pronunciation: GOO-duh Notes: This Dutch cheese has a mild, nutty flavor. Varieties include smoked Gouda, the diminutive baby Gouda, and Goudas flavored with garlic and spices. Goudas are also classed by age. A young Gouda is mild, an aged Gouda = medium Gouda = mature Gouda is more assertive, and an old Gouda = very aged Gouda is downright pungent. Substitutes: Edam (similar, but with a lower milkfat content) OR Samsoe OR Bel Paese OR jack OR Muenster OR cheese substitutes
Haloumi = Halloumi Pronunciation: hah-LOO-me Notes: This salty, crumbly cheese from Cyprus stands up well to heat and can even be fried or grilled. Look for it in Middle Eastern markets. Substitutes: feta (similar flavor) OR mozzarella (similar texture)
Havarti Pronunciation: hah-VAR-tee Notes: This mild Danish cheese is perfect for slicing into sandwiches. It's often flavored with spices and chilies. Substitutes: Tilsit OR jack cheese OR Esrom (more pungent) OR Gouda OR Mahon
jack cheese Notes: This California semi-soft cheese resembles Muenster. It has a mild, nondescript flavor, but it's good cheese to slice into sandwiches or melt into casseroles. It also goes by California jack, Monterey jack, Sonoma jack, and Mexican jack, depending on where it was produced. Efforts to boost the flavor have produced Pepper Jack = Jalapeno Jack. Don't confuse this with aged jack, which is a grating cheese. Substitutes: Muenster OR Gouda OR Bel Paese OR Samsoe
Lagerkaese Substitutes: Brick OR Limburger (softer, stronger flavor)
Laguiole Pronunciation: Lah-YOLE Notes: This is a mild French semi-soft cheese. Substitutes: jack cheese
Lappi Pronunciation: LAP-pee Notes: This is a mild semi-soft cheese from the Lapland region of Finland. It's a good melter and works well in fondues. Substitutes: Emmenthal (very similar) OR Swiss
Limburger Pronunciation: LIM-buhr-guhr Notes: This is a very stinky and salty German washed rind cheese. It's too strong to serve with most wines, so it's often served with beer. Use within a few days after purchasing. For best flavor, serve at room temperature. Substitutes: Schloss (milder) OR Maroilles OR Livarot OR Harz OR Mainz OR Hand Complements: beer OR onions OR pumpernickel bread
Monterey jack See jack.
Morbier cheese Pronunciation: MOR-byay Notes: This creamy and mild cheese has a dark stripe running up the middle, a reference to earlier times when a layer of ash was added to the cheese to protect it from insects. Morbier has a rich, earthy flavor. It's a good melting cheese, but you might want to cook with a cheaper cheese like Lappi or Havarti. Substitutes: Fontina OR Havarti OR Esrom
mozzarella Pronunciation: mah-tsuh-REHL-uh Notes: Mozzarella is one of the few cheeses that doesn't turn rubbery or ooze oil if cooked too long or too hot, so it's a key ingredient in pizzas and casseroles. It's also stretchy--the long white strings that you often see draped over the sides of pizza boxes are usually mozzarella.
There are two kinds. Low moisture mozzarella is firmer and the best choice for pizza. High moisture mozzarella = fresh mozzarella is more delicate; it's often drizzled with olive oil and serve uncooked as an appetizer. It works in pizza, too, but you should first put slices of it into a colander to drain for about an hour, and put them on the pizza only during the last minute of cooking.
High moisture mozzarella is often packaged in tubs or bags filled with water--this keeps it soft but leeches out some of the flavor. Look for mozzarella di bufalo = buffalo milk mozzarella, which is more interesting than cow's milk mozzarella = fior di latte. Bocconcini (Pronunciation: BOK-kuhn-CHEE-nee) are small balls of high moisture mozzarella. High moisture mozzarellas are much more perishable than their low-moisture counterparts, so use them within a few days of purchase. Substitutes: Scarmorza OR Cacciocavallo OR string cheese (very similar, but extruded rather than molded) OR queso blanco OR Provolone OR Kashkaval OR Kasseri OR Emmenthal (another good melting cheese) OR Bel Paese OR "Tofu Rella" Italian White (a soy-based cheese substitute; use in melted cheese dishes) OR fontina (good on pizzas) OR cheddar (different flavor, doesn't melt as well as mozzarella) OR smoked tofu OR cheese substitutes
mozzarella di bufalo See mozzarella.
Muenster = Munster = Münster Pronunciation: MUHN-ster or MOON-ster Notes: When produced in Europe, Muenster is a mild-mannered member of the normally stinky washed-rind cheese family, though it becomes more pungent as it ages. It's delicious with dark breads and beer or Gewurztraminer wine. American muensters are much milder. Substitutes: jack OR brick OR Port du Salut OR Bel Paese
Oka Pronunciation: OH-kuh Notes: This Canadian semi-soft cheese has a mild, nutty flavor and melts nicely. Substitutes: Raclette OR Emmenthal OR Port Salut
Ossau-Iraty cheese = Ossau-Iraty-Brebis-Pyrenees Pronunciation: OH-so-ear-ah-TEE Notes: This little-known Basque cheese is made from raw sheep's milk, and it's creamy, nutty, and mellow.
pasta filata = spun curd cheeses = pulled curd cheeses = plastic curd cheeses = stretched curd cheeses Notes: These cheeses are stretched and pulled like taffy before being molded, which gives them a springy, elastic consistency. Unlike many cheeses, they stand up well to cooking. This category includes mozzarella, Provolone, Scamorza, string cheese, and Caciocavallo.
plastic curd cheeses See pasta filata.
Port du Salut See Port Salut.
Port Salut cheese = Port du Salut Pronunciation: POOR sah-LEW Notes: Port Salut is a mild French semi-soft cheese. Don't confuse with Danish Port Salut, which is also called Esrom cheese. Substitutes: Saint Paulin OR Esrom OR Havarti OR jack OR Muenster OR brick OR Bel Paese
provolone Pronunciation: PROH-vuh-LOH-nuh OR PROH-vuh-LONE Notes: This Italian cheese is like mozzarella, only firmer and more flavorful. It's often used in sandwiches and on on pizza. Substitutes: Caciocavallo (lower in fat) OR Scamorza OR mozzarella OR kasseri OR smoked tofu OR cheese substitutes
pulled curd cheeses See pasta filata.
queso asadero See asadero.
queso blanco Substitutes: mozzarella OR Muenster
queso Menonita See queso Chihuahua®.
Saint Paulin cheese Pronunciation: SAHN poh-LAHN Notes: This French semi-soft cheese is creamy and mild. Substitutes: Esrom OR Havarti
Samsoe = Samso Pronunciation: SAM-soh Notes: This versatile Danish semi-soft cheese is mild and nutty. Substitutes: Emmental OR Tybo OR Gouda OR Bel Paese
Scamorza = Scamorze Pronunciation: skuh-MOOR-tsuh Notes: This cheese is similar to mozzarella, only smaller and firmer. It's often smoked. Substitutes: mozzarella OR Cacciocavallo OR Provolone
Sonoma jack See jack.
spun curd cheeses See pasta filata.
string cheese Substitutes: mozzarella (molded rather than extruded, but otherwise very similar)
Syrian cheese Substitutes: jack cheese OR Muenster cheese
Taleggio Pronunciation: tah-LEZH-oh Substitutes: Stracchino (ripened version of taleggio) OR Bel Paese OR fontina Notes: This creamy Italian cheese is one of the better stinky cheeses--not too tame, not too wild. It's great on crackers or bread, but it's also a good melting cheese and works well in casseroles and even on pizza. The rind is edible, but not to everyone's liking. Substitutes: Robiola Lombardia OR Urgelia cheese OR Limburger (stronger and considered inferior)
Tilsit = Tilsiter = Tilsit Havarti Notes: This is a good sandwich cheese. Substitutes: Havarti (not as flavorful) OR jack cheese OR Esrom (more pungent) OR Gouda OR Mahon
Tomme Crayeuse cheese Pronunciation: TUM cray-YOUZ Notes: This soft French cheese is rich and buttery. Don't eat the rind. Substitutes: Tomme de Savoie OR Saint Nectaire OR Muenster Tomme de Savoie cheese = tomme de montagne Pronunciation: TUM de sah-VWAH Notes: This is a mild and pleasant French cheese that's semi-soft when young, firmer when aged. Substitutes: Tomme Crayeuse OR Saint Nectaire OR Muenster
Tybo Pronunciation: TIE-boh Notes: This mild Danish cheese is great on sandwiches. Substitutes: Samsoe
Urgelia cheese = Queso de l'Alt Urgell y la Cerdanya Pronunciation: ur-HAIL-ya Notes: This creamy Spanish cheese is a member of the washed rind (a.k.a. stinky) cheese family, but it's mild and subtle. Substitutes: Taleggio
Vacherin Pronunciation: vahsh-er-AHN Notes: This is a cheese-lover's cheese, with a complex nutty flavor. It's a good melting cheese that's often used to make fondues. Try heating it a bit and serving it with crusty French bread. Substitutes: Fontina OR Appenzell OR Emmenthal
1 C shredded = ¼ pound
Copyright © 1996-2005 Lori Alden
semi-firm cheese = semi-hard cheese Most semi-firm cheeses are pressed during production to remove moisture. As they age, they become even firmer and more pungent and crumbly.
Most of these cheeses are great for snacks and sandwiches, and many can be cooked without becoming rubbery or oily.
Semi-firm cheese tend to have a longer shelf life than softer cheeses. Many can last about 1-2 months in the refrigerator if the package isn't opened, 3-4 weeks if opened, and 2 weeks if sliced.
Substitutes: cheese substitutes
Abondance = Tomme d'Abondance Pronunciation: ah-bone-DAHNS Notes: This French raw milk cheese has a subtle, nutty flavor. It's a good melting cheese. Substitutes: Gruyere OR Fontina OR Appenzell
Appenzell = Appenzeller Notes: This is a creamy and pleasantly stinky cheese. Pronunciation: AP-en-zel Substitutes: Emmentaler OR Gruyère OR raclette OR Fontina Asiago (fresh) Pronunciation: ah-zee-AH-go Notes: Don't confuse this with aged Asiago, which is a firm grating cheese. Substitutes: Provolone OR other semi-firm cheese Beaufort Pronunciation: BOH-furt Notes: This semi-firm cheese is slightly sweet and has a nice texture. It's a great melting cheese, so it's often used in fondues. Substitutes: Emmenthal OR Gruyère OR Fontina OR Tomme OR Reblochon Caciotta = Casciotta Pronunciation: kah-CHOH-tah Notes: This mild Italian cheese is made with a blend of sheep's milk and cow's milk cheese.
Caerphilly Pronunciation: kar-FILL-ee Notes: This Welsh cow's milk cheese is crumbly and a good melter. Substitutes: Cheddar
Cantal Pronunciation: kahn-TAHL Notes:
This French cheese is sweet when young but earthy and grassy when aged. It's a reliable party-pleaser--mild but complex. Substitutes: Cheddar OR Gruyère OR Monterey jack OR Lancashire
Cheddar Notes: The curds of many English cheeses are "cheddared" or cut them into slabs and stacked to allow whey to drain off. Some cheddars have more lactose in them, making them "sharp" or acidic. Less sharp cheddars are often labeled "mild" or "medium." England supplies many fine Cheddars, as does Vermont and Tillamook, Oregon. Substitutes: Colby OR Cheshire OR American cheese OR "Tofu Rella" Amber (a soy-based cheese substitute; use in melted cheese dishes) OR nutritional yeast OR white miso OR cheese substitutes Cheshire Pronunciation: CHESH-er Notes: Said to be England's oldest cheese, is a good cooking cheese. Blue Cheshire is a blue-veined version. Substitutes: Cheddar OR cheese substitutes
chevre (aged) = chèvre Pronunciation: SHEH-vruh Notes: Don't confuse this aged goat cheese with the far more common chevre frais (fresh chevre). Use within a few days after purchasing. For best flavor, serve at room temperature. Substitutes: feta
Colby Notes: This Wisconsin cheese resembles a mild Cheddar. Substitutes: Cheddar (sharper flavor) OR Tillamook OR American OR cheese substitutes
Comte = Comté = Gruyère du Comté = Comte Gruyere Pronunciation: kohm-TAY Notes: This excellent French cow's milk cheese dates from the time of Charlemagne. It has a mildly sweet, nutty flavor, much like Gruyère. It's a very good melting cheese. Substitutes: Gruyère OR Fontina OR Beaufort OR Emmentaler
Coon Substitutes: Cheddar (not as sharp as Coon)
Danbo Pronunciation: DAN-boh Substitutes: Samsoe OR Cheddar
Edam Pronunciation: EE-dum Notes: This has a red wax coating. Substitutes: Gouda (similar, but with a higher milkfat content) OR fontina OR Leyden cheese OR cheese substitutes
Emmental = Emmentaler = Emmenthaler = Emmenthal = Bavarian Swiss cheese Pronunciation: EM-uhn-tall Notes: This Swiss cheese is riddled with holes and has a mild, nutty flavor. It's an excellent melting cheese, and a key ingredient in many fondues. Substitutes: Jarlsberg (similar) OR Beaufort OR Gruyère OR Swiss OR raclette OR cheese substitutes
fontina Pronunciation: fon-TEE-nuh Notes: This well-regarded cheese is mild but interesting, and it's a good melter. Substitutes: Gruyère OR Emmental OR Beaufort OR Edam OR Gouda OR Bel Paese OR Appenzell OR provolone OR rablochon
gamonedo = queso gamonedo = gamoneú Pronunciation: gah-moh-NAY-doh Notes: This expensive Spanish cheese is made from the milks of cows, sheep, and goats. It's smoked, giving it a very complex flavor. Substitutes: Cabrales (very similar)
Gjetost Pronunciation: YET-ohst Notes: This tastes a bit like caramelized American cheese. Substitutes: Mysost (very similar)
Gloucester Pronunciation: GLOSS-ter Notes: This orange cheddar-like cheese comes from England. Varieties include Single Gloucester, which is ripened for only two months, and Double Gloucester, which is more highly regarded and flavorful. Huntsman cheese contains layers of Gloucester and Stilton. Substitutes: Cheshire OR Cheddar
Graviera Substitutes: Jarlsberg OR Gruyère
Greve Substitutes: Swiss
Gruyere = Gruyère Pronunciation: grew-YARE Notes: Gruyères are excellent melting cheeses, and they're commonly used to make fondues, soufflés, gratins, and hot sandwiches. Varieties include Swiss Gruyère, Beaufort, and Comté. Substitutes: Emmentaler OR Jarlsberg OR Appenzell OR raclette OR Swiss cheese
Gruyère du Comté See Compté.
Idiazabal cheese = Idiazábal cheese = queso vasco Pronunciation: ih-dee-ah-ZAH-bol Notes: This salty, sharp and crumbly Basque cheese is made with raw sheep's milk. It's usually smoked and aged before it hits the stores. It's a good cheese to grate in salads, melt on meats, or eat with crackers. Try serving it with sherry.
Jarlsberg Pronunciation: YARLZ-berg Notes: This is a Norwegian knock-off of Emmentaler. It's mild, creamy yellow, and has large holes. Substitutes: Emmentaler OR Gruyère OR Swiss OR raclette
Kaser Substitutes: Kasseri OR Kashkaval OR Provolone
Kashkaval = Kachkeval Notes: This is a Bulgarian version of Italy's Caciocavallo cheese. It becomes much firmer as it ages and turns into a good grating cheese. Substitutes: Caciocavallo OR Provolone OR Scarmorza OR mozzarella OR Kashkaval OR Kaser
kasseri Pronunciation: kuh-SAIR-ee Notes: This salty and tangy Greek cheese is made from sheep's milk. It's great on pizza. Substitutes: Kefalotyri (in fried cheese recipes) OR Caciocavallo OR Provolone OR Scarmorza OR mozzarella OR Kashkaval OR Kaser
Lancashire Pronunciation: LANG-kuh-sheer Notes: This is a rich, tangy, and crumbly cow's milk cheese produced in Britain. It's a good melting cheese. Substitutes: Cheddar
Leerdammer Notes: This Dutch cheese is similar to Emmental or Jarlberg, only milder.
Leicester = Red Leicester Pronunciation: LESS-ter Notes: This is an English cheese that's very similar to cheddar. Substitutes: Cheddar cheese (Not as moist as Leicester.)
Leyden = Leiden Notes: This Dutch cheese is flavored with cumin and caraway seeds. Pronunciation: LIE-dehn Substitutes: Gouda OR Edam
Mahón cheese = Mahon cheese Pronunciation: mah-HONE Notes: This well-regarded Spanish cheese is a terrific snacking cheese, but it's also incorporated into casseroles. Try it with sherry. Substitutes: Gouda Manchego cheese Notes: Don't confuse this with aged Manchego cheese, which is firm and yellow, and typically used for grating. Younger Manchego cheese is sweet and nutty. It melts nicely and is often used in quesadillas. Substitutes: Monterey jack OR mozzarella OR cheddar
Nøkkelost = Nokkelost Notes: This Norwegian cheese is seasoned with caraway seeds, cumin, and cloves. Substitutes: Leyden (a very similar Dutch cheese)
Primost See Mysost.
raclette Pronunciation: rah-KLET Notes: People often melt this Swiss cheese and dip new potatoes into it. Substitutes: Emmental OR Morbier OR Gruyère OR Swiss OR Jarlsberg OR Reblochon Saint Nectaire cheese = St. Nectaire cheese Pronunciation: SAHN neck-TARE Notes: This French cheese has a rich, nutty flavor. Substitutes: Tomme de Savoie OR Tomme Crayeuse Swiss cheese = American Swiss cheese Notes: This popular cheese is an American knock-off of Switzerland's Emmentaler cheese. This difference is that our domestic version usually has smaller eyes (making it easier to slice) and is made from pasteurized milk. Emmentaler has a richer, nuttier flavor. Substitutes: Emmentaler OR Gruyère OR Jarlsberg OR raclette OR cheese substitutes
Tete de Moine = Tête de Moine Notes: This is a very pungent Swiss cow's milk cheese.
Wensleydale Pronunciation: WENZ-lee-dale Notes: This is a fairly mild English cheese. Substitutes: Cheddar
yak cheese Substitutes: Swiss cheese
1 C shredded = ¼ pound
Copyright © 1996-2005 Lori Alden
firm cheeses = hard cheeses = grating cheeses = grana Notes: Cheeses usually become not only firmer but more pungent as they age, so most of the cheeses in this category pack a lot of flavor. They're often grated onto pasta dishes. Firm cheeses have a much longer shelf life than their softer counterparts.
Asiago (aged) Pronuncation: ah-zee-AH-go Notes: This grating cheese is similar to Parmesan and Romano, but it's sweeter. It's good on pizza. There's no need to spring for a pricy Italian Asiago--our domestic knock-offs are pretty good. Don't confuse aged Asiago with the relatively obscure fresh Asiago cheese, which is semi-soft. Substitutes: Parmesan (a little sharper) OR Romano (much sharper) OR dry jack cheese OR Sapsago (low in fat) OR nutritional yeast (This substitution works best if recipe calls for cheese to be sprinkled over a dish. Nutritional yeast is low in fat, high in protein and B vitamins, and it's not made with any animal products.) OR oil-cured black olives (as a pizza topping) OR seasoned breadcrumbs (as a pizza topping)
Cacique See cotija.
cotija = queso anejado Notes: This is a sharp, salty white grating cheese that softens but doesn't melt when heated. Cacique is a well-known brand. Look for it in Hispanic markets. Substitutes: Parmesan OR Romano OR anejo cheese OR feta cheese OR nutritional yeast (This substitution works best if recipe calls for cheese to be sprinkled over a dish. Nutritional yeast is low in fat, high in protein and B vitamins, and it's not made with any animal products.)
dry jack = dry Monterey Notes: This is aged jack cheese. Substitutes: Parmesan
Grana Padano Notes: This is just like Parmesan, except that it's made in a different part of Italy. Substitutes: Parmesan OR Asiago OR Romano OR nutritional yeast (This substitution works best if recipe calls for cheese to be sprinkled over a dish. Nutritional yeast is low in fat, high in protein and B vitamins, and it's not made with any animal products.) OR oil-cured black olives (as a pizza topping) OR seasoned breadcrumbs (as a pizza topping)
Kashkaval (aged) = Kachkeval (aged) Notes: Don't confuse this with ordinary Kashkaval, which is a semi-firm cheese. Substitutes: Parmesan OR nutritional yeast (This substitution works best if recipe calls for cheese to be sprinkled over a dish. Nutritional yeast is low in fat, high in protein and B vitamins, and it's not made with any animal products.)
Kefalotyri = Kefalotiri Pronunciation: KEE-fah-loh-TEER-ee Notes: This tangy hard Greek cheese is often grated over dishes. Substitutes: Romano OR Parmesan OR nutritional yeast (This substitution works best if recipe calls for cheese to be sprinkled over a dish. Nutritional yeast is low in fat, high in protein and B vitamins, and it's not made with any animal products.)
Locatelli See Romano.
Manchego (aged) = queso Manchego viejo Notes: Aged Manchego cheese is yellow and a terrific grating cheese. Don't confuse it with unaged Manchego cheese, which is almost white, semi-firm, and typically used as a melting cheese. Substitutes: pecorino Romano OR other firm cheese OR nutritional yeast (This substitution works best if recipe calls for cheese to be sprinkled over a dish. Nutritional yeast is low in fat, high in protein and B vitamins, and it's not made with any animal products.)
mimolette cheese = boule de Lille Pronunciation: mee-moh-LET Notes: This French cheese is similar to Parmesan cheese, only it's a brilliant orange. Substitutes: Parmesan cheese Mizithra (aged) = Mytzithra (aged) Notes: Don't confuse this salty grating cheese with fresh Mizithra, which is similar to feta. This cheese is dry, crumbly, and very salty. Substitutes: ricotta salata OR Romano OR Parmesan OR nutritional yeast (This substitution works best if recipe calls for cheese to be sprinkled over a dish. Nutritional yeast is low in fat, high in protein and B vitamins, and it's not made with any animal products.)
Parmesan cheese = Parmigiano Notes: This firm cheese is pungent and salty, and it's terrific grated on salads, pasta, or pizzas, or served simply with figs, pears, or crusty bread. The best parmesan is the Northern Italian Parmigiano-Reggiano, but less pricy domestic Parmesans are also well regarded. Substitutes: grana Padano OR Romano (higher in fat; sharper flavor) OR aged Asiago (saltier) OR Sapsago (low in fat) OR Swiss Sbrinz OR Fontina OR Monterey jack OR nutritional yeast (This substitution works best if recipe calls for cheese to be sprinkled over a dish. Nutritional yeast is low in fat, high in protein and B vitamins, and it's not made with any animal products.) OR "Soyco" grated parmesan (a soy-based cheese substitute) OR See the Parmesan Sprinkle recipe (made with yeast flakes and almonds) posted on www.vegweb.com. OR oil-cured black olives (as a pizza topping) OR seasoned breadcrumbs (as a pizza topping)
Parmigiano-Reggiano See Parmesan.
pecorino Romano See Romano.
Pecorino Tuscano Pronunciation: peh-koh-REE-noh Notes: This is a firm Italian sheep's milk cheese.
queso anejado See cotija.
queso enchilada = anejo enchilado = queso anejo Notes: This is a hard Mexican grating cheese that's coated with red chile paste. Substitutes: cotija (sharper tasting) OR Romano OR Parmesan OR nutritional yeast (This substitution works best if recipe calls for cheese to be sprinkled over a dish. Nutritional yeast is low in fat, high in protein and B vitamins, and it's not made with any animal products.)
queso Manchego See Manchego.
Romano Notes: Romano is similar to Parmesan and Asiago, only it has a nuttier, sharper, and saltier flavor. It's often grated onto pizzas and pasta dishes to add flavor. Pecorino Romano is made from sheep's milk, Caprino Romano from goat's milk, and Vacchino Romano from cow's milk. Domestic Romanos aren't as well-regarded as Italian Romanos. Substitutes: Parmesan (not as sharp and salty) OR Asiago (sweeter) OR Sapsago (low-fat) OR Manchego OR nutritional yeast (This substitution works best if recipe calls for cheese to be sprinkled over a dish. Nutritional yeast is low in fat, high in protein and B vitamins, and it's not made with any animal products.) OR cheese substitute OR oil-cured black olives (as a pizza topping) OR seasoned breadcrumbs (as a pizza topping)
Saanen Substitutes: other firm cheese OR nutritional yeast (This substitution works best if recipe calls for cheese to be sprinkled over a dish. Nutritional yeast is low in fat, high in protein and B vitamins, and it's not made with any animal products.)
Saenkanter cheese Notes: This aged Gouda has a very complex, rich flavor.
Sapsago = Sap sago = Schabziger Notes: This Swiss grating cheese is colored and flavored by a clover-like herb. It's hard to find, but many seek it out as a low-fat substitute for Parmesan and Romano. Substitutes: Romano OR Parmesan OR nutritional yeast (This substitution works best if recipe calls for cheese to be sprinkled over a dish. Nutritional yeast is low in fat, high in protein and B vitamins, and it's not made with any animal products.)
Sbrinz = Swiss Sbrinz Notes: This hard Swiss cheese resembles Parmesan. Substitutes: Emmentaler (softer) OR Gruyere (softer) OR Parmesan OR Romano OR nutritional yeast (This substitution works best if recipe calls for cheese to be sprinkled over a dish. Nutritional yeast is low in fat, high in protein and B vitamins, and it's not made with any animal products.)
Sierra Substitutes: Romano OR Parmesan OR other firm cheese OR nutritional yeast (This substitution works best if recipe calls for cheese to be sprinkled over a dish. Nutritional yeast is low in fat, high in protein and B vitamins, and it's not made with any animal products.)
Swiss Sbrinz See Sbrinz.
Tzfati Substitutes: Parmesan OR other firm cheese OR nutritional yeast (This substitution works best if recipe calls for cheese to be sprinkled over a dish. Nutritional yeast is low in fat, high in protein and B vitamins, and it's not made with any animal products.)
1 cup shredded = ¼ pound
Copyright © 1996-2005 Lori Alden
blue cheese = blue-veined cheese Notes: Many centuries ago, cheese was left to age in some moldy cave and became streaked with bluish-green mold. But rather than spoiling the cheese, the mold gave it a pungent and distinctive flavor, and blue cheese was born.
Since then, cheese-makers learned to inject or stir mold spores into different cheeses, and many still use caves to age them.
Blue cheese--either crumbled or in a dressing--nicely balances bitter greens in salads. You can also pair it with bread, crackers, or fruit for an appetizer, or let it melt on pasta or grilled meats. Blue cheeses vary in pungency--I'd serve a mild blue cheese like Cambozola at a neighborhood get-together, and a more pungent blue like Saint Agur or Cabrales to fellow foodies that I'm trying to impress. Stilton is the most renown blue cheese, and a reliable party-pleaser.
Blue cheeses grow more pungent with age or mishandling, and it's best to use them within a few days of purchase. Like almost all cheeses, blues should be brought to room temperature before serving. Substitutes: feta cheese Complements: bitter salad greens OR port wine OR dried fruit OR robust red wine OR apples OR pears OR melons OR stone fruit OR honey OR nuts OR figs
Varieties that are best for:
Dressing salads: Stilton OR Roquefort OR Bavarian blue OR Gorgonzola OR Cabrales
Snacking: Gorgonzola OR Saga blue OR Stilton OR Bleu d'Auvergne
Melting on meats: Cabrales OR Gorgonzola OR Picon
Dressing pasta: Roquefort OR Maytag Blue OR Gorgonzola OR Danish Blue
Dessert: Saga blue OR Stilton OR Roquefort OR Gorgonzola
Bavarian blue Notes: This is a mild and creamy German blue cheese. It's good for crumbling on salads and snacking. Paladin Bavarian Blue is a popular brand. Substitutes: Blue Castello
Bleu d'Auvergne Pronunciation: BLUH-doh-VAIRN Notes: A moist, crumbly, and somewhat salty blue cheese from France. It's milder and cheaper than Roquefort, and it works well in salad dressings or as a snacking cheese. Substitutes: Roquefort OR Maytag Blue OR Fourme d'Ambert
Bleu de Bresse Pronunciation: BLUH-duh-BRESS Notes: This blue cheese from France is made with cow's milk, and is buttery and mild. It's a safe but unexciting cheese to serve company. An American version called Bresse bleu is milder still. Substitutes: Cambozola OR Blue Castello OR Brie OR Gorgonzola
Bleu des Causses
Bleu de Chevre = Bleuet Notes: This French blue cheese is made with goat's milk. It's shaped as a pyramid, and has a distinctive country (or barnyard, some would say) flavor.
Bleu de Gex (Pronunciation: BLUH-duh-ZHECKS) = Bleu de Septmoncel (Pronunciation: BLUH-duh-SET-mohn-SELL) Notes: The French have been producing this excellent but hard-to-find blue cheese since the 13th century. Made with cow's milk, it's pungent without being overpowering. Substitutes: Stilton
Blue Castello Notes: This is a rich, moist, and creamy blue cheese. It's fairly mild and a good choice for unadventurous guests. Substitutes: Cambozola OR Bleu de Bresse OR Bavarian blue cheese
Cabrales = queso de Cabrales Pronunciation: cuh-BRAW-lays Notes: This is a crumbly and very pungent blue cheese from Spain. Substitutes: Picon OR Valdeon OR Roquefort
Cambozola Notes: This German cheese combines the moist, rich creaminess of Camembert with the sharpness of blue Gorgonzola. It's one of the mildest blue cheeses. Substitutes: Blue Castello (also creamy and mild) OR Bleu de Bresse (also creamy and mild) OR Brie OR Camembert OR Saga blue (considered much better) OR Gorgonzola dolce
Cashel Bleu = Cashel Blue = Irish Cashel Notes: This creamy yet crumbly blue cheese from Ireland has a tangy but mellow flavor. It's cheaper than Stilton but not quite as good. Substitutes: Stilton OR Gorgonzola OR Roquefort
Danablu See Danish blue.
Danish blue = Danablu Notes: Danish blue is rich and creamy, but it's considered inferior to Roquefort, Gorgonzola, or Stilton. Substitutes: Another blue cheese
Fourme d'Ambert Pronunciation: FOORM-dom-BARE Notes: The French claim to have been making this moist blue cheese since the time of the Ancient Romans. It's cheaper and milder than many blue cheeses. Substitutes: Saint Agur cheese OR Cambozola OR Cashel Blue OR Stilton OR Bleu d'Auverne OR Bleu de Gex
Gorgonzola Pronunciation: gore-gun-ZOE-lah Notes: Italian Gorgonzolas are creamy and mild, while domestic versions are sharper and more crumbly. A Gorgonzola dolce (DOLE-chay) is young, creamy, and mild, while a Gorgonzola naturale = mountain Gorgonzola is aged until it's firmer and more pungent. Use within a few days after purchasing. For best flavor, serve at room temperature. Some Gorgonzola cheeses can be frozen successfully, others become crumbly (but still usable in salads). For best results, first cut the cheese into small (1/2 pound) chunks, and wrap each chunk in an airtight package. Thaw in the refrigerator, and use the cheese soon after it's thawed. Substitutes: Roquefort (has a less fatty texture) OR Stilton (much firmer) OR Saga Blue cheese Maytag Blue Notes: This American blue cheese is pungent and crumbly. Use it within a few days after purchasing. For best flavor, serve at room temperature. Substitutes: Roquefort
Montbriac = Montbriac Rochebaron Notes: This French cow's milk cheese is a mild blue cheese that's soft and creamy like a Brie. It's coated with ash. Substitutes: Cambozola OR Bleu de Bresse OR Bavarian blue cheese OR Blue Castello
picon = picón = picos de Europa = Picon cabrales Pronunciation: pee-CONE Notes: This excellent Spanish blue cheese comes wrapped in maple leaves. It's moist, crumbly, and pungent. Substitutes: Cabrales OR Valdeon OR Roquefort Roquefort Pronunciation: ROKE-uh-furt (Americanized) or roke-FOOR (French) Notes: This French sheep's milk cheese is considered to be one of the finest of the blue cheeses. Some Roquefort cheeses can be frozen successfully, others become crumbly (but still usable in salads). For best results, first cut the cheese into small (1/2 pound) chunks, and wrap each chunk in an airtight package. Thaw in the refrigerator, and use the cheese soon after it's thawed. Substitutes: Maytag Blue OR Gorgonzola (creamier) OR Stilton (firmer) OR Bleu d'Auvergne
Saga blue Notes: This well-regarded Danish blue cheese is soft, rich, and creamy. It's mild enough to be served to unadventurous guests, yet pungent enough to be interesting. Substitutes: Cambozola OR Brie OR Blue Castello Saint Agur cheese Notes: This superb blue cheese is creamy, spicy, and rich. Substitutes: Fourme d'Ambert OR Cambozola OR Cashel Blue OR Stilton Shropshire blue cheese (Pronunciation: SHROP-sure) Notes: This crumbly British blue cheese is very similar to Stilton, but it's dyed a yellowish orange. Substitutes: Stilton Stilton cheese Pronunciation: STILL-tuhn Notes: This is perhaps the most highly regarded of all the blue cheeses. Made in England, it's firmer and milder than Roquefort or Gorgonzola. It's excellent with pears. Don't eat the rind. Substitutes: Roquefort (sharper, softer) OR Gorgonzola (sharper, creamier) OR Shropshire blue cheese (sharper)
Valdeon Notes: This Spanish blue cheese is pungent enough to be interesting without being overpowering. It's a good snacking cheese for adventurous guests. Substitutes: Cabrales (more pungent) OR Picone
Copyright © 1996-2005 Lori Alden
American cheese = American cheese food = American pasteurized process cheese food Notes: These are often sold in individually wrapped sandwich slices. Substitutes: Cheddar cheese (much more flavorful) OR Swiss cheese (more flavorful)
Cheez Whiz See pasteurized process cheese sauce.
Gourmandise Pronunciation: goor-mahn-DEEZ Notes: This is a creamy, mild French cheese.
Laughing Cow See Vache Qui Rit.
La Vache Qui Rit See Vache Qui Rit.
pasteurized process cheese Shopping hints: Look for this in deli counters and in holiday gift packs. This cheese is a blend of fresh and aged cheeses, and it's pasteurized to stop the ripening process. This improves shelf life but impairs flavor. Nuts, fruits, and other seasoning are often added. Substitutes: pasteurized process cheese food (moister, lower in fat)
pasteurized process cheese food Shopping hints: Velveeta is a popular brand. This cheese is similar to pasteurized process cheese, but it contains more milk solids and water. Substitutes: pasteurized process cheese (less moist, higher in fat) OR pasteurized process cheese spread (moister, lower in fat) pasteurized process cheese sauce or spread Shopping hints: Cheez Whiz is a popular brand. This cheese is similar to pasteurized process cheese, but it's moister. To make your own: Melt in a double boiler 2 pounds Velveeta cheese + 1 C milk + 1 teaspoon sugar + 1/2 C margarine. Recipe from the Cookbooks On/Line recipe database. Substitutes: pasteurized process cheese food (less moist, higher in fat) OR vegetarian cheese substitute (To make your own, try the Melty Cheese recipe posted on www.vegweb.com, or the Mock Cheese Sauce recipe posted on pastrywiz.com.)
processed cheese = process cheese These products combine cheese with gums and stabilizers that improve shelf life but compromise flavor and texture.
Velveeta See pasteurized process cheese food.
If lactose intolerant or allergic to milk, visit the No Milk Page.
Copyright © 1996-2003 Lori Alden
NoMilk.com - The No Milk Page
Lactose Maldigestion/Milk Allergy/Casein Intolerance
Contents to Sections Below
Give Thanks for a Safe and Happy Holiday
If you ask someone what they worry about on Thanksgiving, you’ll probably hear concerns like “Will my turkey turn out dry?” or “Will my team win the game?” But as families gather to celebrate and give thanks, the American Red Cross wants to remind everyone of some important safety issues that will help ensure a safe and happy holiday.
Since Thanksgiving usually involves preparing lots of food, cooking safety should be a priority. Unfortunately, cooking fires are more likely to occur on Thanksgiving Day than any other day of the year according to the National Fire Protection Association. In fact, each year more than 4,000 fires occur on this holiday.
The Red Cross offers the following tips to prevent home fires this Thanksgiving:
* Monitor your cooking at all times. Unattended cooking is the leading cause of Thanksgiving Day home fires.
* Keep potholders and food wrappers at least three feet away from heat sources while cooking.
* Wear tighter fitting clothing with shorter sleeves when cooking.
* Make sure all stoves, ovens and ranges have been turned off when you leave the kitchen.
* Set timers to keep track of turkeys and other food items that require extended cooking times.
* Turn handles of pots and pans on the stove inward to avoid accidents.
* Follow all manufacturer guidelines regarding the appropriate use of appliances.
* After guests leave, designate a responsible adult to walk around the home, making sure that all candles and smoking materials are extinguished.
Finally, it’s important for every household to make sure to have working smoke alarms. In a recent study commissioned by the Red Cross and National Fire Protection Association, 37% of respondents admitted to disabling a smoke alarm when it went off unexpectedly. The Red Cross encourages people to install smoke alarms on every level of their house and outside sleeping areas and to test the batteries once a month.
Even with the best preparation and precautions, accidents can happen. Cooking-related burns are a common hazard of the Thanksgiving holiday. For a superficial burn, cool the area by running it under cold water until the heat eases and then loosely cover the burn with a sterile dressing to help prevent infection. A critical burn requires medical attention.
Choking is another threat to a happy holiday dinner. Common causes of choking include talking while eating; eating too fast; and trying to swallow large pieces of poorly chewed food. If you feel as if food may be caught in your throat, never leave the roomstay where others can see you and help if your airway becomes blocked.
To help someone who is choking, remember “FIVE-and-FIVE Can Keep Them Alive.” First, ask the person if they are able to breathe and if you can help. Once you know the person is unable to cough, speak or breathe, have someone call 9-1-1 or your local emergency number.
Lean the person forward and give FIVE sharp back blows between the shoulder blades with the heel of your hand. If the obstruction isn’t dislodged, stand behind the person and give FIVE quick, upward thrusts into the abdomen. Repeat back blows and abdominal thrusts as necessary. If you are alone, you can perform abdominal thrusts on yourself, just as you would on someone else. Thrusts can also be administered by leaning over and pressing your abdomen firmly against an object such as the back of a chair.
for more information:
Be sure to check out our Links Section at http://groups.yahoo.com/group/californiadisasters/links
Please join our Discussion Group at http://groups.yahoo.com/group/californiadisasters_discussion/
for topical but extended discussions started here or for less topical but nonetheless relevant messages.
Don Wiss's Home Page
Here’s another page you can check, in addition to reading the post just above this one.
Vickie has a page of links in #7192, some will interest you.
I have an opinion on the ‘no milk’ or not being able to drink milk.
#1 - get a goat.
#2 - find fresh milk as it comes from a cow who has not been treated with chemicals.
When the milk in the store is processed, it is heated to kill everything in it.
And then chemical vitamins are put in it, because they have killed the natural ones.
Therefore, you are getting a glass of chemicals, and at times you can smell them when you open the container and taste them.
And now, they push for no un-chemical containing milk to be sold.
That is my soap box rant and I have had this opinion for many years.
Barnes & Noble
National Pet Pharmacy
Northern Tool & Equipment
Road Runner Sports
Sierra Trading Post
Sur La Table
The Home Marketplace
Upper Deck Store
I agree with Granny. Pasteurized milk is the culprit. However, for many folks, goat milk or unpasteurized is not available or an option. It’s good to be informed as the how mass produced milk affects people. You can have a milk allergy and not know it. One or more of these pages may help you nail down milk allergies or lactose intolerance among your family and friends.
Happy Thanksgiving everyone!
Fred, when I quit laughing, I will tell you that the photo, is so perfect, it says what history has said.
Thank you for sharing it with us.
The Indian saved the starving Pilgrims, by feeding them and LOL, I am sure it felt like a feast.
Do you have a Thanksgiving Day in Australia?
How are you doing?
Have a happy and safe day.
Yes, that is what I was hearing.
She has a lot of it right.
Thank you for all the posts tonight, I did not realize how wrong I was about some of the foods, it helped to have the photos.
Do I have to admit that I must not know much about cheese, I thought I did, must have forgotten it........so many varieties and I have tried so few of them.
I enjoyed the herbs and peppers.......some of those I knew.
I am so thankful you are joining in the thread, a definite plus for all of us.
Disclaimer: Opinions posted on Free Republic are those of the individual posters and do not necessarily represent the opinion of Free Republic or its management. All materials posted herein are protected by copyright law and the exemption for fair use of copyrighted works.