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The Ides of March—a Day of Murder That Forever Changed History
National Geographic ^ | MARCH 14, 2023 | Jennifer Vernon

Posted on 03/14/2023 2:24:52 PM PDT by nickcarraway

The Ides of March—a day of murder that forever changed history ​The assassination of Julius Caesar in 44 B.C still resonates as a day of infamy. Here's how the plot unfolded.

Julius Caesar's bloody assassination on March 15, 44 B.C., forever marked March 15, or the Ides of March, as a day of infamy. It has fascinated scholars and writers ever since.

For ancient Romans living before that event, however, an ides was merely one of several common calendar terms used to mark monthly lunar events. The ides simply marked the appearance of the full moon.

But Romans would soon learn to beware the Ides of March. That iconic phrase came to represent a day of abrupt change, setting off a ripple of repercussions throughout Roman society and beyond.

Why did Romans plot to kill Caesar?

By the time of Caesar, Rome had a long-established republican government headed by two consuls with joint powers. Praetors were one step below consuls in the power chain and handled judicial matters. A body of citizens forming the Senate proposed legislation, which general people's assemblies then approved by vote. A special temporary office, that of dictator, was established for use only during times of extreme civil unrest.

(What did Julius Caesar really look like?)

The Romans had no love for kings. According to legend, they expelled their last one in 509 B.C. While Caesar had made pointed and public displays of turning down offers of kingship, he showed no reluctance to accept the office of “dictator for life” in February of 44 B.C. This action may have sealed his fate in the minds of his enemies.

Caesar had pushed the envelope for some time before his death. “Caesar was the first living Roman ever to appear on the coinage,” Josiah Osgood, a historian at Georgetown University told Nat Geo in 2004. Normally, the honor was reserved for deities. He notes that some historians suspect that Caesar might have been attempting to establish a cult in his honor in a move toward deification.

The plot's conspirators, who termed themselves “the liberators,” had to move quickly as Caesar had plans to leave Rome for a campaign against the Parthians. Two days before his departure, he was summoned to the Senate for what would be a fateful meeting. The conspirators gathered around Caesar and stabbed him to death as the rest of the Roman Senate watched in horror.

(These blow-by-blow accounts reveal what happened on the Ides of March.)

What did Brutus have to do with it all? Whether or not Caesar was a true tyrant is debated still to this day. It is safe to say, however, that in the mind of Marcus Brutus, who helped mastermind the attack, the threat Caesar posed to the republican system was clear.

Brutus was famously portrayed in William Shakespeare's Julius Caesar as a tragic hero, while Caesar was written as an unequivocal tyrant. In the play, Caesar sees Brutus among the crowd of assassins and says of the betrayal with his dying breath, "Et tu, Brute?"

Brutus's involvement in the murder is made tragic given his close affiliations with Caesar. His mother, Servilia, was one of Caesar's lovers. And although Brutus had fought against Caesar during Rome's recent civil war, he was spared from death and later promoted by Caesar to the office of praetor.

Brutus, however, was torn in his allegiance to Caesar. Brutus's family had a tradition of rejecting authoritarian powers. Ancestor Junius Brutus was credited with throwing out the last king of Rome, Tarquin Superbus, in 509 B.C. Ahala, an ancestor of Marcus Brutus's mother, had killed another tyrant, Spurius Maelius. This lineage, coupled with a strong interest in the Greek idea of tyranicide, disposed Brutus to have little patience with perceived power grabbers.

The final blow came when his uncle Cato, a father figure to Brutus, killed himself after losing in a battle against Caesar in 46 B.C. Brutus may have felt both shame over accepting Caesar's clemency and obligation to do Cato honor by continuing his quest to “save” the republic from Caesar, Osgood speculated.

It is this moral dilemma that has caused debate over whether or not Brutus should be branded a villain. Plutarch's Life of Brutus, Osgood noted, is quite sympathetic in comparison to surviving documents naming other enemies of Caesar and his successors.

Legacy of the attack

Shakespeare's Julius Caesar was based on Plutarch's account of Brutus. The poet Dante, however, took a different stance: Brutus, in killing the man who spared him, was doomed to the lowest levels of hell.

(How blood and betrayed turned Rome from republic to empire.)

Scholars disagree on just who was the on the side of good. But in the end, the Roman public turned against the assassins—and the legacy of power Caesar established lived on through his heir Octavian, who later became Rome's first emperor, also known as Imperator Caesar Augustus.


TOPICS: Conspiracy; History; Military/Veterans
KEYWORDS: caesar; dante; donatefreerepublic; epigraphyandlanguage; godsgravesglyphs; idesofmarch; idesofmrch; juliuscaesar; juliusceasar; plutarch; romanempire; rome; shakespeare; williamshakespeare
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It is the bright day that brings forth the adder
1 posted on 03/14/2023 2:24:52 PM PDT by nickcarraway
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To: nickcarraway

I have often wondered if Julius Caesar was actually assassinated on the ‘Ides of March” or if Shakespeare sorta kinda figured it sounded good.
What I do know is the Ides of March was sorta kinda different on the calendar Shakespeare was using than the calendar them old Roman did. 12-13 days off?


2 posted on 03/14/2023 2:38:29 PM PDT by Tupelo (A House Divided Against Itself Cannot Stand)
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To: nickcarraway

When I hear or read about the Ides of March, I think about Caesar only after I do a Jim Peterik impression on air guitar. Great God in heaven you know I lu-u-uv you.


3 posted on 03/14/2023 2:46:49 PM PDT by KingLudd
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To: nickcarraway

“I’m your vehicle baby....”


4 posted on 03/14/2023 2:58:38 PM PDT by Psalm 73 ("You'll never hear surf music again" - J. Hendrix)
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To: Psalm 73

It’s the eye of the tiger
It’s the thrill of the fight


5 posted on 03/14/2023 3:00:39 PM PDT by nickcarraway
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To: Tupelo

Shakespeare didn’t come up with, his source, Plutarch said a soothsayer warned Caesar about that date. Of course, Shakespeare did like predictions, witches, soothsayers, omens, and that kind of thing, so he would jump on it.


6 posted on 03/14/2023 3:03:07 PM PDT by nickcarraway
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To: nickcarraway; KingLudd; Psalm 73

See post #4 and #5.


7 posted on 03/14/2023 3:04:01 PM PDT by nickcarraway
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To: nickcarraway

“Great minds” and all....


8 posted on 03/14/2023 3:05:19 PM PDT by Psalm 73 ("You'll never hear surf music again" - J. Hendrix)
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To: KingLudd

“ When I hear or read about the Ides of March, I think about Caesar only after I do a Jim Peterik impression on air guitar. Great God in heaven you know I lu-u-uv you”

You win the thread!


9 posted on 03/14/2023 3:10:43 PM PDT by njmaugbill
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To: nickcarraway

10 posted on 03/14/2023 3:12:25 PM PDT by dfwgator (Endut! Hoch Hech!)
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To: Tupelo
I have often wondered if Julius Caesar was actually assassinated on the ‘Ides of March” or if Shakespeare sorta kinda figured it sounded good.

Julius Caesar was killed on March 15th. March 15th was an important day in the Republic - it was the first business day of the year for the Roman Senate (March, not January, being the first month of the year in the original Roman calendar). March 15th was the day the two elected consuls would give their acceptance speeches to the Senate. It was also the day the previous year's taxes and debts were due to Rome. And on March 14th, Brutus attended a dinner party at Caesar's home and invited Caesar to give a speech to adjourn the Senate the next day, in the tradition of previous consuls, in which Caesar accepted.

11 posted on 03/14/2023 3:16:19 PM PDT by Right_Wing_Madman
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To: njmaugbill

“You win the thread!”

My mom would become apoplectic when she heard me playing this song. She was constantly afraid I would be abducted by some stranger or the Moonies. Lol.


12 posted on 03/14/2023 3:23:01 PM PDT by KingLudd
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To: nickcarraway

Thanks for sharing this very interesting article. Between that and my ADHD, I was forced to do some additional research on Julius Caesar and his cohorts, of which I knew remarkably little. History is fascinating.


13 posted on 03/14/2023 3:27:41 PM PDT by Prince of Space (Let’s Go, Brandon! )
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To: nickcarraway

Brutus and Cassius were fighting to wrest Roman Republic back from Emperor Caesar. Viva La Republic!


14 posted on 03/14/2023 3:29:01 PM PDT by Jan_Sobieski (Sanctification)
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To: Right_Wing_Madman

Saw a video couple years back of historical re-enactment of the assassination

Found if all the twenty odd conspirators tried to bum rush Caesar and stab him would have got into each others way and probably end up stabbing each other

Probably only 2 or 3 actually stabbed Caesar - rest would have later dipped their daggers in the blood as a symbol


15 posted on 03/14/2023 3:39:16 PM PDT by njslim
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To: Jan_Sobieski
Brutus and Cassius were fighting to wrest Roman Republic back from Emperor Caesar. Viva La Republic!

The assassination of Julius Caesar is a historical tragedy in the sense that both sides were right: the conspirators thinking that Caesar had instituted monarchy and Caesar thinking that the chaos, war, and turmoil at the end of the Republic made monarchy inevitable.

16 posted on 03/14/2023 3:41:45 PM PDT by Right_Wing_Madman
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To: njslim

If I remember correctly, Caesar sustained 22 stab wounds, only two of which would have been fatal.


17 posted on 03/14/2023 4:35:05 PM PDT by sima_yi ( Reporting live from the far North)
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To: sima_yi
If I remember correctly, Caesar sustained 22 stab wounds, only two of which would have been fatal.

It only takes one.

18 posted on 03/14/2023 4:36:05 PM PDT by dfwgator (Endut! Hoch Hech!)
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To: nickcarraway

Tragic loss, IMHO. The guy could make a heck of a salad.


19 posted on 03/14/2023 4:44:11 PM PDT by Billthedrill
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To: nickcarraway
forever marked March 15, or the Ides of March, as a day of infamy.

History teaches what happens when people lose faith in Pi Day.

It was supposed to go on forever.

20 posted on 03/14/2023 4:50:21 PM PDT by Ezekiel (🆘️ "Come fly with US". Ingenuity -- because the Son of David begins with Mars ♂️, aka every man)
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