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Cal State Fullerton Teaches Evolution, ID and Creationism (Senior Seminar on Evolution and Creation)
Cal State Fullerton Website ^

Posted on 05/04/2006 8:53:16 PM PDT by SirLinksalot



Liberal Studies 487: Senior Seminar on Evolution and Creation  Spring 2006
James R. Hofmann Professor of Liberal Studies
California State University Fullerton  H223-E   714-278-7049    (webmaster)        

(CV )

Spring 2006 Syllabus         Spring 2006 Schedule

Philosophy/Liberal Studies 333: Evolution and Creation   Spring 2006
Craig Nelson,  Liberal Studies & Department of Comparative Religion

California State University Fullerton    Short Bio      714-278-2442
Spring 2006 Syllabus & Schedule 


Liberal Studies 487: Senior Seminar on Evolution and Creation   Spring 2007
Bruce H. Weber         (Short CV )                     ( Long CV )

Spring Semesters:  Professor of Biochemistry,     California State University Fullerton  

MH 504A  714-278-3885

Fall Semesters:   Robert H. Woodworth Professor of Science and Natural Philosophy
Bennington College, Bennington Vermont  802-440-4470


     Evolution and Creation Table of Contents
                                                       [Click on any topic to go there.]
1.    Introduction
2.    General References on the Relationship of  Religion and  Theology to Science

3.    General References for Philosophy of Science
4.    Genesis
5.    General References for Evolutionary Theory
6.    Evolution as Fact and Theory
7.     Introduction to Evolutionary Theory

8.     Natural Selection
                8.1  Natural Selection and Speciation
                8.2  Darwin's Finches
                8.3  Peppered Moths

                8.4  Colin Patterson
9.     Genetics and Mutation
                9.5  HOX Genes
10.   The Fossil Record

               10.1  General References on Fossils
               10.2  The Vertebrate Sequence
               10.3  Reptiles to Birds: Archaeopteryx and Longisquama
               10.4  Fish to Amphibian

               10.5  Dinosaur Fossils
               10.6 Polystrate Fossils
               10.7 Whale Fossils
11.   Punctuated Equilibrium

           11.11 The Cambrian Explosion
12.     Anatomy and Physiology
              12.1 The Giant Panda
              12.2. The human eye
13.     Molecular Evidence

14.     Evolutionary Developmental Biology
                14.2. Ernst Haeckel
15.     Biochemical Complexity
            15.5 Michael Behe
16.     Biogeography

17.     Origin of Life, Information and Complexity
                    Karl Woese
18.     Stephen Jay Gould and Richard Dawkins
19.     Legal and Educational Issues

20.     Intelligent Design
          20.6 Jonathan Wells
          20.7 William Dembski
21.     General References for Geology and Radiometric Dating
22.     General References for Young Earth Creationism

23.     Young Earth Creationist Arguments for a Young Earth
24.     Young Earth Creationist Arguments for the Coexistence of Humans and Dinosaurs
25.     The Noachian Flood
26.     Progressive (Old Earth) Creationism
27.     Theistic Evolution

                27.1    Catholicism
                27.2    Other Theistic Evolutionists
28.     Sociobiology
29.     Thermodynamics

30.     Human Evolution
31.     Evolution and Creation in the Popular Press

1a.    Click Here  for, a comprehensive evolutionary site.

         Click Here for the discussion forum.
         Click Here for TrueOrigin, a creationist response to

Click Here for The Panda's Thumb, a blog for discussion of evolution and various antievolution movements.

Click Here for an Index to Creationist Claims edited by Mark Isaak.

         Some primary texts and authors often or sometimes used for the course:
1.1   Darwin on Trial, by Phillip Johnson

1.1a    Click Here for Johnson's home page.
1.1b    Click here for the home page of Stephen Jones which includes links to most of Johnson's publications.
1.1c    Click Here  for a 1999 intervew with Johnson hosted by Communique.

1.1d    Click Here  for a video study guide to a debate between Johnson and William Provine provided by the Access Research Network.
1.1e Click Here  for a November 2000 interview of Johnson for Touchstone: A Journal of Mere Christianity.
1.1f    Click Here  for an August 14, 2000 interview with Phillip Johnson about his book The Wedge of Truth.

           1.1fa Click Here  for a review of The Wedge of Truth by Edward Oakes.
           1.1fb Click Here  for reaction to this review and response from Oakes.

Click Here for Johnson's 1989 "Position Paper on Darwinism".

1.2    Finding Darwin's God: A Scientist's Search for Common Ground Between God and Evolution, by
         Kenneth Miller

1.2a    Click Here for Miller's home page.

1.2b    Click Here  for a NOVA sponsored debate between Johnson and Miller.
1.2c    Click Here  for Miller's paper "Finding Darwin's God: The New Battle over Evolution".
1.2d    Click Here  for "Finding Darwin's God", adapted from Miller's book.

1.2e    Click Here for a December 2004 interview.

1.3  Science on Trial: The Case for Evolution, by Douglas Futuyma

Click Here  for brief information on Futuyma.
1.3b    Click Here  for Futuyma's lecture "Evolution, Science and Society".

1.4  Refuting Evolution & Refuting Evolution2 by Jonathan Sarfati 

Click Here for the PBS series on Evolution and
                         Click Here for the Scientific American article by John Rennie. Sarfati's book is a response to this production and article.
1.4a     Click Here  for Sarfati's homepage and links to many of his publications.
1.4b     Click Here  for Chapter 4 of Refuting Evolution: "Bird Evolution?".

1.4c     Click Here  for discussion of Sarfati's concept of "kinds" by David Thomas.
1.4d    Click Here for "Rejoinder to Sarfati and Humphreys's Responses"  by Perry G. Phillips of the Interdisciplinary Biblical Research Institute.


Click Here for information on Evolution vs. Creationism: An Introduction by Eugenie C. Scott.

Click Here for a review by John Burgeson.

1.6     Click Here  for an overview developed by the Ontario Consultants on Religious Tolerance: "The Theory of Evolution and Creation Science".

 Click Here for the American Scientific Affiliation Commission on Creation.


2.1     Click Here  for The American Scientific Affiliation. The Affiliation is described as "a fellowship of  men and women of science and disciplines

                            that relate to science who share a common fidelity to the Word of God and a commitment to integrity in the practice of science."
                            Click Here for the ASA Creation/Evolution Page.
2.2    Click here   for "Truth and Religion Reconsidered: An Analytic Approach", by Andrzej Bronk.
2.3    Click Here  for "The Relation of Science, Factual Statements and the Doctrine of Biblical Inerrancy", by Bernard Ramm, former Professor of Christian

                           Theology at the American Baptist Seminary of the West.
2.4    Click Here  for "Can Science Prove that God Does Not Exist?" by Theodore Schick, Jr.
2.5    Click Here  for "Has Science Found God?" by Victor J. Stenger.
2.6    Click Here  for "Rational Methodology for Identifying Supernatural Power and Purpose" by  Steve Hinrichs .

2.7     Click Here  for a course developed by Deborah and Loren Haarsma: "Science and Spirituality: Is Harmony Possible?"
           2.7a    Click Here  for "Are Science and Religion at War?".
           2.7b    Click Here  for "Is the Creator Infinitely Lazy?".

           2.7c    Click Here  for "If Science is Right, is Genesis Wrong?".
           2.7d    Click Here  for "Can Creation and Evolution Both be Right?".
           2.7e    Click Here  for "If Evolution is Messy, can Creation be Good?".

2.8      Click Here  for "Beyond War and Peace: A Reappraisal of the Encounter between Christianity and Science", David Lindberg and Ronald Numbers.
2.9      Click Here  for "Bishop Barnes, Science and Religion" by Steve Bishop.
2.10    Click Here  for "Important Primary Texts on Religion and Science in America" by   Edward B. Davis .

2.11    Click Here for Myths, Models and Paradigms: A Comparative Study in Science and Religion by  Ian Barbour (1976).

Click Here for "An Open Letter Concerning Religion and Science", distributed by the "Clergy Letter Project".
                                Click Here for a response from Rev. Mark H. Creech, executive director of the Christian Action League of North Carolina, Inc.

2.13    Click Here for "Understanding American Evangelicals", a lecture by Mark A. Noll, McManis Professor of Christian Thought at Wheaton College.
2.14    Click Here for some sample articles from Science and Christian Belief.


3.1                Karl Popper
3.1a    Click Here  for excerpts from "Science as Falsification" by Karl Popper.
3.1b    For some comments on Johnson's references to Karl Popper, click here to see a review of Darwin on Trial by Gert Korthof.

3.1c       Click Here  for a discussion of Popper's demarcation criterion, "The Separation of Science From Non-Science and Pseudo-Science and the
                                General Problem of Rationality and Openness to Argument: A Critical Exposition" by Ray Scott Percival.

3.1d    Click Here  for essays on Popper by Rafe Champion.


Thomas Kuhn
    3.2a       Click Here  for a short discussion of Thomas Kuhn by Frank Pajares of Emory University.
    3.2b       Click Here  for an outline of Kuhn's The Structure of Scientific Revolutions composed by Frank Pajares.

                  Click Here for a short synopsis of this outline.
    3.2c       Click Here  for "Thomas Kuhn: Paradigms Die Hard" by Imran Javaid.
    3.2d       Click Here for "Popper and Kuhn on the Evolution of Science" by Pat Duffy Hutcheon.

3.6       Click Here  for "Evolution and Philosophy - An Introduction" by

John Wilkins.
3.7       Click Here  for "Methodological Naturalism?" by Alvin Plantinga.
3.8       Click Here  for "Methodological Naturalism ? Part 2" by Alvin Plantinga
3.9       Click Here  for "Naturalism is an Essential Part of Science and Critical Inquiry", by Steven D. Schafersman.

3.10     Click Here  for "Science as Successful Prediction" by Imre Lakatos.


4.1a    A side-by-side presentation of the King James Bible and the Revised StandardBible is available from  The Electronic Text Center at the University of Virginia.
4.1b   Click here for an annotated version of the New American Bible.

4.1c    Click here for an annotated version of the New English Translation Bible.
4.1d    For another annotated version of the Genesis text, see the Online Bible .

           4.2.Interpretations of Genesis

4.2a    Click Here  for "The Literary History of the Pentateuch (Documentary Hypothesis)", by John Barton.
4.2b    Click Here  for a diagramatic representation of the documentary hypothesis and an application to Noah's flood.
4.2c    Professor Barry Bandstra at  Hope College teaches a course using the documentary hypothesis called  Reading the Old Testament .

4.2d    Click Here  for Bandstra's color-coded combined Yahwist-Priestly Flood text.
4.2e    Saint Augustine offers an interesting early example of how Genesis was interpreted at the end of the fourth century. See John McCarthy's
                                                     The Days of   Creation According to St. Augustine .
4.2f    For Thomas Aquinas's influential thirteenth century commentary on Genesis, see John McCarthy's

The First Four Days According to St. Thomas .
4.2g    Click Here for Aquinas' commentary on the "days" of creation in his Summa Theologica.
4.2h    Click Here  for "Because it had not Rained", a 1958 argument for the "framework" interpretation by Meredith Kline.
4.2i     Click Here  for "The First Four Days of Genesis in Concordist Theory and the Biblical Context", by Paul Seely.

4.2j     Click Here  for "Genesis Reconsidered" by Armin Held and Peter Ruest.
4.2k    Click Here for "Why I

Believe Genesis is Historically Accurate", by  Glenn Morton.

4.2L    Click Here for "The Antiquity and the Unity of the Human Race Revisited", by Davis A. Young
4.2m   Click Here for "Dinosaur Religion: On Interpreting and Misinterpreting the Creation Texts", by Conrad Hyers.

Click Here  for  "Does the Bible Teach a Spherical Earth?", by Robert J. Schneider.

                                    4.3       "The Fundamentals" and "Fundamentalism"
4.3a    See Jerry Bergman's  A Brief History of the Modern American Creation Movement .

4.3b    Although the term "fundamentalism" is used in a variety of manners today, the term has its origin in a pamphlet series entitled  The Fundamentals: A Testimony to the Truth and published between 1910 and 1915.
Especially relevant for the discussion of evolution and creation are the following two essays from The Fundamentals:
4.3c    Professor George Frederick Wright, DD, LLD:  The Mosaic Authorship of the Pentateuch
4.3d    Rev. Dyson Hague, M.A.:  The Doctrinal Value of the First Chapters of Genesis

4.3e    Stephen Jones at the University of Virginia has posted a good summary of the history of fundamentalism together with links to some primary modern institutions.

                                                4.4    Biblical Literalism
4.4a   Click Here for "The Bible Is a Textbook of Science", a position statement by Henry Morris of the  Institute for Creation Research.

4.4b   Click Here  for "Death Before Sin?", an Institute for Creation Research essay that interprets Genesis to say that death began only after the sin of Adam and Eve.
4.4c   Click Here  for "Theological Analysis of Selected Recent Creationist Assertions Concerning the Occurrence of Death before Sin", by Gary Emberger.

Click Here for "Disease and Dying in the Fossil Record: Implications for Christian Theology" by Clarence Menninga.                                          
4.4e   Click Here for "Creature Mortality: From Creation or the Fall?", by John Munday.
4.4f    Click Here  for "The Days Of Creation", a Special Committee Report of the Reformed Church in the United States, adopted by the 253rd Synod May 17-20, 1999.

4.4g     Click Here  for the 2000 Report of the Creation Study Committee by the Presbyterian Church in America .
4.4h     Click Here for "Biblical Literalism: Constricting the Cosmic Dance", by Conrad Hyers.

4.4i    Click Here for the Westminster Theological Seminary and the Days of Creation.
4.4j      Click Here for "A young Earth - it's not the issue!", by Ken Ham.
4.4k     Click Here for "The Meaning of the Chronogenealogies of Genesis 5 and 11", by Gerhard F. Hasel.



5.1 Charles Darwin
    5.1a    Click Here  for an electronic version of Charles Darwin's On the Origin of Species, with a search option.

    5.1b    Click Here for an electronic version of Darwin's 1871 Descent of Man.
    5.1c    Click Here for Darwin on Line.

5.2    Click Here  for a website dedicated to Alfred Russell Wallace.

5.3    Click Here  for a website dedicated to Thomas H. Huxley.

5.4  Some useful sources for the study of evolution have been compiled by CSUF Professor Douglas Eernisse  for his course    Biology 404: Evolution :

        5.4a (with Cowen's links for paleontology in the news)

5.5    Click Here for the contents for the journal Evolution.

5.6    To look at the present state of evolutionary theoreticians' reconstruction of the history of life, see  The Tree of Life .
5.7    Center for the Study of Evolution and the Origin of Life at UCLA.
5.8     SEE: Semiosis, Evolution, Energy - a virtual research project exploring the transformation of energy within evolutionary semiotic or codal organization.

5.7    Click Here  for the American Association for the Advancement of Science Evolution Resources site.
5.8    Click Here for Understanding Evolution: An Evolution website for Teachers.

5.9    Click Here for a collection of on-line peer-reviewed articles on various aspects of evolutionary biology.

6. Evolution as Fact and Theory

6.1    Click Here for Stephen J. Gould, "Evolution as Fact and Theory", May 1981.
           6.1a     Click Here  for an abridged version.


"Well evolution is a theory. It is also a fact. And facts and theories are different things, not rungs in a hierarchy of increasing certainty. Facts are the world's data. Theories are structures of ideas that explain and interpret facts. Facts don't go away when scientists debate rival theories to explain them. Einstein's theory of gravitation replaced Newton's in this century, but apples didn't suspend themselves in mid-air, pending the outcome. And humans evolved from ape-like ancestors whether they did so by Darwin's proposed mechanism or by some other yet to be discovered.
Moreover, "fact" doesn't mean "absolute certainty"; there ain't no such animal in an exciting and complex world. The final proofs of logic and mathematics flow deductively from stated premises and achieve certainty only because they are NOT about the empirical world. Evolutionists make no claim for perpetual truth, though creationists often do (and then attack us falsely for a style of argument that they themselves favour). In science 'fact' can only mean 'confirmed to such a degree that it would be perverse to withhold provisional consent'. I suppose that apples might start to rise tomorrow, but the possibility does not merit equal time in physics classrooms.
     Evolutionists have been very clear about this distinction of fact and theory from the very beginning, if only because we have always acknowledged how far we are from completely understanding the mechanisms (theory) by which evolution (fact) occurred. Darwin continually emphasized the difference between his two great and separate accomplishments: establishing the fact of evolution, and proposing a theory - natural selection - to explain the mechanism of evolution."

6.2    Click Here  for "Data, Theory, and Evolutionary Phenomena", by

Jim Hofmann.
6.3    Click Here  for "Hypotheses, Facts, and the Nature of Science", by Douglas Futuyma.
6.4    Click Here  for "Evolution is a Fact and a Theory" by Laurence Moran.
6.5    Click Here  for "The Meanings of Evolution" by Stephen C. Meyer and Michael Newton Keas of the Discovery Institute

6.6    Click Here  for "Should We Stop Criticizing the Doctrine of Common Ancestry?" by  Jonathan Wells  of the Discovery   Institute.
6.7    Click Here for an example from the popular press,  a CNN article on a School Board controversy in Shawnee Kansas.

6.8    Click Here for "The Fact of Evolution: Implications for Science Education", by James R. Hofmann & Bruce H. Weber.
6.9    Click Here  for Georgia Citizens for Integrity in Science Education  and

Click Here for their discussion of "fact" and "theory".
6.10    Click Here for "A Scientific Dissent From Darwinism", compiled by the Discovery Institute.


7.1    For a survey article by a famous evolutionary theorist, Stephen Jay Gould, see The Evolution of Life on Earth .
7.2    Click Here for

 "Understanding Evolution".
7.3    Click Here for the PBS series on Evolution.
7.4    Click Here for Educational Resources developed by the Evolution and the Nature of Science Institutes.

Click Here for some sample definitions of natural selection.

8.1    Natural Selection and Speciation

8.1a    Speciation via Natural Selection
8.1b    Some More Speciation via Natural Selection
8.1c    Click Here  for "Nonrandom mating in drosophila melanogaster laboratory populations derived from closely adjacent ecologically contrasting slopes at Evolution Canyon by Abraham Korol et al.
8.1d    Click Here  for "Natural selection and speciation" by Christopher Schneider.

8.1e    Click Here for "An Interventionist Theory of Natural Selection and Biological Change within Limits" by Leonard Brand and L. James Gibson.
8.1f     Click Here  for a young-earth creationist analysis of "kinds": "Baraminology - Classification of Created Organisms", by Wayne Frair; archived from the CRS Quarterly by the  Creation Research Society .

8.1g    Click Here for "How the Horned Lizard Got Its Horns", by K.V. Young, E.D. Brodie Jr., and E.D. Brodie III. Click Here for additional material.

Click Here for commentary by S. J. Agosta and A.E. Dunham.
                            8.1gb    Click Here for a response by Young, Brodie and Brodie.

Click Here for additional commentary.

8.2 Darwin's Finches
8.2a    For an application of a young-earth creationist perspective on the biological concept of species to Darwin's finches see Kenneth Cumming's article
           Reticulate Evolution . Phillip Johnson discusses this case on page 25 of Darwin on Trial.
8.2b    Click Here  for "Darwin's Finches: Evidence supporting rapid post-Flood adaptation", by Carl Wieland of Answers in Genesis.

8.2c    Click Here for "Phylogeny of Darwin's finches as revealed by mtDNA sequences" by Akie Sato, Colm O'hUigin, Felipe Figueroa, Peter R. Grant, B. Rosemary
                                                                                                                                                                                         Grant, Herbert Tichy, and Jan Klein.

8.2d    Click Here  for "Genetics and the origin of bird species" by Peter R. Grant and B. Rosemary Grant.

8.2e    Click Here  for the Galapagos finch page of   Robert Rothman .

8.3 Peppered Moths
An interesting case of the role of natural selection in evolutionary change is provided by melanism in peppered moths. Johnson mentions this case on pages 26 and 176-177 of Darwin on Trial.
8.3a   Click Here for a summary by Bruce Grant, "Fine Tuning the Peppered Moth Paradign".

                              8.3aa    Click Here for Bruce Grant's home page and a link to his review of Judith Hooper's Of Moths and Men.
8.3b   Click Here for "Goodbye, peppered moths", by young earth creationist Carl Wieland.

8.3c   Click Here  For "Second Thoughts about Peppered Moths", by  Jonathan Wells.
                                      Click Here  for other articles on evolution by Wells, and  Click Here  for other articles by Wells.

8.3d   Click Here  for a review of Wells' book, Icons of Evolution, by  David UsseryClick Here for analysis by Massimo Pigliucci

          Click Here  for a detailed critique "Icon of Obfuscation" by Nic Tamzek, and  Click Here  for a critique of Wells by Alan Gishlick for the National
                            Center of Science Education.
8.3e   Click Here  for Kenneth Miller's comments on peppered moths.

8.3f    Click Here for "Moonshine: Why the Peppered Moth Remains An Icon of Evolution", by Matt Young.
8.3g   Click Here for the home page of Michael Majerus, which includes links to his 2004 Darwin Lecture, "Peppered Moth: Decline of a Darwinian

                              Disciple", delivered to the British Humanist Society on 12 February 2004.

8.4 Colin Patterson
8.4a    On page 10 of Darwin on Trial, Johnson cites an oft-quoted statement by Colin Patterson. Click Here for correspondence from Patterson concerning this passage in a report by Lionel Theunissen.
8.4b     Click Here  for an alternative account by  Paul Nelson.

8.4c     Click Here  for a 1981 speech by Patterson transcribed by Stephen Jones. 

8.5     Click here for information on the Coelacanth, one of the most famous of the "living fossils" discussed by Johnson on page 29.


9.1     Click Here  for DNA From The Beginning: an animated primer on the basics of DNA, genes and heredity.
        9.1a    Click Here for a review of DNA structure and protein synthesis.

        9.1b    Click Here for a summary of various types of mutation.
        9.1c    Click Here for a summary of an interesting experiment by  Joshua Lederberg. This is an example of a bacteria mutation that resulted in

                                      adaptive change in a specific environment.
9.2    Click here for a discussion of the distinction between genetic "microevolution" and larger scale "macroevolution".

9.3   Debate over the role of random mutations in adaptive change.
    9.3a   Click Here  for "The Evolution of Improved Fitness by random mutation plus selection" by Edward Max. This includes a link to correspondence

                                 with a critic, Lee Spetner.
    9.3b   Click Here  for Spetner's update of his critique: "A Scientific Critique of Evolution".
    9.3c   Click Here for  "Spetner and Biological Information" by Ian Musgrave.

    9.3d   Click Here  for "Evolutionary Increases in Information" by  Wesley Elsberry.
    9.3e   Click Here  for a report on the role of chance in the history of amino acid sequences.
    9.3f    Click Here  for "Evolution and Information: The Nylon Bug", by Dave Thomas.

                                    9.3fa    Click Here for further discussion of this case.
    9.3g     Click Here for "Evolution of Biological Information" by Tom Schneider.
    9.3h     Click Here  for "Examples of Beneficial Mutations and Natural Selection" by Robert Williams.

    9.3i      Click Here  for a discussion of "delta 32", a mutation studied by Stephen O'Brien.
    9.3j      Click Here  for an article by O'Brien on the relevance of "delta 32" to research on HIV and AIDS.
    9.3k     Click Here for "Apolipoprotein AI Mutations and Information" by Ian Musgrave and Steven Pirie-Shepherd.

    9.3L     Click Here for "Information Theory and Creationism", by Ian Musgrave, Rich Baldwin, and others.
    Click Here for the abstract of "Myosin gene mutation correlates with anatomical changes in human lineage" (2004)

                                    9.3ma    Click here for more information on myosin.
    Click Here for pdf files (2004).
    9.3m    Click Here 

"Evolution and Chance" by John Wilkins and Chance from a Theistic Perspective by Loren Haarsma.

Click Here for "Evolution by Accident" by Laurence A. Moran.

                                                  9.4    Mutation and the Evolution of Vision
9.4a  On a computer simulation of the evolution of vision, see Richard Dawkins' Where d'you get those peepers .

9.4b  For a controversial genetic argument that the eye has only evolved once, see Eye-opening Gene by John Travis.

9.5d    Click Here  for "Establishment of Spatial Patterns of Gene Expression During Early Vertebrate Development: Hox Genes" by Derrick Rancourt.
9.5e    Click Here  for "Interpreting the Homeobox: Metaphors of Gene Action and Activation in Development and Evolution" by Jason Scot Robert

9.5f     Click Here  for "Hox (homeobox) Genes - Evolution's Saviour?" by Don Batten of Answers in Genesis.
9.5g    Click Here  for "It's not just the genes, it's the links between them", by P.Z. Myers.

Click Here  for "Natural Genetic Engineering -- the Toolbox for Evolution: Prokaryotes", by Dr. Jim Shapiro.

                                                            9.6    Technical Articles
9.6a    Click here  or

Click Here for an interesting experiment by  Joshua Lederberg  discussed by Futuyma on page 137 of Science on Trial. This is an example of a bacteria mutation that was adaptive in a specific environment. Click Here for a summary of this experiment.
9.6b    Click Here  for "Evolution of an Escherichia coli

Protein with Increased Resistance to Oxidative Stress" by E.C.C. Lin et al. This case is discussed
                              by Miller on pages 105-107 of Finding Darwin's God.
9.6c    Click Here   for a collection of articles on horizontal gene transfer

by Michael Syvanen.
9.6d    Click Here   for "Algorithms for computing parsimonious evolutionary scenarios for genome evolution, the last universal common ancestor and
                               dominance of horizontal gene transfer in the evolution of prokaryotes" by Boris G. Mirkin et al.
9.7      Click Here  for a report on gene swapping among bacteria.

                                                            9.8    The Genetic Code
9.8a   Click Here  for an introduction to the research of Laura Landweber.
9.8b   Click Here  for "Do Non-standard Genetic Codes Present a Challenge to Evolutionary Theories?", by R. Joel Duff.

9.8c   Click Here  for "The Universal Genetic Code Seen from an ID Perspective", by Mike Gene.
9.8d   Click Here  for the PBS production "Cracking the Code of Life".


10.1  General References on Fossils and the Fossil Record
10.1a    Click Here for a general introduction to fossils: "Fossils - Windows to the past".
10.1b    Click Here  for "Fossilization" by Chris Nedin.
10.1c    The University of California Museum of Paleontology maintains a valuable online collection called Paleontology Without Walls

Don Lindsay  has a nicely illustrated set of speciation examples he calls  Smooth Change in the Fossil Record .
                10.1da    Click Here 

OR HERE   for further discussion of  Foraminifera.
                10.1db    Click Here for The Micropaleontological Society.
                10.1dc    Click Here for "Microfossil Statigraphy Presents Problems for the Flood" by Glenn Morton.

                10.1dd    Click Here for Dan Georgescu's page on foraminifera.

10.1e    Kathleen Hunt compiled a long list for the talkorigins archive: Transitional Fossils .
10.1f    Click Here  for Paleo Links - 2002, maintained by James Mahaffy of Dordt College.

10.1g    Click Here  for "Fossils" compiled by computer scientist  Don Lindsay.
10.1h    Click Here  for information on how fossils are dated.
10.1i     Click Here  for the

Geoscience Research Institute: a research and communication institute serving the Seventh-day Adventist church.
10.1j     Click Here  for an on-line introduction to earth history.
10.1k    Click Here  for "Zeno's Paradox and the Creationist Demand for Transitional Forms" by  Glenn Morton .

10.1L    Click Here for "Estimation at Age of Death" by Nancy Lovell.
10.1m   Click Here  for "Sex Determination" by Nancy Lovell.

10.1n    Click Here  for "What Are Conodonts?" by Jim Davison.

Click Here for Palaeontologia Electronica.
10.1p    Click Here for discussion of trace fossils.
10.1q    Click Here for a

1815-1817 geologic map prepared by William Smith and two accompanying publications: "WILLIAM "STRATA" SMITH ON THE WEB", produced by Cecil J. Schneer, Professor Emeritus of Geology and the History of Science at the University of New Hampshire.
10.1r    Click Here    for some examples of index fossils.

Click Here for "Taxonomy, Transitional Forms, and the Fossil Record", by Keith B. Miller.

10.2The Vertebrate Sequence

10.2a    A good place to start is a 1994 compilation by Kathleen Hunt on Transitional Fossils

10.3 Reptiles to Birds: Archaeopteryx and Longisquama
10.3a    Although Johnson is ambivalent about the import of Archaeopteryx for the evolution of birds from reptiles, other creationists, such as Duane Gish, take more extreme exception to evolutionary arguments. Click Here  for "Archaeopteryx: Answering the Challenge of the Fossil Record", a response to Gish by Chris Nedin.

10.3b   Click Here  for "All About Archaeopteryx" by Chris Nedin.
10.3c   Click Here for The Archaeopteryx Pages .
10.3d   Click Here  for links on Archaeopteryx, ancient birds and dinosaur-bird relationships.

10.3e   Click Here for "Half-evolved feathers and Christian Accountability" by Glenn Morton .
10.3f    Click Here  for a very good Archaeopteryx page by daily-tangents.
10.3g    Click Here  for "The skeletal taphonomy of Archaeopteryx" maintained by the University of Bristol Earth Sciences.

10.3h Longisquama insignis
10.3ha   Click Here for "Wings on Hind Legs", with links to photos of fossils of Longisquama insignis, a Triassic thecodont reptile with feather-like scales.
              Click Here

for another description of Langisquama.
10.3hb   Click Here for a report on the claim that Longisquama had feathers.
10.3hc   Click here for a proposed revision of bird geneology in light of Longisquama.
10.3hd   Click Here for a September 2000 update on Longisquama.

10.3i Other fossils with feathers and "feathered dinosaurs".
10.3ia    Dinosaur-bird link smashed in fossil flap.
10.3ib    Click Here for another article on Archaeoraptor.

10.3ic    Click Here for "Dinos of a Feather: Evidence Mounts of Feathered Lizards".
10.3id    Click Here  for a 7 December, 2000 report on Protopteryx: "Ancient Chinese 'Bird' Used Feathers to Fly".
10.3ie    Click Here  for an April 2001 report by Mark Norell on a new dinosaur specimen unearthed in the Liaoning Province of the China that is said to demonstrate "exceptional preservation of integumentary structures akin to primitive feathers."

                   Click Here  for a press release from the American Museum of Natural History.
                   Click Here  for an ABC News report.
                   Click Here  for a CNN report.
10.3if     Click Here  for Yale University's Peabody Museum Exhibit: "China's Feathered Dinosaurs".

10.3ig    Click Here  for "Are Birds Really Dinosaurs?", by  John R. Hutchinson.
10.3ih    Click Here  for Chapter 4 of Sarfati's Refuting Evolution: "Bird Evolution?".
10.3ii     Click Here  for a report on recent evolutionary developmental biological research into the origin of feathers.

10.3ij     Click Here for "Feathers, scutes, and the origin of birds", by Jeff Poling.
10.3j      Click Here for the homepage of bambiraptor.

10.3k     Click Here for "Development of teeth in chick embryos after mouse neural crest transplantations", by Thimios A. Mitsiadis, Yvonnick Chéraud , Paul
                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Sharpe and Josiane Fontaine-Pérus.

10.4 Fish to Amphibian
10.4a    Click Here to see a new fossil find relevant to the relationship of fish to amphibians.

10.4b    Click Here  for "Fish to Amphibian Transition" by Glenn Morton .
10.4c    Click Here  for an interview with Daeschler and Shubin: "How Fish Came Ashore". Their discovery is
                                discussed by Miller on page 125.

10.4d    Click Here  for a 2/28/01 news report on a fossil of an early lobe-finned fish.
10.4e    Click Here  for articles on Acanthostega gunnari compiled by Todd Greene .
10.4f     Click Herefor a discussion of  Acanthostega gunnari by

Jennifer Clack.
10.4g    Click Here for a discussion of Ichthyostega  by  Jennifer Clack.
10.4h    Click Here  for discussion of genetic research on digit and limb articulation.

10.4i     Click Here   "Regulation of number and size of digits by posterior Hox genes: A dose-dependent mechanism with potential evolutionary implications" by József

10.4k    Click Here  just for fun, to see The Mudskipper, a little fish that can hop around on mud. (cute)

10.4L    Click Here for ""Discovery of a Transitional in Romer's Gap", by Alec MacAndrew, on Pederpes finneyae.
10.4m   Click Here for "Demorphing the Tetrapodomorpha".

10.4n    Click Here for information on the Coelacanth, one of the most famous of the "living fossils".

10.5 Dinosaur Fossils
10.5a    Click Here  for "The Therapsid-Mammal Transitional Series" by Lenny Flank.

10.5b    Click Here  for "What really killed T. Rex?", a  report on several explanations of dinosaur extinction.
10.5c    Click Here  for The Pterosaur Home Page.
10.5d    Click Here  for photographs and discussion of "A king-sized theropod coprolite found in Saskatchewan" (discussed by Miller on page 62).

10.5e    Click Here  for an illustrated discussion of the fossilized heart of Thescelosaurus.
10.5f     Click Here for recent dinosaur discoveries by paleontologist Paul Sereno.
10.5g    Click Here  for "Heme Compounds in Dinosaur Trabecular Bone" by Mary Schweitzer et al.

10.5h    Click Here  for a young-earth creationist interpretation of Schweitzer's research by Carl Wieland.
10.5i     Click Here  for "Dino-blood and the Young Earth", by Gary S. Hurd
10.5j     Click Here  for information on Alaskan dinosaur fossils.

10.5k    Click Here  for comments by Bob Bakker, a famous dinosaur fossil hunter and Pentacostal preacher.
10.5L    Click Here for "The Proof is in the Poop!", by Greg Neyman for Answers in Creation.


Polystrate Fossils
10.6a   Click Here  for "'Polystrate' Tree Fossils" by Andrew MacRae.
10.6b   Click Here  for "Polystrate Fossils" by Don Lindsay.
10.6c   Click Here  for "What are Polystrate Fossils?" by John Morris of the

Institute for Creation Research.
10.6d   Click Here  for an American Scientific Affiliation conversation on polystrate fossils archived in 1997.
10.6e   Click Here  for "The Polystrate Trees and Coal Seams of Joggins Fossil Cliffs" by John Morris.
10.6f    Click Here  for "The Fossil Cliffs of Joggins" by Laing Ferguson.

10.6g    Click Here  for "The Joggins Fossil Cliffs", maintained by the Nova Scotia Museum.
10.6h    Click Here  for discussion of a polystrate whale fossil discovered near Lompoc, California.
10.6i    Click Here for a Wikipedia article on polystrate fossils.


Whale Fossils
10.7a    Click Here  for discussion of recent  Pakicetidae discoveries by  Hans Thewissen.
10.7b    Click Here  for "The Origin of Whales and the Power of Independent Evidence" by Raymond Sutera.

10.7c    Click Here  for "Hooking Leviathan by Its Past" by Stephen Jay Gould (1994).
10.7d    Click Here  for "Ambulocetus Has No Pelvis and is Largely Incomplete?".

                                10.7da    Click here for Ambulocetus fossils.
    Click Here for "CETACEAN EVOLUTION (WHALES, DOLPHINS, PORPOISES) by Edward T. Babinski

10.7f     Click Here for "A Whale Fantasy from National Geographic" by Harun Yahya.
10.7g    Click Here for

"A whale of a tale?", by Don Batten for Answers in Genesis.
10.7h    Click Here for "Another whale of a tale: creationists without a 'whimper'?", by Mark Looy for Answers in Genesis.
10.7i     Click Here for Chapter 5 from Refuting Evolution by Jonathan Sarfati: "Whale evolution?".

10.7j     Click Here for  a summary of recent developments in whale evolution research,  "The Steps of the Puzzle", by Carl Zimmer.
10.7k    Click Here for  "THE EARLY RADIATIONS OF CETACEA (MAMMALIA): Evolutionary Pattern and Developmental Correlations", by

                              J. G. M. Thewissen and E. M. Williams (2002).
10.7L    Click Here  for "French-Chadian funded scientists reveal origin of hippos", on anthracotheres.
10.7m    Click Here or

Click Here for "The position of Hippopotamidae within Cetartiodactyla", by Jean-Renaud Boisserie , Fabrice Lihoreau , and Michel Brunet (2005)

10.8    Snakes
10.8a    Click Here for Pachyrhachis problematicus, a fossil snake with legs.

10.8b    Click Here  for Haasiophis terrasanctus, another fossil snake with legs.


11.1    Zoologist Wesley Elsberry  has written a good summary of this topic called

Punctuated Equilibrium. He also maintains a page called  Evolution, Anti-Evolution, and SciCre .
11.2    Punctuated equilibrium was initially proposed by  Stephen Jay Gould and  Niles Eldredge in 1972. It was an objection to what Gould has called

           Darwinian Fundamentalism . The second half of this article is called  Evolution: The Pleasures of Pluralism .
11.3    Click Here  for "Snails Caught in Act of Evolution", a report on Gould's study of land snails as discussed by Miller on pages  118-121.
11.4    Eldredge proposed punctuated equilibria partly due to his study of trilobites. Click Here for A Guide to the Orders of Trilobites, maintained by

           Sam Gon III, and  Click Here for his gallery of Phacopida images, an order of trilobites particularly important in Eldredge's research.
11.5    Paleontologist Donald Prothero wrote an article for the Skeptic Society entitled  Punctuated Equilibrium at Twenty: A Paleontological Perspective .

11.6    Although rather abstract by some standards, there is also a "Systems Approach" to punctuated equilibrium, for example, the ideas of F. Heylighen in
           his article Punctuated Equilibrium .
11.7    For rapid evolution of bacteria that has been interpreted as support for punctuated equilibrium, see  Score One for Punk Eek .

11.8    For a young earth catastrophist account of punctuated equilibrium, see PUNC EQ CREATION STYLE by  Kurt Wise .
11.9    There is a wide variety of creationist views about speciation. In an article for Creation Ex Nihilo, young earth creationist Carl Wieland argues that

            relatively rapid speciation is to be expected from a creationist perspective:  Speciation Conference Brings Good News for Creationists .

11.11a    Click Here for "Phylum Level Evolution" by Glenn Morton .

11.11b    Click Here  for "When Life Exploded", a 1995 Time cover story on the Cambrian explosion by J. Madeleine Nash.
11.11c    Click Here  for The Cambrian Period, maintained by the UC Berkeley Museum of Paleontology.
11.11d    Click Here  for Burgess Shale fossils, maintained by  Andrew MacRae  of the University of Calgary.

11.11e    Click Here   for an introduction to pre-Cambrian animals, "Learning About Vendian Animals', maintained by the UC Berkeley Museum of
11.11f    Click Here for a computer simulation of the Cambrian explosion by Glenn Morton .

11.11g    Click Here  for "A Review of The Evidence For Trilobite Predecessors in the Fossil Record" by Robert B. MacNaughton.
11.11h    Click Here for Palaeobiology: "The Realms of Archaean Life" by Euan Nisbet.
        [Abstract: There is evidence of a variety of early organisms from the Archaean — some 4,000 to 2,500 million years ago. Now life at deep-sea hot springs

                                                  can provisionally be added to the list.]
11.11i      Click Here  for "Fossil Findings May Force Revisions in the History of Life", and Click Here for the technical article that is the basis of this report.
11.11j      Click Here  for "The Cambrian 'explosion': Slow-fuse or megatonnage?" by   Simon Conway Morris.

11.11k     Click Here  for "Molecular Evidence for Deep Precambrian Divergences Among Metazoan Phyla" by Gregory A. Wray et al.
11.11L    Click Here  for "The Universal Ancestor" by   Carl Woese.

11.11m    Click Here  for "Default taxonomy: Ernst Mayr's view of the microbial world by Carl Woese .
11.11n    Click Here  for "Protein Phylogenies and Signature Sequences: A Reappraisal of Evolutionary Relationships among Archaebacteria, Eubacteria,
                                     and Eukaryotes", by Radhey S. Gupta.
11.11o    Click Here  for "Determining divergence times with a protein clock: Update and reevaluation", by Da-Fei Feng, Glen Cho, and  Russell F. Doolittle

11.11p    Click Here  for 'Fun with geneology", by   W. Ford Doolittle .
11.11q    Click Here  for "The Root of the Universal Tree and the Origin of Eukaryotes Based on Elongation Factor Phylogeny", by Baldauf, Palmer and  W.

                                     Ford Doolittle .
11.11r    Click Here  for "The Rooting of the Universal Tree of Life is Not Reliable", by Herve Philippe and Patrick Forterre.
11.11s    Click Here  for "Is There a Phylogenetic Signal in Prokaryote Proteins?", by Sarah A. Teichmann and Graeme Mitchison.

    Click Here  for "Origin of the metazoan phyla: Molecular clocks confirm paleontological estimates", by Francisco J. Ayala et al.


                                                12.1. THE Giant Panda

12.1a    The Panda's Thumb , by Paul & Susan Morris
12.1b    Intelligent Design is not Optimal Design by William Dembski
12.1c    Click Here  for "Adaptations within the Bear Family: A Contribution to the Debate about the Limits of Variation", by David Tyler of  the

                                 Research Society
12.1d    Evidence for Jury-Rigged Design in Nature compiled by Chris Colby and Loren Petrich et al.

                                                        12.2 Human Vision
12.2a    On the "blind spot" in human vision, see

Eyes and the Argument from Design .
12.2b    For quotations by biologists Frank Zindler and George Williams on the design of the human eye,  click here .
12.2c    For a more detailed discussion, see  How Could an Eye Evolve? by  Don Lindsay .

12.2d    For an argument that the eye IS well designed, see  Why is the Retina Back-to-Front? .

12.3     Click Here  for "Anatomy and Evolution of the Woodpecker's Tongue", by Rusty Ryan.

 Click Here  for the bionet discussion site for molecular biology and evolution.

                                            13.1  Non-technical Articles

13.1a    For his analysis of the molecular data, Johnson relies heavily upon a book by Michael Denton: Evolution: A Theory in Crisis. Click Here for several analyses of Denton's book.
13.1b    Click Here  for a detailed critique of the Denton argument used by Johnson by zoologist  Wesley R. Elsberry: "Sequences and Common Descent".

13.1c    Click here for an argument by  Steve Hinrichs that redundant DNA sequences and amino acid sequencing offers compelling evidence for Common
13.1d    Click Here  for "Plagiarized Errors and Molecular Genetics" by Edward Max.

13.1e    Click Here  for "Different Species with the Same 'Junk DNA'", by Don Lindsay .
13.1f    Biochemist Terry Gray has some comments on DNA sequence data in his review of Darwin on Trial; see The Mistrial of Evolution .

13.1g    Click Here for a Kenneth Miller  review of the controversial textbook, Of Pandas and People, which includes a discussion of molecular data.
13.1h    Click Here  for "Comparison of the Human and Great Ape Chromosomes as Evidence for Common Ancestory", by Robert Williams.
13.1i     Click Here  for "Stasis Considered" by Michael Thomas, an argument against the view that the molecular evidence supports macroevolutionary

13.1j     Click Here  for "Pseudogenes: Are They Non-Functional?", by Pierre Jerlstrom for TrueOrigin.
13.1k    Click Here  for discussion of Sarfati's claim that "Human lysozyme is closer to chicken lysozyme than to that of any other mammal", Refuting

Evolution, p. 83.
13.1L     Click Here  for discussion of Kent Hovind's claim that human cytochrome c is closest to that of a sunflower.
13.1m    Click Here  for discussion of Walt Brown's claim about the cytochrome c of humans and a rattlesnake.
13.1n     Click Here for "SNPs as Windows on Evolution" by Ricki Lewis.

13.1O    Click Here  for "The Homo erectus Genes in Us" by Glenn Morton .
13.1p     Click Here  for an online debate over the molecular evidence between David Thomas and Walter Remine.
13.1q     Click Here  for "Invariant Cytochrome C Sequences Disprove Evolution?".

13.1r     Click Here  for "Equidistant Proteins Disprove Evolution?".

           13.2    The Molecular Clock
13.2a    Click here for a discussion of the neutral theory of molecular evolution.

13.2b    Click here for discussion of the neutralist-selectionist controversy.
13.2c    Click Here  for a review article: "The Molecular Clock: In analyzing sequence substitutions, more genes tell better evolutionary time".
13.2d   Click Here  for "A methodological bias toward overestimation of molecular evolutionary time scales" by Rodriguez-Trelles, Tarrio and 

                              Ayala  (11 June, 2002).

                                                   13.3 Technical Articles
13.3a    Click Here  for "The Molecular Anatomy of an Ancient Adaptive Event" by Anthony M. Dean.
13.3b    Click Here  for "Constructing primate phylogenies from ancient retrovirus sequences", by Welkin E. Johnson and John M. Coffin.

13.3c    Click Here  for "Structural analysis of the nurse shark (new) antigen receptor (NAR): Molecular convergence of NAR and unusual mammalian
                                 immunoglobins" by Roux et al. (discussed by Sarfati on page 83)
13.3d    Click here  for "Phylogenetic relationships among cetartiodactyls based on insertions of short and long interspersed elements: Hippopotamuses are
                               the closest extant relatives of whales", by Masato Nikaido et al.
13.3e    Click Here  for "An Irregular Bulge Common to a Group of BacterialRNases is an Important Determinant of Stability and Function in Barnase", by

                                 Douglas Axe, N. Foster and A. Fersht.
13.3f    Click Here  for "The Effect of High-frequency Random Mutagenesis on in Vitro Protein Evolution" by M. Zaccolo and E. Gherardi.
13.3g   Click Here  for "Extreme Functional Sensitivity to Conservative Amino Acid Changes on Enzyme Exteriors", by Douglas Axe.
13.3h   Click Here  for recent sequence data pertaining to the "out-of-Africa" thesis for human evolution.

13.3i    Click Here  for  "Testing a Biosynthetic Theory of the Genetic Code: Fact or Artifact?", by Terres Ronneberg et al.
13.3j    Click here for discussion of the research of molecular biologist  Carl Woese .
13.3k   Click Here  for "Integrated fossil and molecular data reconstruct bat echolocation" by Mark Springer et al.

13.3L   Click Here  for "Conflict Among Individual Mitochondrial Proteins in Resolving the Phylogeny of Eutherian Orders", by Ying Cao et al.
13.3m  Click Here  for "Complementary Advantageous Substitutions in the Evolution of an Antiviral RNase of Higher Primates", by Jianzhi Zhang and Helene
                                 F. Rosenberg.
13.3n    Click Here  for "Phylogenetic Classification and the Universal Tree", by W. Ford Doolittle.

13.3m   Click Here for "Molecular evidence for the common origin of snap-traps among carnivorous plants", by Kenneth M. Cameron, Kenneth J. Wurdack and Richard W. Jobson.


14.1 Click Here  for a special series of on-line articles on evolutionary developmental biology compiled by the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

14.2    Ernst Haeckel
    14.2a    Click Here for "Haeckel and the Vertebrate Archetype" by Scott Gilbert.
    14.2b    Click Here  for Kenneth Miller's comments on Haeckel's drawings.
    14.2c    For further discussion of the Ernst Haeckel illustrations, see Haeckel's Law .

    14.2d    Michael K. Richardson is a developmental biologist who has written on Haeckel's drawings.
Click Here for his recreation of Haeckel's embryo drawings using photographs of real specimens.
                                               Click Here for access to his other Haeckel Miscellanea.
    14.2e   Click Here  for "Haeckel's Embryos" by  Troy Britain.

    14.2f    Click Here  for "Piltdown Embryo" by Steve Rudd for  The Interactive Bible .
    14.2g   Click Here  for examples of embryological evidence of common descent compiled by Douglas Theobald.

    14.2h   Click Here for "Wells and Haeckel's Embryos: A Review of Chapter 5 of Icons of Evolution" by PZ Myers.
    14.2i    Click Here  for "Iconoclasts of Evolution: Haeckel, Behe, Wells & the Ontogeny of a Fraud", by Kurt Pickett, John Wenzel and Steven Rissing.

   14.2j    Click Here for "Haeckel's ABC of Evolution and Development", by Michael K. Richardson and Gerhard Keuck.

14.3    For information relevant to Johnson's comments on the role of developmental biology in evolutionary theory, see  ZYGOTE

, maintained by Scott Gilbert, especially the material he has compiled on evolution and developmental biology in relation to Chapter 23 of his textbook,  Developmental Biology . This includes discussion of Ernst Haeckel.
14.4    Click Here  for "Darwinism and Developmental Systems" by Paul E. Griffiths and Russell D. Gray.
14.5    Click Here   for an illustrated news release concerning recent research on "how insects lost their legs".

14.6    Click Here   for the technical article on insect legs by Lewis, DeCamillis and Bennett.
14.7    Click Here  for "The evolution of evo-devo biology" by Corey Goodman and Bridget Coughlin.

14.8    Click Here for "Development of teeth in chick embryos after mouse neural crest transplantations", by Thimios A. Mitsiadis, Yvonnick Chéraud , Paul Sharpe and Josiane Fontaine-Pérus.


15.1    Click Here  for "Origins of Structure in Globular Proteins" by Hue Chan and Ken Dill.
15.2    Click Here  for a response to Chan and Dill from intelligent design proponent Michael Behe.

15.3    Click Here  for "Polymer Principles and Protein folding" by Ken A. Dill.
15.4    Click Here for an interesting case of molecular evolution in the antifreeze protein genes of Antarctic fish.
15.5    Click Here   for "The descent of the antibody-based immune system by gradual evolution ", by Jan Klein

and Nikolas Nikolaidis.
            15.5a    Click Here  for commentary on immune system evolution by Carl Zimmer. (Dec 31, 2004)

15.5 Michael Behe
15.5a     Subsequent to the publication of Johnson's book,  Michael Behe published his 1996 book, Darwin's Black Box: the Biochemical Challenge to Evolution, in which he extended the biochemical arguments raised by Johnson. In 1996 Behe also posted a short summary of his views called

Molecular Machines: Experimental Support for the Design Inference . Click Here for a statement from the Department of Biological Sciences at Behe's Lehigh University. Click Here for comments by Jill E. Schneider, a colleague of Behe's at Lehigh University.
15.5b    There has been a great deal of critical reaction to Behe, much of it accessible from  Behe's Empty Box .

15.5c    Click Here  for a review by biochemist Bruce Weber written for Biology & Philosophy.
15.5d    Click Here  for a review by biochemist Terry Gray.

15.5e    Click Here for a critique of Behe by Keith Robison.
15.5f    Biochemist Russell F. Doolittle wrote a review called  A Delicate Balance with an emphasis on Behe's blood clotting example.

15.5g    Click Here for Behe's response to Doolittle, Miller, and Robison about blood clotting.
15.5h    Kenneth Miller's Review is written explicitly from the point of view of a theistic evolutionist.  Click Here  for Behe's response to Miller.

Click Here for a review by Niall Shanks and Karl Joplin that emphasizes redundant complexity and parallel functions.
15.5j    Click Here for "Behe's Irreducible Complexity"  by Philosopher Mike Thrush of Notre Dame.
15.5k   Click Here for a report on recent developments in the possible evolution of hemoglobin.
15.5l    Click Here  for a discussion of Behe's blood clotting example by George Acton.

15.5m  Click

Here  for some examples of biochemical exaptations relevant to Behe's argument.
15.5n   Click Here   for Behe's response to criticisms that he has not accurately described the scientific literature on the evolution of complex biochemical systems.
15.5o    Click Here  for Behe's "Philosophical Objections to Intelligent Design: Response to Critics".

15.5p    Click Here  for Behe's "A Mousetrap Defended: Response to Critics".
15.5q    Click Here for correspondence between Behe and some science journal editors.
15.5r    Click Here  for "Evolution of the Cytochrome c Oxidase Proton Pump" by Siegfried M. Musser and Sunney I. Chan.
15.5s    Click Here  for "The Puzzle of the Krebs Citric Acid Cycle: Assembling the Pieces of Chemically Feasible Reactions, and Opportunism in the Design

                               of Metabolic Pathways During Evolution" by Enrique Melendez-Hevia, Thomas Waddell and Marta Cascante.
15.5t    Click Here  for "Presence of A Vertebrate Fibrinogen-Like Sequence in an Echinoderm" by X. Xu and Russell Doolittle.
15.5u     Click Here  for a short interview with Behe by Carl Wieland of Answers in Genesis.
15.5v     Click Here  for "A Classification of Possible Routes of Darwinian Evolution" by Richard Thornhill and David Ussery.

15.5w     Click Here  for a response to the Thornhill and Ussery paper from the Access Research Network, a proponent of intelligent design.
15.5x     Click Here  for "A Biochemist's Response to 'The Biochemical Challenge to Evolution'", by David Ussery.
15.5y     Click Here  for a December 2000 chat with Michael Behe hosted by Massimo Pigliucci.

15.5z      Click Here for "The Flagellum Unspun: the Collapse of 'Irreducible Complexity'", by Kenneth Miller.
15.5za    Click Here for "Evolution of the Bacterial Flagellum" by Ian Musgrave.

15.5zb    Click Here for "Irreducible Complexity Demystified", by Pete Dunkelberg.
15.5zc    Click Here  for "Miracles and Molecules", by Douglas J. Futuyma.

Click Here for "Evolving Immunity: A Response to Chapter 6 of Darwin's Black Box", by Matt Inlay.


16.1 Click Here for a discussion of Zoogeographic Provinces.


Click Here  for Biodiversity on the Internet.


17.1    Click Here  for an interview with Stanley Miller: "From Primordial Soup to the Prebiotic Beach".
17.2    Click Here  for "Emergence of Life and Biological Selection from the Perspective of Complex System Dynamics", by  Bruce Weber.

17.3    Click Here  for Leslie Orgel's website on origin of life.
17.4    Click Here  for "Origin of Life Probability" by Glenn Morton .

17.5    The Santa Fe Institute is an active center for origin of life research.

        17.5a   Click Here for Stuart Kauffman, one of the most prominent researchers at the Santa Fe Institute.
        17.5b   Click Here  for "A quick introduction to the Algorithmic Chemistry project at the Santa Fe Institute".


  Click Here  for the homepage of Jack Corliss, another theorist who studies the origin of life using the self-organization of complex systems.
17.7      Click Here for the New England Complex Systems Institute.

Click Here  for Studies on the Origin of Life, maintained by the American Scientific Affiliation .
17.9      Click Here  for "Life as a Manisfestation of the Second Law of Thermodynamics" by Eric Schneider and  James Kay.

17.10    Click Here for "Self-replicating Enzymes? A critique of some current evolutionary origin-of-life models" by Jonathan Sarfati of Answers in Genesis.
17.12    Click Here  for "Atmospheric aerosols as prebiotic chemical reactors" by Christopher Dobson et al.
17.13    Click Here  for "Selective adsorption of L- and D- amino acids on calcite: Implications for biochemical homochirility" by Robert M. Hazen et al., May 8, 2001.

                                     17.13a Click Here  for a Science News report: "Rocks May Have Given a Hand to Life".
17.14    Click Here  for "Syntactic Autonomy: Or Why There is no Autonomy Without Symbols and how Self-Organizing Systems Might Evolve Them" by LUIS MATEUS

                                                                          17.15  Carl Woese
    17.15a   Click Here  for a report on recent research by  Carl Woese : "New Cellular evolution theory rejects single cell beginning". (17 June, 2002)

    17.15b   Click Here  for another report on Woese and other early life researchers: "Genetic Analysis Yields Estimations of a Primordial Commune."
    17.15c    Click Here  for Woese's article "On the Evolution of Cells". (25 June, 2002)
    17.15d    Click Here  for a report on the work of Woese and others by Brendan Maher.

    17.15e    Click Here for "Protein Phylogenies and Signature Sequences: A Reappraisal of Evolutionary Relationships among Archaebacteria, Eubacteria, and Eukaryotes", by Radhey S. Gupta.

17.16    Click Here  for "Comparative genomics and evolution of proteins involved in RNA metabolism" by Vivek Anantharaman, Eugene Koonin and L.

17.17    Click Here  for "Prebiotic synthesis from CO atmospheres: Implications for the origins of life", by Miyakawa, Yamanashi, Kobayashi, Cleaves and
17.18    Click Here  to get a pdf version of  "The Evolutionary Origin of Complex Features", by Richard E. Lenski, Charles Ofria, Robert T. Pennock,

                                Christoph Adami, Nature (Vol. 423, 2003, pp. 139-145)
17.19    Click Here   for "Life" by Bruce Weber.

Click Here   for Order from Chaos: The Sierpinksi Gasket.
17.21    Click Here   for "Information Theory and Creationism", by Ian Musgrave, Rich Baldwin, and others.



Click Here  for Stephen Jay Gould Links.
18.2    For more information on the outspoken zoologist Richard Dawkins, click Richard Dawkins .
18.3    Gould has often been at odds with Dawkins about the significance of natural selection. Gould and Dawkins discuss their disagreements about complexity, contingency and progress in two interviews carried out by the Skeptics Society:

 Dawkins Interview
 Gould Interview
18.4  For many links on Stephen Jay Gould and his disagreements with Richard Dawkins over gradualism, see  The Gould Files

18.5    One of the major controversies in modern evolutionary theory is about the degree to which natural selection is the driving force behind evolutionary change.Stephen Jay Gould and Richard Lewontin have adamantly objected to what they consider to be an excessive expectation that observed traits are adaptations produced by natural selection. In 1979 they wrote a famous article on the subject using the spandrels of the Basilica de San Marco to make their point. Click Here for "The Spandrels of San Marco and the Panglossian Paradigm: A Critique of the Adaptationist Programme", by Gould and Lewontin.

18.6       In 1996 Robert Mark wrote a nicely illustrated essay on the spandrel argument for American Scientist.  See Architecture and Evolution .
18.7       Dawkins reviewed Gould's book Full House in a review called  Human Chauvinism.

18.8      Click Here for Gould's essay "The Pattern of Life's History", Chapter 2 from The Third Culture .
18.9      Click Here for Dawkins' essay "A Survival Machine", Chapter 3 from The Third Culture .
18.10    Click Here  for "I Have Landed", Gould's last essay for Natural History, January 2001.

18.11    Click Here  for The Unofficial Stephen Jay Gould Archive.
18.12    Another interesting reaction to Gould by sociobiologist Richard Wright recently appeared in The New YorkerThe Accidental Creationist .

            Richard Wright's latest book is  Nonzero: The Logic of Human Destiny .
18.13    Click Here for an interview with Dawkins: 'The Problem with God".


                                                    19.1    Legal and Educational Resources

19.1a    The National Academy of Sciences describes itself as "a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare". This statement is taken from their 1998 publication Teaching About Evolution and the Nature of Science .
19.1b    Click Here for "Update on Challenges to the Teaching of Evolution" maintained by the American Geological Institute.

19.1c    The National Science Teachers Association has compiled some relevant resources called NSTA Evolution Resources .
19.1d    Directed by Eugenie Scott, the National Center for Science Education acts as a clearing house for those who want to prevent the teaching of creation as an alternative to evolution in public schools. In 1995, Scott contributed to discussions that resulted in revisions of the National Association of Biology Teachers "Statement on the Teaching of Evolution".

19.1e    National Association of Biology Teachers:  Statement on the Teaching of Evolution
19.1f    Eugenie Scott:  NABT Statement on Evolution Evolves
19.1g    The National Association of Biology Teachers   Evolution Resources

19.1h    Click Here  for "Science Report: A third of U.S. schools don't teach evolution".

19.1i    The American Scientific Affiliation describes itself as "a fellowship of  men and women of science and disciplines that relate to science who share a common fidelity to the Word of God and a commitment to integrity in the practice of science."
        19.1ia In 1995, the ASA contributed to a school board decision concerning evolution in Hemet California: 

A School Board Success Story
19.1j     Click Here  for the State of California Science Content Standards for the K-12 science curriculum.
 19.1k   Click Here  for materials compiled on Roger DeHart's attempt to use additional intelligent design materials in his high school biology class by Carl
                                Johnson of the Burlington-Edison Committee for Science Education.

19.1L    Click here  for "Development of Evolution Teaching Policy in Light of Continued Debate Regarding the Teaching of Evolution and Creationism in the
                              U.S. Classrooms" by  David Stone  who teaches high school biology for the University Laboratory High School.
19.1m   Click Here  for the

Evolution and the Nature of Science Institute, which is "a collection of classroom lessons to help high school biology
                                teachers more effectively teach basic concepts in the areas of evolution and the nature of science."
19.1n    Click Here  for discussion and text of many anti-evolution Bills documented by the National Center for Science Education.

Click Here for information posted by the Georgia Citizens for Integrity in Science Education.
Click Here for state-by-state information provided by the American Institute of Biological Sciences.

Click Here for access to "Science, Religion, and the Teaching of Evolution in Public School Science Classes", a statement issued by the National Council
                                of Churches Committee on Public Education and Literacy.

                        19.2    Important Educational Bills and Court Cases

                                                19.2a    Arkansas 1968, 1982

19.2aa    After a lengthy legal process, in 1968 the United States Supreme Court ruled that an Arkansas statute prohibiting the teaching of evolutionary theory in public schools was unconstitutional; the case was Susan Epperson et al., v State of Arkansas
19.2ab In 1982, U.S. District Court Judge William R. Overton ruled that the 1981 Arkansas "Balanced Treatment" Bill, Arkansas Act 590, was unconstitutional;
         Click Here  for a transcript of Act 590.
         Click Here for Judge Overton's decision.

19.2ac    Click Here  for the McLean v. Arkansas Documentation Project, correlated by  Wesley Elsberry and Troy Britain.
19.2ad    For

Stephen Jay Gould's 1982 reaction to this case see Genesis vs. Geology .
19.2ae   Click Here  for an article on Michael Ruse, a philosopher of science who testified in the McLean v. Arkansas case.

                                                       19.2b    Louisiana 1987

19.2ba    The United States Supreme Court ruled on the Louisiana Balanced Treatment Bill in the 1987 decision  Edwards v Aguillard .
19.2bb    For a 1994 legal and philosophical analysis of this case, see Dov Wisebrod: Religion, Science, and Law .

                                                              19.2c    KANSAS 1999-2001

On August 11 of 1999 the Kansas State Board of Education generated controversy by recommending that most evolutionary theory be dropped from the Kansas public school Science Education Standards.
19.2ca    A useful collection of documents pertaining to this decision has been collected by the  Kansas Citizens for Science.
19.2cb    Click here for the minutes of the August 11, 1999 Kansas State Board of Education.
19.2cc    Tom Willis

of the  Creation Science Association for Mid-America helped draft the Board's recommendation. The Association has posted many
               useful documents on this case at its resource called Truth about the Kansas Science Standards Tornado .
19.2cd    Tom Willis was interviewed on August 23, 1999 by the  Washington Post .

19.2ce    Stephen Jay Gould gave his response to the Kansas decision in an article for Time: Dorothy, It's Really Oz .
19.2cf    For Michael Behe's assessment of the Kansas case, see Darwin's Hostages .

19.2cg    Phillip Johnson wrote a response called  The Church of Darwin .
19.2ch    Johnson made other comments on education in a 1993 INTERVIEW with Yves Barbero.

19.2ci    Click Here  for the transcript of a July 27 2000 ABC Nightline production that includes an interview with Phillip Johnson: "God and Evolution in
                                Kansas Classrooms".
19.2cj      Click Here  for an essay on the Kansas case by Eugenie Scott

and numerous responses.
19.2ck    Click Here for an opinion article from the Kansas City Star.
19.2cl     Click Here  for the Intelligent Design Network, organized in 1999 in response to the Kansas controversy.
19.2cm   Click Here  for correspondence from  IDN concerning the reinstatment of evolution in Kansas schools.

19.2cn    Click Here  for a report on the Kansas Board of Education Republican primary election results of August 2000.
19.2co    Click Here for a New York Times report on the primary results.
19.2cp    Click Here  for a February 2001 Topeka Capital-Journal article on the reinstatement of evolution into the Kansas public school curriculum.

19.2cq    Click Here for the new standards adopted in Kansas in February 2001.

                                                                   19.2d  Louisiana 2000-2001
19.2da    Click Here  for a June 19, 2000 ACLU report on the Tangipahoa Parish Board of Education controversy.

19.2db    Click Here  for the decision in the June 19, 2000 case of Tangipahoa Parish Board of Education et al v Herb Freiler et al. in the United States
                                Court of Appeals for the Fifth Circuit.
19.2dc    Click Here  for a pdf file of Chief Justice Scalia's dissenting opinion when the United States Supreme Court ruled not to reopen the decision of the
                                Court of Appeals, or  Click Here  for an on-line version.

19.2dd    Click Here  for the text of the initial version of Louisiana HCR 74. After a one hour hearing, the House Education Committee of the Louisiana State Legislature passed this version of HCR 74 on  May 1, 2001 by a vote of 9 to 5. It was sent to the full house for debate.
19.2de   Click Here for video of the House Education Committee hearing (start watching at the 3 hour, 18 minute mark).
19.2df    Click Here  for a discussion: "Louisiana calls Darwin a Racist".


                                                   19.2e    Arkansas 2001
19.2ea Click Here for text of Arkansas House Bill 2548, an anti-evolutionary bill proposed in February 2001 in the Arkansas legislature by Representative Holt that would make it illegal for the state or any of its agencies to use state funds to purchase materials that contain "false or fraudulent" claims. Click Herefor discussion of the bill by Wesley R. Elsberry.


Michigan 2001
19.2fa Click Here  for Michigan House Bill 4382. The Bill includes the following:

19.2fb Click Here for resources on this bill compiled by  Todd Greene .

                            19.2g    Ohio 2002
19.2ga     Click here  for materials relevant to the 2002 Ohio Board of Education debate concerning evolution in the Ohio public school science curriculum (developed by the National Center for Science Education .)

19.2gb    Click Here  for discussion by Kenneth Miller of the "Santorum Amendment", an amendment initially proposed for inclusion in Public Law 107-110, the "No Child Left Behind" Education Bill.

19.2h    Missouri 2004
    Click Here for Missouri House Bill 1722 which calls for balanced treatment of biological evolution and "biological intelligent design".

19.2i                                Dover Pennsylvania 2004-2005                 Kitzmiller et al. v. Dover Area School District


Click Here  for court documents posted by
19.2ib    Click Here  for the text of Kitzmiller et al. v. Dover Area School District, the suit filed on December 14, 2004.

19.2ic    Click Here  for extensive documentation pertaining to this case, maintained by the National Center for Science Education.
19.2id    Click Here  for Speaking Freely: The blog of the ACLU of Pennsylvania, with links to many court documents.

19.2ie    Click Here  for links to documents provided by Americans United for Separation of Church and State.
19.2if     Click Here  for a Panda's Thumb blog with links to news and commentary.

19.2ig    Click Here  for commentary by Chris Mooney.
19.2ih    Click Here  for the opening Expert Statement by Kenneth Miller.

19.2ii     Click Here  for Miller's first morning of testimony and Click Here for his afternoon testimony.

19.2ij     Click Here  for the United States District Court website dedicated to this case.
19.2ik    Click Here  for another source of documents by Wikipedia.
19.2iL    Click Here for transcripts from "Science Wars: Should Schools Teach Intelligent Design?", a workshop sponsored by the American Enterprise

                                Institute for Public Policy Research, October 21, 2005.
19.2im    Click Here for "Intelligent Design on Trial" by Edward B. Davis.
19.2in     Click Here for commentary by philosopher Alvin Plantinga.

19.2iO    Click Here for "Seeing Government Purpose through the Objective Observer's Eyes: The Evolution Intelligent Design Debates", by Kristi L. Bowman.

19.2j                Georgia 2004-2005

Click Here    for the 13 January 2005 decision on  the Cobb County case involving stickers in textbooks:
                                 "This textbook contains material on evolution. Evolution is a theory, not a fact, regarding the origin of living things. This material should
                                              be approached with an open mind, studied carefully, and critically considered."


Click Here  for Georgia Citizens for Integrity in Science Education  and Click Here for their discussion of "fact" and "theory".

19.2k        KANSAS 2005

Click Here for the Kansas State Department of Education resources regarding proposed changes in Kansas science education, 2004-2005.
Click Here for the Coalition for Science: Speaking for Science Education in Kansas.
Click Here

for "Kansas Denied Use of National Science Education Standards".

19.2L        California 2006
 Click Here
for documents pertaining to the suit brought against the El Tejon Unified School District January10, 2006.

Click Here for the text of the complaint filed 10 January 2006, Hurst v Newman.
19.2Lc    Click Here for information on the Lancaster California "Science Philosophy" Policy adopted in March 2006.

                                        19.3 Textbook Controversies

         19.3a Of Pandas and People
19.3aa    Click Here for a Kenneth Miller review of the controversial textbook, Of Pandas and People.
19.3ab    Click Here  for a review of Pandas written for the National Association of Biology Teachers by Richard Aulie.

19.3ac    Click Here for reactions to Pandas from  The Textbook League .
19.3ad    Click Here for resources on

Of Pandas and People collated by the National Center for Science Education.

19.3b     Click here for "Good Science, Bad Science: Teaching Evolution in the States" by Lawrence Lerner of CSULB, published by the Thomas B.
                             Fordham Foundation, January 2000.

19.3c     Click Here  for a response to "Good Science, Bad Science" by Jonathan Wells and Jay Richards of the Discovery Institute.
19.3d     Click here  for "An Evaluation of Ten Recent Biology Textbooks" by Jonathan Wells of the Discovery Institute.

19.3e    Wells has also written a book titled Icons of Evolution. Click Here  for a review by  David Ussery
              and  Click Here for further analysis by Massimo Pigliucci.  Click Here  for other articles by Wells.

19.3f     Click Here for a Kenneth Miller analysis of a disclaimer about evolution placed in science texts in several states.


                                                20.1    Intelligent Design Resources

20.1a      Click Here  for a classic text on the design argument, David Hume's 1779 Dialogues Concerning Natural Religion.
20.1ba    Click Here for the Access Research Network (ARN), one of the primary sources of intelligent design publications and resources.

20.1bb    Click Here  for ARN's "Frequently Asked Questions about Intelligent Design".
20.1bc    Click Here  for another ARN site dedicated to intelligent design.
20.1bd    Click Here  for "the Wedge Update", maintained by ARN's Mark Hartwig.
20.1c      Click Here  for Intelligent Design Theory: "A New Science for a New Century"?, a lengthy collection of references for intelligent design

                                 theory compiled by  John M. Lynch .
20.1d    Click Here   for commentary on Intelligent Design publications by Mark Isaak.


Click Here for the Discovery Institute, an advocate of intelligent design through its Center for Science and Culture 
                                   Click Here for Intelligent Design Society of Kansas.
                                   Click Here for a little humor from the reDiscovery Institute.

Click Here for a snappy jingle.
                                   Click Here for an article on the origins of the Discovery Institute by Chris Mooney, "Inferior Design".
                                   Click Here for an early posting of the Discovery Institute's Wedge Strategy.

                                   Click Here for a formatted copy of the Wedge Strategy hosted by  John M. Lynch. Click Here for another copy.
                                   Click Here

for a 1 February 2006 Seattle Weekly article on the origins of the The Wedge.

20.1e    The Foundation for Thought and Ethics advocates the introduction of intelligent design theory in public school curricula. See their argument in
              Intelligent Design in Public School Science Curricula: A legal Guidebook .

20.1f     Click Here for "Teaching the Origins Controversy: A Guide for the Perplexed" by David K. DeWolf of the Discovery Institute.
20.1g    Click Here  for ORIGINS, a website dedicated to intelligent design and philosophical theism.
20.1h    Click Here  for "Design Features of the Monarch Butterfly Life Cycle" by Jules Poirier and Kenneth Cumming of the Institute for Creation Research.

20.1i     Click Here  for a review of John Haught's book, God After Darwin: A Theology of Evolution by Michael Behe, a prominent intelligent design
                               theorist, together with a response from Haught.
20.1j      Click Here  for "We're Not in Kansas Anymore: why secular scientists and media can't admit that Darwinism might be wrong" by Nancy Pearcey.

 Click Here  for "Getting God A Pass: Science, Theology and the Consideration of Intelligent Design", by  John Mark Reynolds .
20.1L     Click Here  for the International Society for Complexity, Information and Design.
20.1m    Click Here  for the Intelligent Design and Evolution Awareness Club

at the University of California San Diego.
20.1n     Click Here  for the Intelligent Design network, inc.
20.1O    Click Here  for The Intelligent Designer Speaks.

20.1p     Click Here for "Life in the Big Tent: Traditional Creationism and the Intelligent Design Community", By Paul A. Nelson.
20.1q     Click Here for the ID blog Intelligent Design the Future.

20.1r      Click Here for information on the movie "Flock of Dodos: The Evolution - Intelligent Design Circus".

                                            20.2    Critiques of the Intelligent Design Movement
20.2a    Historian of science Edward B. Davis is a theistic evolutionist and has critiqued the intelligent design movement in his article  Of God and Gaps:

                                           Intelligent Design and Darwinian Evolution .
             Robert Pennock  has written a critique of the new intelligent design movement called Tower of Babel .
             Click Here to read Pennock's first chapter, a historical survey of creationist movements in the United States.

             Click Here for a review by Johnson. Click Here for a response from Pennock.
20.2c    Click Here  for a February 28, 2001 review of the intelligent design movement: "Assault on Evolution".
20.2d    Click Here  for "Darwin in Mind: 'Intelligent Design' Meets Artificial Intelligence", by Taner Edis.

                [Abstract: What's Wrong with the Information Argument Against Evolution? Proponents of "Intelligent Design" claim information  theory refutes Darwinian
                                         evolution. Modern physics and artificial intelligence research turns their arguments on their head.]

20.2e    Click Here for Critically Examining the 'Intelligent Design' Movement.

20.2f     Click Here for "E. Coli at the No Free Lunchroom: Bacterial Flagella and Dembski’s Case for Intelligent Design", by Howard J. Van Till.
20.2g    Click Here for

Unintelligent Design, a collection of essays critical of the ID movement and moderated by Mark Perakh at Talk Reason.
       20.2ga    Click Here for THE DESIGN REVOLUTION? How William Dembski Is Dodging Questions About Intelligent Design by Mark Perakh.

       20.2gb    Click Here  for THE DESIGNER-OF-THE-GAPS REVISITED A critique of William Dembski's article "Irreducible Complexity Revisited"
                                        by Richard Wein.
20.2h    Click Here for "The Wedge at Work: How Intelligent Design Creationism Is Wedging Its Way into the Cultural and Academic Mainstream", by

                               Barbara Forrest. Click Here for information on Creationism's Trojan Horse; the Wedge of Intelligent Design, by Barbara Forest
                               and Paul Gross.
20.2i     Click Here   

for "Darwin's Discovery: Design without Designer",  by Francisco Ayala.
20.2j     Click Here    for "The advantages of theft over toil: the design inference and arguing from ignorance",  by John S. Wilkins and Wesley R. Elsberry.

20.2k    Click Here    for "Not a Free Lunch But a Box of Chocolates: A critique of William Dembski's book No Free Lunch", by Richard Wein.
20.2L    Click Here    for "Intelligent Design: Creationism's Trojan Horse" (Feb, 2005), by Barbara Forrest.

20.2m   Click Here    for the reDiscovery Institute.
20.2n    Click Here    for "Being Stalked by Intelligent Design", by Pat Shipman.

Click Here    for "Is it Science Yet?: Intelligent Design Creationism and the Constitution", by Matthew J. Brauer, Barbara Forrest, and Steven G. Gey.
20.2p    Click Here    for SETI and Intelligent Design.

Click Here for 'Turn out the lights, the “Teach the controversy” party’s over', By Robert Camp.
20.2r     Click Here    for Creation & Intelligent Design Watch, Hosted by the Committee for the Scientific Investigation of Claims of the Paranormal.

20.2s     Click Here    for "The Other ID Opponents: Traditional Creationists see Intelligent Design as an Attack on the Bible", by Rob Moll.

                                                      20.3 Bombardier Beetles and Intelligent Design
    20.3a   For an evolutionary response to the argument from design, see

Bombardier Beetles and the Argument of Design”, 1997, by Mark Isaak .
    20.3b   Click Here  for "Spray aiming in the bombardier beetle: Photographic evidence".
    20.3c   Click Here for "The Amazing Bombardier Beetle!" posted by Answers in Genesis.

20.4    Click Here   for "An Interventionist Theory of Natural Selection and Biological Change within Limits" by Leonard Brand and L. James Gibson.
20.5    For discussion of a recent case in which intelligent design was being taught in a Kansas public school, see  Whose 'science'? .

20.6    Jonathan Wells

Jonathan Wells is a senior fellow for the Discovery Institute's Center for the Renewal of Science and Culture and is the author of Icons of Evolution.
             Click Here for the Icons of Evolution website.
20.6b    Click Here  for articles on evolution by Wells, and  Click Here  for other articles by Wells.

20.6c    Click Here  for a review of Icons of Evolution by  David Ussery .
20.6d    Click Here for an analysis of Icons by Massimo Pigliucci.

20.6e    Click Here  for "Icon of Obfuscation", a critique of Icons by Nic Tamzek.
20.6f     Click Here  for "Icons Still Standing", a response to Tamzek's critique by Casey Luskin.
20.6g    Click Here  for "Critics Rave Over Icons of Evolution: A Response to Published Reviews" by Jonathan Wells (17 June 2002).

20.6h    Click Here  for "Icons of Anti-Evolution", critiques of Wells compiled by The Icons of Anti-Evolution Project.
20.6i     Click Here  for a critique of Wells by Alan Gishlick for the National Center of Science Education.
20.6j     Click Here  for "The Flagellum Unspun: the Collapse of 'Irreducible Complexity'", by Kenneth Miller.

20.6k    Click Here  for "Still Spinning Just Fine: A Response to Ken Miller", by William Dembski.
20.6L    Click Here for "The Fact of Evolution: Implications for Science Education", by James R. Hofmann & Bruce H. Weber. This is a critique of Chapter

                                     3 of Wells' Icons of Evolution: "Darwin’s Tree of Life".
20.6m    Click Here for "Wells and Haeckel's Embryos: A Review of Chapter 5 of Icons of Evolution" by PZ Myers.

20.6n    Click Here  for "Iconoclasts of Evolution: Haeckel, Behe, Wells & the Ontogeny of a Fraud", by Kurt Pickett, John Wenzel and Steven Rissing.

20.7    William Dembski
20.7a     Click Here  for the homepage of William Dembski, and

Click Here for his weblog, Uncommon Descent.
20.7b     Click Here for Dembski's "Teaching intelligent design as religion or science?".
20.7c     Click Here  for a collection of Dembski on-line essays.
20.7d     Click Here  for discussion of Dembski's book No Free Lunch.

20.7e     Click Here for "E. Coli at the No Free Lunchroom: Bacterial Flagella and Dembski’s Case for Intelligent Design", by Howard J. Van Till.
20.7f      Click Here

for THE DESIGN REVOLUTION? How William Dembski Is Dodging Questions About Intelligent Design by Mark Perakh.
20.7g     Click Here  for THE DESIGNER-OF-THE-GAPS REVISITED A critique of William Dembski's article "Irreducible Complexity Revisited"
                                        by Richard Wein.

 Click Here for "Not a Free Lunch But a Box of Chocolates: A critique of William Dembski's book No Free Lunch", by Richard Wein.


                                                           21.1 GEOLOGY
21.1a    For some nice descriptions and images of relevant igneous rocks, take the

Igneous Rocks Tour .
21.1b    Click Here  for The Affiliation of Christian Geologists.
21.1c    Click Here  for an on-line introduction to earth history.
21.1d    Click Here for The Geology of the Grand Canyon.

21.1e    Click Here  for an analysis of the formation of the Grand Canyon by Frank Steiger .
21.1f     Click Here  for "Radiometric Dating, Paleosols and the Geological Column" by Joseph Meert.
21.1g    Click Here  for "Palaeosols" by Jonathan Clark.

21.1h    Click Here  for "The Geologic Column: Does it Exist?", by John Woodmorappe.
21.1i     Click Here for "The Geologic Column and its Implications for the Flood"  by Glenn Morton .
21.1j     Click Here "Events in the Vicinity of the Grand Canyon of the Colorado River".

21.1k    Click Here for Geologic Time, by William L. Newman.

                                                        21.2 RADIOMETRIC DATING
21.2a    Click Here  for a non-mathematical introduction to radiometric dating techniques by Jonathon Woolf.

21.2b    Click Here  for a more technical introduction that includes isochron dating by Chris Stassen.
21.2c    Click Here for Isochron Dating by Chris Stassen.
21.2d    Click Here  for "Watching a Rock Age on an Isochron Diagram", an animation by Jon Fleming.

21.2e    Click Here  for "Virtual Dating", a tutorial on isochron dating methods developed by Gary Novak of CSLA.
21.2f     Click Here  for "Radiometric Dating and the Geological Time Scale" by Andrew MacRae.
21.2g    Click Here  for "The Age of the Earth" by Chris Stassen.
21.2h    Click Here for "A Radiometric Dating Resource List"

maintained by  Tim Thompson . This list includes links to lengthy debates about radiometric dating methods and the age of the earth.
21.2i    Click Here  for "Radioactives Missing from the Earth", by  Don Lindsay .

Click Here  for Radiocarbon-Related Information Sources.
21.2k   Click Here  for "Radiometric Dating Does Work!", by G. Brent Dalrymple.
21.2L   Click Here  for 'How Old is the Earth: A Response to

“Scientific” Creationism', by G. Brent Dalrymple.



"Young Earth Creationists" generally espouse several very specific Biblically related doctrines of creation, no death before sin, a relatively young age of the earth, and a world-wide flood. Listed below are just some of the numerous young-earth creationist sites.

22.1        Click Here   for the Institute for Creation Research.

                22.1a    Click Here for a collection of ICR research papers
                22.1b    Duane Gish presents his position in an article entitled  Is it Possible to be a Christian and an Evolutionist? .

                22.1c    Click Here  for the transcript of a WOSU Open Line debate between Gish and anthropologist Jeffrey McKee.

22.2     Click Here  for the Creation Research Society.

22.3    Click Here  for the Australian based Answers in Genesis International.

                22.3a    Click Here  for Answers in Genesis' "Arguments we think creationists should NOT use".
                22.3b    Click Here  for "Maintaining Creationist Integrity: A response to Kent Hovind", by Carl Wieland, Ken Ham and Jonathan Sarfati.

                22.3c    Click Here  for "15 ways to refute materialistic bigotry" by Jonathan Sarfati of Answers in Genesis.
                22.3d    Click Here  for the Scientific American article Sarfati is responding to: "15 Answers to Creationist Nonsense".

22.3e    Click Here  for information about Creationist Scientists, such as Duane Gish , a list maintained by Answers in Genesis.
     Click Here  for

"ID and President Bush—the deeper issues" by Dr. Terry Mortenson.
                22.3g    Click Here for No Answers in Genesis!


Click Here for Creation Science Evangelism, the homepage of Kent Hovind (Dr. Dino).
    Click Here for links to critiques of Kent Hovind maintained by John Stear.
                      22.4b    Click Here for a debate between Kent Hovind and

John D. Callahan.
22.4c    Click Here  for "Maintaining Creationist Integrity: A response to Kent Hovind", by Carl Wieland, Ken Ham and Jonathan Sarfati.


Click Here for Creation Ministries International.

22.6    Click Here  for the Geoscience Research Institute, a research and communication institute serving the Seventh-day Adventist church.
22.7    Click Here  for the Twin Cities Creation Science Association.

22.8    Click Here for A Creation Perspective developed by  David Plaisted.
22.9    Click Here  for the True.Origin Archive: Exposing the Myth of Evolution.

                            22.9a     Click Here for "A Theory of Creation: A Response to the Pretense that No Creation Theory Exists"
                                                                                by Timothy Wallace for The True.Origin Archive.

22.10    Click Here for The Westminster Confession of Faith, the basis for the present interpretation of the Bible by the Orthodox Presbyterian Church.

                            22.9a     Click Here  for the 2001 "Report of the Creation Study Committee" published by the Presbyterian Church in America.
22.11    Click Here  for Lambert Dolphin's Resource Files.
22.12    Click Here for a lengthy bibliography of young-earth creationist articles maintained by The Revolution Against Evolution.

22.13    Click Here  for a list of resources maintained by Christian Connection's Christianity and Science.
22.14    Click Here for the Creationism Connection, maintained by  Daniel Reynolds

, (with very snappy background music).
22.15    Click Here for Creation in the Crossfire, published by The South Bay Creation Science Association.
22.16    Click Here for the Creation Science Association of Orange County.

22.17    Click Here  for The Kolbe Center for the Study of Creation.
22.18    Click Here  for Catholic Apologetics International.

22.19    Click Here  for BSG: A Creation Biology Study Group (formerly the Baraminology Study Group).
22.20    Click Here  for Creationism and Baraminology Research News.



D. Russell Humphreys
        23.1a   Click Here  for biographical information and some links.
       23.1b    Click Here for an interview with Russell Humphreys: "Creation in the Physics Lab"

        23.1c   Click Here for Humphreys' article "Evidence for a Young World".
        23.1d   Click Here for Humphreys' article "The Earth's Magnetic Field is Young"
        23.1e   Click Here for Humphreys' article "The Creation of Planetary Magnetic Fields".

        23.1f    Click Here for a response to Humphreys and Thomas Barnes by  Tim Thompson .
        23.1g   Click Here for a response to Humphreys by David E. Thomas.

23.1h   Click Here for a discussion of the geomagnetic field by  Gary Glatzmaier.
        23.1i    Click Here for further discussion of geomagnetic reversals.
        23.1j    Click Here  for another short discussion of geomagnetic reversals.

        23.1k    Humphreys is also the author of  Starlight and Time .
                     Click Here  for a critique of this book by Samuel Conner and Hugh Ross of  Reasons to Believe
        23.lL    Click Here  for a reply by Humphreys.

        23.lm    Click Here  for "Russell Humphreys answers Various Critics".
        23.1n    Click Here  for a May 21, 2001 interview of Humphreys.
        23.1O   Click Here  for "Nuclear Decay: Evidence for a Young World by Humphreys.

        23.1p    Click here  for comments on the above Humphreys article by David Thomas.

23.2  Keith Wanser
        23.2a Interview with CSUF physicist  Keith Wanser.

23.2b    Click Here for replies by Keith Wanser to a set of questions posed by students in LS487 during Fall 1999.

                                           23.3    Andrew Snelling
    23.3a   Click Here  for biographical information and links to many Snelling publications.
    23.3b   Click Here

for "Excess Argon: the Achilles Heel of Potasium-Argon and Argon-Argon Dating of Volcanic Rocks"
    23.3c   Click Here for Impact #309: "Potassium-Argon and Argon-Argon Dating of Crustal Rocks and the Problem of Excess Argon" (Mar. 1999).
    23.3d   Click Here for "The Cause of Anomalous Potassium-Argon "Ages" for Recent Andesite Flows at Mt. Ngauruhoe, New Zealand, and the
                                     Implications for Potassium-Argon "Dating"(1998).

    23.3e    Click Here for "Will the Real Dr Snelling Please Stand Up?", by Alex Ritchie.

                                   23.4  Steven A. Austin
23.4a    Click Here for biography and a link to "Mt St Helens 'dating'"

23.4b    Click Here for "Excess Argon within Mineral Concentrates from the New Dacite Lava Dome at Mount St. Helens Volcano" (1996).
23.4c    Click Here  for "Grand Canyon Lava Flows: A Survey of Isotope Dating Methods" by Steven Austin.
23.4d    Click Here  for "Excessively Old 'Ages' for Grand Canyon Lava Flows" by Steven Austin.
23.4e    Click Here for "A Criticism of the ICR's Grand Canyon Dating Project" by Chris Stassen.

23.4f     Click Here  for "K-Ar ages of Pleistocene Lava Dams in the Grand Canyon in Arizona" by Dalrymple and Hamblin.
23.4g    Click Here  for "Steve Austin's Grand Canyon Erosion Argument: a Mathematical Sleight of Hand", by Glenn Morton.


Here  for "The Misguided Erosion Argument" by Glenn Morton.
23.4i     Click Here  for "Salty Seas: Evidence for a Young Earth", by Jonathan Sarfati. This is based on a 1990 article by Austin and Humphreys.
                            23.4ia   Click Here  for a response to the Austin - Humphreys article by Glenn Morton .

                            23.4ib   Click Here  for an additional letter by Glenn Morton .

23.5    Don DeYoung

 Click Here  for "Is the Moon Really Old?"
     23.5b  Click Here  for a response by Tim Thompson: "The Recession of the Moon and the Age of the Earth-Moon System".
    23.5c   Click Here  for a response to Thompson by Malcolm Bowden; "The Moon is Still Young".

                    23.6 Radioisotopes and the Age of the Earth (RATE)

23.6a    In July 1997, a group of young earth creationist scientists affiliated with  The Institute for Creation Research started a research collaboration called "Radioisotopes and the Age of the Earth" (RATE). Progress reports have been published as Impact 290Impact 301 , and  Impact 314Click Here  for information on their book, Radioisotopes and the Age of the Earth, published in 2000 by the Institute for Creation Research and the Creation Research Society

Click Here  for a December 2000 update.
23.6b      Click Here  for a critique of RATE by geologist  Joseph Meert . For other articles by Meert,  Click Here .

23.6c      Click Here for a discussion of radiogenic helium in zircons.
23.6d      Click Here for "Young-Earth Creationist Helium Diffusion 'Dates': Misconceptions Based on Bad Assumptions and Questionable Data", by

Kevin Henke.

23.7   Radiometric Dating and Lava Flows
23.7a    Click Here  For a discussion of the 1801 eruption of the Hualalai volcano in Hawaii that has been cited in debates about the validity of
                                     potassium/argon dating,

"Fresh Lava Dated as 22 Million Years Old", by  Don Lindsay .
23.7b    Click Here   for "200 Year Old Lava Dated 2.96 Billion Years Old?" by Mike Hopkins.

23.7c    Click Here for additional discussion by Mark Isaak.
23.7d    Click Here  for more discussion by Kevin Henke.

23.8    Click Here  for an excerpt from The Annals of the World (1658) in which Bishop James Ussher advocates the date of creation at 23 October 4004


                                    23.9  Christian Objections to Young Earth Creationism
23.9a    Click Here for "Radiometric Dating: A Christian Perspective by  Roger C. Wiens

23.9b   Click Here for "Young-Earth Arguments: A Second Look" by Glenn Morton .
23.9c    Click Here  for a critique of young-earth arguments by a Christian geologist, Lorence Collins.
23.9d    Click Here  for "Is There Really Scientific Evidence for a Young Earth?", by  Matthew Tiscareno

23.9e    Click Here  for "Age of Creation" by Hills Roberts for  Lord, I believe
23.9f     Click Here  for "A Brief Intro to the Creation-date 'Debate'" by Darrick Dean.
23.9g    Click Here  for "Young Earth Creationism", presented by  Evidence for God from Science.

23.9h    Click Here  for "The North Sea Rocks RefuteYoung-earth Arguments" by Glenn Morton .
23.9i     Click Here for Answers in Creation: Providing Support for Old-Earth Creationists.

23.10    John Woodmorappe

23.10a    Click Here  for "Billion-fold Acceleration old Radioactivity Demonstrated in Laboratory" by John Woodmorappe.
23.10b    Click Here  for commentary on Woodmorappe: "Modifications of Nuclear Beta Decay Rates" by David Ewan Kahana.
23.10c    Click Here for "Glenn R. Morton's Misuse of Woodmorappe's, List of Discrepant Isotopic Dates", by John Woodmorappe.

23.10d    Click Here for "Reply to Woodmorappe's Critique of My Web Page", by Glenn Morton .
23.10e    Click Here for "How Can Woodmorappe Sell Us a Bill of Goods if He Doesn't Know the Costs?", by

Kevin Henke.
23.10f     Click Here for other responses to Woodmorappe by Kevin Henke.
23.10g    Click Here for "Geochronology kata John Woodmorappe", by Steven H. Schimmrich.

                                        23.11    Guy Berthault
Click Here for Guy Berthault's description of his stratigraphy experiments.

Click Here for "EXPERIMENTS IN STRATIFICATION", October 2000 by Guy Berthault.
23.11c    Click Here for "Sedimentation Experiments: Nature Finally Catches Up!", by Andrew Snelling.

Click Here for "Berthault's 'Stratigraphy': Rediscovering What Geologists Already Know and Strawperson Misrepresentations
                                                    of Modern Applications of Steno's Principles" by Kevin Henke.

Click Here for a response from Berthault.
23.11f     Click Here for "Some Questions for Dr. Berthault"  by Kevin Henke.

Click Here for "Other Views: Guy Berthault", presented by the Institute for Biblical & Scientific Studies.

23.12    Click Here

or for "Evidence for a Young Earth from the Ocean and Atmosphere", by Larry Vardiman, Oct.8, 2005.
23.13    Click Here for Dealing with Creationism in Astronomy by W.T. Bridgman.


24.1    Some young-earth creationists argue that there is evidence that dinosaurs and humans coexisted. See, for example,  The Footprints of Dragons by Lourella Rouster.

                                            24.2    Paluxy River Fossil Footprints
    24.2a  For an account of Carl Baugh's excavation of Paluxy River fossils as supported by the Creation Evidence Museum,  Click Here and then click on "Excavations".

    24.2b   Click Here  for a lengthy collection of references to the the Paluxy Dinosaur "Man Track" controversy generated by alleged fossils of human and dinosaur footprints.
    24.2c   Click Here for a history of the Paluxy fossil controversy by Arthur Chadwick.
    24.2d   Click Here for another discussion of Carl Baugh's work by Wayne Spencer.

    24.2e   Click Here  for Glen Kuban's discussion of the famous "Burdick Print".
    24.2f   Some of the Paluxy fossils together with the "Burdick Print" were highlighted as part of a February 25, 1996 NBC   broadcast called The Mysterious Origins of Man, produced by  BC Video.

Click Here  for links to some responses to that broadcast, and Click Here for a review by Glen Kuban.
    24.2g   Click Here  for a discussion of Carl Baugh originally maintained by Answers in Genesis.

    24.2h   Click Here  for "The Paluxy River Mystery" by John Morris of the Institute for Creation Research.
    24.2i   Click Here  for a response to John Morris by Glen Kuban..


25.1    Some General Young Earth Creationist Resources on a Global Flood

25.1a Lambert Dolphin:  On the Great Flood of Noah
25.1b John D. Morris:     The Global Flood of Noah's Day


Click Here for "Flood Models: the need for an integrated approach" by Andy McIntosh, Tom Edmondson and Steven Taylor,
                                   for  Answers in Genesis.
Click Here
for "A Scientific Paradigm for the Genesis Flood", by Ted Noel and Ken Noel for

The Bible Only.
25.1e   Click Here for "How did Noah Gather the Animals?", by John Morris.
    Click here for "Startling evidence for Noah’s Flood: Footprints and sand ‘dunes’ in a Grand Canyon sandstone!" by Snelling and Austin (1992).

                                    Click Here  for commentary on wind-blown and subaqueous dunes.
                                    Click Here  for commentary on the footprints discussed by Snelling and Austin.
                                    Click Here  for more commentary from Answers in Creation.


John Baumgardner is a young earth creationist who has developed computer models to argue that the Biblical flood can be understood in terms of rapid tectonic activity.
25.2a    Click Here for the online home of Dr. John Baumgardner's work related to the Genesis flood
25.2b   Click Here  for his 1994 paper entitled "Runaway Subduction as the Driving Mechanism for the Genesis Flood".  

25.2c   Click  Here  for "Runaway Subduction is a Sham", by Glenn Morton .

25.2d   Interview with plate tectonics expert Dr. John Baumgardner
25.2e   For another interview, click Scientists Who Believe
25.2f    Click Here  for a response from the National Center for Science Education.
25.2g   Click Here for a response from Darkness to Light Ministries.

25.2h   Click Here  for "Depths of the Oceans: Incompatible with A Global Flood Model", by Joseph Meert.
25.2i    Click Here  for an Answers in Genesis "Forum on catastrophic plate tectonics".

25.2j    Click Here for "Ancient Molecules and Modern Myths", by Gary S. Hurd.

                                    25.3    John Woodmorappe

    25.3a John Woodmorappe has written extensively on the feasibility of a literal reading of the Genesis account of Noah's ark.
    25.3b   For example, see his article  A Resource for Answering the Critics of Noah's Ark .
    25.3c   Woodmorappe's 1993 book,  Studies in Flood Geology , initiated a lengthy debate with 

Steven Schimmrich .
    25.3d   Woodmorappe's 1996 book is  Noah's Ark: A Feasibility Study . Click Here  for a review by a former young-earth creationist, Glenn Morton , and a response from Woodmorappe.

    25.3e    Click Here for an analysis of some of Woodmorrappe's calculations.
    25.3f   For a bibliography of other Woodmorappe articles look him up by Clicking Here .

                        25.4    Larry Vardiman

    25.4a   Click Here for "Out of Whose Womb Came the Ice?".
    25.4b   Click Here for "Cooling of the Ocean After the Flood".

            25.5 Bernard Northrup (advocate of multiple floods)

25.5a    Click Here  for a diagram of Northrup's "Five Biblical Catastrophe Harmonizational Model"
25.5b    Click Here  for Northrup's "Guidelines for Understanding the Witness in the Record of the Rocks".
25.5c    Click Here for Northrup's "The Geological Foundation below the Noahic Flood Deposits"
25.5d    Click Here  for links to Northrup's other essays on geology and Genesis.

25.5e    Click Here  for a critique of Northrup by geologist  Joseph Meert .

                                   25.6    Objections to a Global Flood

Click Here  for The Flood Page: Articles on Noah's Flood, by Glenn Morton .
25.6b    Click Here  for "Problems with a Global Flood" by Mark Isaak

25.6c    Click Here for "The Geologic Column and its Implications for the Flood"  by Glenn Morton .
25.6d    Click Here  for "Microfossil Statigraphy Presents Problems for the Flood" by Glenn Morton.

25.6e    Click Here  for "Why Would the Flood Sort Animals by Cell Type?", by Glenn Morton.
25.6f     Click Here  for "Fleeing from the Flood" by Glenn Morton.

Click Here  for "Why the Flood is not Global" by Glenn Morton.
25.6h    Click Here  for "Isotopic Sorting and the Noah's Flood Model", by Patrick Spears.
25.6i     Click Here  for "Evidence from the Orkney Islands Against a Global Flood" by Glenn Morton.

25.6j     Click Here  for "Seismic Data and Evidence of the Earth's Age", by Glenn Morton.
25.6k    Click Here  for "While the Flood Rages, Termites Dig, Dinosaurs Dance and Cicadas Sing", by

Glenn Morton.
25.6L    Click Here  for "More Nonsense on 'TRUE.ORIGINS': Jonathan Sarfati's Support Of Flood Geology", by Kevin Henke.

Click Here  for "Creationist 'Flood Geology' Versus Common Sense Or Reasons why 'Flood Geology' was abandoned in the mid-1800s by
                                Christian men of science". Quotations from modern day scientists (and others) compiled by Edward T. Babinski.
25.6n     Click Here  for "Why Geology Shows Sedimentation to Be too Slow for a Global Flood", by

Glenn Morton.
25.6O    Click Here   for  "What Would We Expect To Find if the World had Flooded?" by Ken Harding.

Click Here  for Answers in Creation.
25.6q     Click Here  for Paul H. Seely, , 2003, "The GISP2 Ice Core: Ultimate Proof that Noah's Flood Was Not Global". Perspectives on Science and

Chrisitian Faith. vol. 55, no. 4, pp. 252-260.
25.6r      Click Here for "The Proof is in the Poop!", by Greg Neyman for Answers in Creation.

                            25.7    William Ryan and Walter Pitman

Recent research by William Ryan and Walter Pitman has led some to think that the flood described  in Genesis may have been a local flooding of the Black Sea. Their book is called Noah's Flood: The New Scientific Discoveries About the Event That Changed History.
    25.7a   Click here for a review in the Biblical Archaeology Review.

    25.7b   Click here for a review in the Christian Science Monitor and other links.
    25.7c   Click Here  for Robert Ballard's discovery of human habitation beneath the Black Sea.
    25.7d   Click Here  for photographs of the Ballard discoveries.

    25.7e   Click Here  for a young-earth response to Ballard's discovery by Tas Walker of Answers in Genesis.
    25.7f   Click Here  for an October 2000 Kansas City Star article on Ballard's hypothesis.

    25.7g   Click Here  for "Why the Black Sea is not the Site of Noah's Flood",  by Glenn Morton.
    25.7h   Click Here  for discussion of Noah's flood by B. A. Robinson of the Ontario Consultants on Religious Tolerance.

25.8        Click Here  for "Flood Stories from Around the World", by Mark Isaak


26.1    See the links and articles compiled by  Dave Armstrong .

26.2    Click Here for "Answers in Creation: "Bringing the Bible and Science Together Without Conflict".


27.0    Click Here  for Perspectives on Theistic Evolution.27.1 CATHOLICISM
             Catholicism is one important source for theological discussion of theistic evolution.
27.1a    Click Here for the Catechism of the Catholic Church.

27.1b    Catholic Answers posts several essays on creation and evolution.
27.1c    Click Here for Creation and Genesis.

Click Here for Adam, Eve, and Evolution.
27.1.e   Click Here  for the 1950 Encyclical Letter by Pope Pius XII referred to in the Catholic Answers essays.
27.1f   Click Here  for an essay by  John M. Lynch on the context of the ideological issues raised by creationists such as Morris, Thomas and Koukl.

27.1g    Click Here  for "Evolution and the Pope", by Rich Milne of Probe Ministries.
27.1h    Click Here  for The Kolbe Center for the Study of Creation, a Catholic group that opposes theistic evolution in favor of young earth creationism.
27.1i    Click Here  for

Catholic Apologetics International, another Catholic group opposed to evolution.

Pope John Paul II
Click Here for the English translation of Pope John Paul II's October 22, 1996 Address to the Pontifical Academy of Sciences on evolution, Truth
                                    Cannot Contradict Truth
. Click Here

for the original French: "La vérité ne peut contredire la vérité".
27.1ja    Click Here for Stephen Jay Gould's commentary on Pope John Paul II's letter.
27.1jb    Click Here for a response from Richard Dawkins.

27.1jc    Click Here for a reaction by Cal Thomas.
27.1jd    Click Here  for Pope John Paul II's 1998 Encyclical Letter Fides et Ratio (Faith and Reason).

Pope Benedict XVI and Cardinal Christoph Schönborn
27.1k      Click Here  for "Communion and Stewardship: Human Persons Created in the Image of God".

27.1ka    Click Here for "Finding Design in Nature" by Cardinal Christoph Schönborn

Click Here for a letter to Pope Benedict XVI in response to Cardinal Schönborn's New York Times article.
27.1kc    Click Here  for "Creation and Evolution: to the Debate as it Stands", by Cardinal Christoph

Schönborn (2 October, 2005).
27.1kd    Click Here for a critique by Stephen M. Barr., October, 2005.
27.1kd    Click Here for 'The Designs of Science", by Cardinal Christoph

Schönborn, January, 2006.
27.1ke    Click Here for a talk by Vatican Observatory director, Father George V. Coyne, SJ, "Science Does Not Need God. Or Does It? A Catholic
                                      Scientist Looks at Evolution", 31 January, 2006.

27.2 Other Theistic Evolutionists
27.2a    Howard J. Van Till:  Howard J. Van Till  argues for theistic evolution from a tradition he traces to Saint Basil and  Saint Augustine .

        27.2aa    Click Here  for Van Till's "Basil, Augustine, and the Doctrine of Creation's Functional Integrity".
        27.2ab    Click Here for a critique of Van Till by Jonathan Wells.
        27.2ac    Click Here  for a critique of Van Till by John Mark Reynolds.

        27.2ad    Click Here  for Van Till's response to Wells and Reynolds: "Basil and Augustine Revisited: the Survival of Functional Integrity".
        27.2ae    Click Here   for a debate between Van Till and Phillip Johnson in First Things: "God and Evolution: An Exchange".
        27.2af    Click Here for a commentary on some of the issues raised by Van Till: "Chiasmic Cosmology and Creation's Functional Integrity", by George

                                             L. Murphy.
        27.2ag    Click here  for "Creative Providence in Biology" by Peter Ruest.

27.2b    Terry Gray is a biochemist and theistic evolutionist. Go to his Home Page for reviews of Behe and Johnson and documents pertaining to Gray's trial by the Harvest Orthodox Presbyterian Church.

Click Here for "On the Animal Ancestry of Adam's Body An Ecclesiastical Appeal in the Case of the Session of Harvest OPC vs. Dr. Terry M. Gray", and Click Here for other trial documents pertaining to Terry Gray.
Click Here for "Complexity--Yes! Irreducible--Maybe! Unexplainable--No! A Creationist Criticism of Irreducible Complexity", by Terry Gray.

27.2c    Arthur Peacocke:

Dr. Arthur Peacocke is a member of  The Society of Ordained Scientists and works on Science and Religion projects for the  John Templeton Foundation .
           Click Here   for descriptions of Peacock's books, his career, and his reception of the 2001  Templeton Prize for Progress in Religion. This article was circulated on The Meta Lists on Science and Religion .

27.2d    Kenneth Miller: Kenneth R. Miller is a Catholic cell biologist and textbook author who teaches at Brown University.    See his nicely illustrated article: Life's Grand Design

27.2e     Click Here   for "Theological Implications of an Evolving Creation", by geologist  Keith Miller

Click Here for information on a lecture by Keith Miller at CSUF on March 11, 2004:

                         "An Evolving Creation: Not an Oxymoron"

27.2f    Click Here  for comments by Bob Bakker, a famous dinosaur fossil hunter and Pentacostal preacher.

27.2g                 Click Here  for the homepage of Denis Lamoureux.

         27.2ga      Click Here  for "Evolutionary Creation" by Lamoureux.
         27.2gb      Click Here  for "The Phillip E. Johnson Phenomenon: Are Evangelicals Inheriting theWind?".

  Click Here  for "A Black Box or a Black Hole? A Response to Michael Behe".

27.2h    Click Here for "Nothing in Biology Makes Sense Except in the Light of Evolution", by Theodosius Dobzhansky

27.3    Other Discussions of Theistic Evolution

27.3a    In 1992 Phillip Johnson debated philosopher Michael Ruse over the following issue: "Can Darwinism be Reconciled with any Meaningful form of Theistic Religion?"

Johnson:  NO     Ruse:   YES

27.3b    Click Here  for articles on theistic evolution posted by the American Scientific Affiliation.
27.3c    For a critique of theistic evolution by William Dembski from the point of view of the Discovery Institute intelligent design movement, see

             What Every Theologian Should Know about Creation, Evolution, and Design .
27.3d    Click Here   for Christianity and Evolution by Carl Drews.

Click Here for Perspectives on Theistic Evolution by Phillip Jones
27.3f    Click Here for "An Open Letter Concerning Religion and Science", distributed by the "Clergy Letter Project".

                                Click Here for a response from Rev. Mark H. Creech, executive director of the Christian Action League of North Carolina, Inc.
27.3g    Click Here  for "A Catechism of Creation: An Episcopal Understanding", prepared for study in congregations by The Committee on Science,

                                      Technology and Faith.

28.1    Click Here for "Darwin's Truth, Jefferson's Vision: Sociobiology and the Politics of Human Nature" by Melvin Konner.
28.2    Click Here  for The Human Behavior and Evolution Society.

28.3    Click Here for "Of Vice and Men: The Fairy Tales of Evolutionary Psychology" by Jerry Coyne; a review of A Natural History of Rape: Biological
                                   Bases of Sexual Coercion
by Randy Thornhill and Craig Palmer.
28.4    Click Here  for a review of David Loye's book Darwin's Lost Theory of Love; reviewed by Jane Lampman in The Christian Science Monitor.

28.5    Click Here  for "Evolutionary Psychology and Its True Believers", by Andrew Ferguson.


29.1    Click Here  for "The Second Law of Thermodynamics", by Frank Lambert.

29.2    Click Here  for "The Second Law of Thermodynamics in the Context of Christian Faith", by Allan H. Harvey.
29.3    Click Here  for "The Second Law of Thermodynamics, Evolution, and Probability", by Frank Steiger of Talkorigins.
29.4    Click Here  for "Attributing False Attributes to Thermodynamics", by Frank Steiger.

29.5    Click Here  for "Thermodynamics vs. Evolutionism", by Timothy Wallace of  TrueOrigin.(includes a reply to Steiger)
29.6    Click Here  for "The Second Law of Thermodynamics and Evolution", by Frank Lambert.
29.7    Click Here  for "Life as a Manisfestation of the Second Law of Thermodynamics" by Eric Schneider and  James J. Kay.

29.8    Click Here  for "Ecosystems as Self-organizing Holarchic Open Systems : Narratives and the Second Law of Thermodynamics" by  James J. Kay.
29.9    Click Here  for "Thermodynamic Cycles, Developmental Systems, and Emergence" by Bruce Weber  and Terrance Deacon.

30.    Human Evolution

30.1      Click Here  for the WEBBOOK: How Humans Evolved.
30.1a    Click Here  for "Fossil Hominids: The Evidence for Human Evolution" by Jim Foley.

                                                           30.2    Humans and Apes
    30.2a   Click Here  for "Comparison of the Human and Great Ape Chromosomes as Evidence for Common Ancestory", by Robert Williams.
    30.2b   Click Here  for "An Inversion Between Man and Chimpanzee Chromosomes", by  Don Lindsay

    30.2c   Click Here  for "A Translocation Between Man and Chimpanzee Chromosomes, by  Don Lindsay .

Click Here for "Bite makes way for brain: A single mutation may have caused gross anatomical changes that spurred human evolution",
                                   by Brendan A Maher.

                            30.3    Technical Articles on Human Evolution
30.3a    Click Here  for   "Fluorescence

in situ hybridization analysis of keratinocyte growth factor gene amplification and dispersion in evolution of great apes and humans"
                                                                                                      by D. B. Zimonjic et al.
30.3b    Click Here  for "Hominids and Hybrids: The Place of Neanderthals in Human Evolution", by Ian Tattersall and Jeffrey H. Schwartz.
30.3c    Click Here for "Mitochondrial DNA Sequences in Ancient Australians: Implications for modern human origins" by Alan Thorne et al.

30.3d    Click Here for "Mitochondrial Genome Variation and the Origin of Modern Humans" by Max Ingman et al.
30.3e    Click Here  for a March 2001 report of the discovery of  Kenyanthropus platyops: "New hominin genus from eastern Africa shows diverse middle

Pliocene lineages" by Meave G. Leakey, et al.
30.3f    Click Here  for "Constructing primate phylogenies from ancient retrovirus sequences", by Welkin E. Johnson and John M. Coffin.
30.3g   Click Here for  "Relaxed selective pressure on an essential component of pheromone transduction in primate evolution" by Emily R. Liman and Hideki Innan.

Non-technical Articles on Human Evolution
30.4   Click Here for discussion of the Piltdown Man hoax by Richard Harter.
30.5   Click Here  for the Human Evolution Education Network.
30.6   Click Here  for a report on recent human fossil discoveries in Dmansisi, Georgia.

30.7   Click Here  for "Leakey Ancestors", a museum of human ancestors maintained by Meave Leakey.
30.8   Click Here  for "Hominid Evolution" by Stephen Broker of the Yale-New Haven Teachers Institute.
30.9   Click Here  for information on Lucy and other hominid fossils provided by the

Institute of Human Origins.
30.10  Click Here  for "Was Lucy An Ape-man?" by John Morris of The Institute for Creation Research.
30.11  Click Here  for "Lucy's Knee Joint" by Jim Lippard on the Talk.Origins Archive.

30.12  Click Here  for "Neanderthals and Modern Humans: A Regional Guide".
30.13    Click Here  for a report on recent discoveries in Australia: "Is Out of Africa Going Out the Door?"
30.14    Click Here  for "Human Evolution".

30.15    Click Here  for Anthropology in the News.
30.16    Click Here  for "The Genetic Archaeology of Race" by Steve Olson from The Atlantic Monthly April 2001.
           [Subtitle: DNA analysis is explaining where "racial difference" comes from—and what it does and doesn't mean. The study of human genetic variation has become the

                most contentious area in modern science.]
30.16a  Click Here  for "Gene Map Presents Race Concerns", by Kristen Philipkoski.
30.17    Click Here for Becoming Human, developed by the  Institute of Human Origins.

30.18    Click Here  for The Smithsonian Institution Human Origins Program: In Search of What Makes Us Human.
30.19    Click Here  for a talkorigins comparison of hominid skulls.
30.20    Click Here  for "Evolution's Youth Movement: Fossil children may harbor clues to humanity's origins", by Bruce Bower.

30.21    Click Here  for discussion of Sarfati's claim that "Human lysozyme is closer to chicken lysozyme than to that of any other mammal", Refuting
, p. 83.
30.22    Click Here  for "The Bullfrog Affair", a discussion of several protein controversies, including lysozyme.
30.23    Click Here  for discussion of Kent Hovind's claim that human cytochrome c is closest to that of a sunflower.


31.1    Click Here  for "Double-Dealing in Darwin: Are intellectuals allowing dogma in science but not in religion?" by Michael Ruse.
31.2    Click Here for "Government shouldn't choose sides in evolution debate".
31.3    Click Here  for "Scientific proof, not faith, determines what is truthful".

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/departments/chemistry/evolution_creation/web/counter.asp, line 3

TOPICS: Culture/Society; Philosophy
KEYWORDS: acanthostega; calstate; creation; creationism; crevolist; evolution; fullerton; godsgravesglyphs; ichthyostega; id
Here is a tally of Secular Universities that have Intelligent Design in some of their classroom content:
Knox College
University of Memphis (John Angus Campbell)
University of Alabama
University of Minnesota (Chris Macosko)
Akron (Dan Ely)
Iowa State University (Ingerbritzen)
Leheigh (Michael Behe)
University of Toronto
George Mason University
James Madison University
NVCC (Caroline Crocker)
Cal State Fullerton
1 posted on 05/04/2006 8:53:30 PM PDT by SirLinksalot
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To: SirLinksalot

Yes you do.
2 posted on 05/04/2006 8:58:39 PM PDT by ndt
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To: SirLinksalot

I'm HAPPY to report that my Son goes to a school that will give him a USEFUL education.


3 posted on 05/04/2006 8:58:51 PM PDT by Howie66 ("America will never seek a permission slip to defend the security of our people.")
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To: ndt

Indeed. That post was... substantial.

4 posted on 05/04/2006 9:03:54 PM PDT by Gordongekko909 (I know. Let's cut his WHOLE BODY off.)
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To: SirLinksalot

Wow!?! Links a whole lot! Anyway, does anyone have a problem with ID being discussed in a university curriculum? ID certainly doesn't belong in k-12 science classes, but this seems appropriate.

5 posted on 05/04/2006 9:12:53 PM PDT by Paddlefish ("The secret to happiness is short-term, stupid self-interest!"-Calvin)
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To: SirLinksalot
Cornell has a substantial interest in pure science and the methodology thereof. It wouldn't surprise me that they would include ID as a topic of classroom discussion for the purpose of learning more about teaching good science.
6 posted on 05/04/2006 9:17:10 PM PDT by spinestein (The mainstream news media are to journalism what fast food chains are to fine dining.)
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To: SirLinksalot
All they are missing is PatrickHenry's List-O-Links.
7 posted on 05/04/2006 9:32:41 PM PDT by Coyoteman (Creationists know Jack Chick about evolution.)
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To: SirLinksalot
Liberal Studies 487:
8 posted on 05/04/2006 10:21:54 PM PDT by shuckmaster (An oak tree is an acorns way of making more acorns)
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To: The Ghost of FReepers Past; ohioWfan; Tribune7; Tolkien; GrandEagle; Right in Wisconsin; Dataman; ..

Revelation 4:11Intelligent Design
Constantly searching for objectivity in the evolution debate...
See my profile for info

9 posted on 05/04/2006 10:38:00 PM PDT by wallcrawlr (
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To: spinestein
It wouldn't surprise me that they would include ID as a topic of classroom discussion for the purpose of learning more about teaching good science.

I concur. Teaching Intelligent Design is a very good means of illustrating good science by providing a clear case of a negative example.
10 posted on 05/05/2006 12:20:58 AM PDT by Dimensio ( <-- required reading before you use your next apostrophe!)
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To: SirLinksalot
Its not a science class, it appears to be a liberal arts class. Thats okay by me (not that I have to OK it).
11 posted on 05/05/2006 12:34:26 AM PDT by RHINO369
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To: SirLinksalot

Thanks for the ping. Bookmarked.

12 posted on 05/05/2006 6:36:54 AM PDT by Michael_Michaelangelo (The best theory is not ipso facto a good theory.)
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To: SirLinksalot

13 posted on 05/05/2006 8:02:50 AM PDT by DaveLoneRanger ("You're not going crazy! You're going sane in a crazy world!" - The Tick)
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To: SirLinksalot

Well, given the length, and the amount of links, of this post, you may not hear from me much today. It seems I've got some reading to do.

14 posted on 05/05/2006 10:07:02 AM PDT by Conservative Texan Mom (Some people say I'm stubborn, when it's usually just that I'm right.)
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Just adding this to the GGG catalog, not sending a general distribution.

To all -- please ping me to other topics which are appropriate for the GGG list. Thanks.
Please FREEPMAIL me if you want on or off the
"Gods, Graves, Glyphs" PING list or GGG weekly digest
-- Archaeology/Anthropology/Ancient Cultures/Artifacts/Antiquities, etc.
Gods, Graves, Glyphs (alpha order)

15 posted on 05/31/2006 7:15:06 PM PDT by SunkenCiv (
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To: SirLinksalot

Bookmarked. Thanks a lot.

16 posted on 09/15/2006 8:47:04 AM PDT by onedoug
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