Free Republic
Browse · Search
Topics · Post Article

Skip to comments.

Cell invasion caught on camera - Videos show T cells breaching the central nervous...
Nature News ^ | 14 October 2009 | Daniel Cressey

Posted on 10/16/2009 9:14:49 PM PDT by neverdem

Videos show T cells breaching the central nervous system's defences.

T-cell moving in blod vesselA T cell (green) is seen moving with the flow of blood before crawling against it and exiting the blood vessel.Ingo Bartholomaeus et al, Nature 2009

Despite being surrounded by a supposedly unbreachable defensive line, the body's central nervous system can still be attacked by autoimmune diseases such as multiple sclerosis.

Now, researchers led by Alexander Flügel, director of the Institute for Multiple Sclerosis Research at the University Medical Centre in Göttingen, Germany, have watched in real time as T cells — blood cells linked to the immune response — penetrate the central nervous system of rats and manifest as a disease.

"There's a question about how immune cells that attack the brain get entry because [it] is shielded by the blood-brain barrier," Flügel says. Histological studies have clearly shown immune cells can enter brain tissue, but no one has seen this happen until now. "Our question was, can we visualize this process?" he says.

To answer this question Flügel's team labelled some disease-causing T cells with green fluorescent protein and introduced them into the veins of rats. Then, using infrared lasers in a technique called two-photon imaging, they watched the movements of the cells as they caused experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, an animal model of multiple sclerosis. The work is reported in Nature1.

Only recently has the technology needed for all these elements become sophisticated enough to make this work possible, says Flügel.

Unexpectedly, the researchers found that some assumptions about how T cells gain entry to the nervous system are misplaced. Textbook knowledge, says Flügel, is that the cells roll along blood vessels then attach and migrate into the nervous-system tissue.

Instead, as illustrated in the linked videos, his team found that after rolling along the the inside of the vessel, the cells stop then crawl back against the flow of blood before exiting the vessel. Also, once they have passed through the vessel they do not immediately infiltrate the nervous-system tissue. Rather, they continue to crawl along the outside of the vessels until they meet another type of blood cell, called phagocytes. Only then do they enter the nervous system and begin to manifest the disease.

The findings both improve researchers' understanding of how some treatments work and identify which structures involved in the movement of the T cells might be useful to target with future therapies.

TOPICS: Culture/Society; News/Current Events; Technical
KEYWORDS: cns; gfp; imaging; tcells; twophotonimaging
Effector T cell interactions with meningeal vascular structures in nascent autoimmune CNS lesions

T cells — blood cells linked to the immune response

I would have thought T cells are part of the immune system.

1 posted on 10/16/2009 9:14:50 PM PDT by neverdem
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | View Replies]

To: neverdem
T-cell shown with camera.

2 posted on 10/16/2009 9:28:02 PM PDT by Larry Lucido (This tagline excerpted. To read more, click on
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

To: neverdem

merrily we roll along (not)

3 posted on 10/16/2009 9:28:25 PM PDT by HiTech RedNeck (ACORN: Absolute Criminal Organization of Reprobate Nuisances)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

To: neverdem


4 posted on 10/16/2009 9:36:50 PM PDT by dixjea
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

To: neverdem
It makes one wonder about the mechanism of motility for a T cell. Traveling against the blood flow and down the outside of a blood vessel is interesting behavior.
5 posted on 10/16/2009 10:19:59 PM PDT by Myrddin
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

To: Myrddin
Maybe they should be renamed "salmon cells".


6 posted on 10/16/2009 11:30:10 PM PDT by grey_whiskers (The opinions are solely those of the author and are subject to change without notice.)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 5 | View Replies]

To: El Gato; Ernest_at_the_Beach; Robert A. Cook, PE; lepton; LadyDoc; jb6; tiamat; PGalt; Dianna; ...
Mother's Cancer Can Infect Her Fetus

Researchers create portable black hole: Mini-hole made of metamaterials ensnares microwave light.

Strategic screening for drugs

p53 and metabolism

FReepmail me if you want on or off my health and science ping list.

7 posted on 10/17/2009 1:04:32 AM PDT by neverdem (Xin loi minh oi)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

To: neverdem
Why would "blood cells linked to the immune response ... penetrate the central nervous system ... and manifest as a disease"?

That seems contradictory.

8 posted on 10/17/2009 1:18:47 AM PDT by Praxeologue
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

To: Kennard

That seems contradictory.

I think that the problem is that in certain disorders such as MS one’s immune response “overachieves” by not only attacking antigens but also attacking the patient’s own healthy cells.

Pretty cool technology shown here. I hope they are close to a cure for MS.

9 posted on 10/17/2009 2:34:08 AM PDT by Bigg Red (Palin/Hunter 2012 -- Bolton for Secretary of State)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 8 | View Replies]

To: neverdem
That's amazing, thank you for the posting.

Sometimes I try to visualize my brain at the moment that I first developed multiple sclerosis, and I wonder what happened to cause it. This helps. Thanks again.
10 posted on 10/17/2009 7:57:47 AM PDT by Sweet_Sunflower29 (Caeli enarrant gloriam Dei)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

Disclaimer: Opinions posted on Free Republic are those of the individual posters and do not necessarily represent the opinion of Free Republic or its management. All materials posted herein are protected by copyright law and the exemption for fair use of copyrighted works.

Free Republic
Browse · Search
Topics · Post Article

FreeRepublic, LLC, PO BOX 9771, FRESNO, CA 93794 is powered by software copyright 2000-2008 John Robinson