Skip to comments.Alternatives to Calorimetry
Posted on 08/01/2021 10:09:58 PM PDT by Kevmo
Alternatives to Calorimetry
Laboratoire de Recherches Associatives, BP 4, 95131 Franconville Cedex, France
John Giles Deuo Dynamics, United Kingdom
⃝c 2020 ISCMNS. All rights reserved. ISSN 2227-3123
∗Corresponding author. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
54 F. David and J. Giles / Journal of Condensed Matter Nuclear Science 31 (2020) 53–61
Since the first publication of Martin Fleischman and Stanley Pons in 1989, the majority of articles in the LENR field have focused on calorimetry. Many calorimetry experiments are masterpieces of science. Nevertheless, despite the experimental evidence, the results indicating excessive heat have not convinced the scientific community.
For this purpose, we propose three relatively simple techniques: The “Fusion Diode” effect, the Reifenschweiler effect and a new postulated effect, not yet observed: the magnetic alignment of the tritium pairs.
Keywords: Bose–Einstein condensate, Deuterium, Direct conversion, Fusion diode, Tritium
Since the first publication of Martin Fleischman and Stanley Pons in 1989, the majority of articles in the LENR field have focused on calorimetry . This is true for both electrolysis experiments and gaseous loading experiments . Many calorimetry experiments are masterpieces of science .
Nevertheless, despite the experimental evidence, the results indicating excessive heat have not convinced the scientific community. Well-designed calorimetry experiments take a very long time to be developed.
It’s an issue, because it would be good to test many alloys systematically. It is likely that there are still unknown alloys whose ability to generate what Dr. Ed Storms calls a “Nuclear Active Environment”  is greater than that of palladium.
It is certain that low concentrations of elements such as lithium, boron, beryllium in these alloys will have undoubtedly positive effects. We need fast and reproducible tests to sort all these alloys and select the most promising samples.
Several authors have suggested that the quantum condensation of deuterium nuclei is at the root of the appearance of “NAE” [6–9]. It would be very useful to provide irrefutable proof of the existence of these quantum phases. But on top of that, these quantum phases could provide a relatively easy way to sort out the most useful alloys for LENRs.
Figure 1. Fusion diode.
For this purpose, we propose three relatively simple techniques: (1) The “Fusion Diode” effect: deuterated alloys in contact with a semiconductor cause the appearance of an easy-to-measure electrical voltage. If this voltage is actually due to the direct conversion of LENR, we have a simple method to select the most promising alloys (Fig. 1).
(2) The Reifenschweiler effect: the variation of tritium beta-rays bremsstrahlung conversion efficiency as a function of temperature is also a simple method for sorting the most efficient alloys .
(3) The magnetic alignment of the tritium pairs: this effect, which we have postulated, but not yet observed, would make it possible to very quickly test many new alloys .
In this article, we want to discuss how it is possible to find alternatives to calorimetric experiments.
2. The Fusion Diode Effect
It is very difficult to make good calorimetric recordings. It is easier to count X-rays. But the easiest way to get a scientific evidence about any kind of phenomena is to do electrical recording. We have suggested the idea of “Fusion Diodes”.
Fusion diodes are made of a palladium (or other alloys) in close contact with a semiconductor. This is a semiconducting diode. When fusion reactions take place near the metal/semiconductor contact, at the beginning we had high energy quanta (in the MeV range), and then thermalization occurs, leading to Anomalous Heat Effect (down-conversion of Hagelstein).
But before thermalization, the decaying energy match the level of excitation of the electrons of the metal: some energy is transmitted to the electrons before thermalization (like in a photovoltaic cell, but in our diodes, the energy source is expected to be the fusion of deuterium, protium, or perhaps lithium, boron, or beryllium).
At the contact between metal hydride and metal, pairs of electrons and holes are created, and depending to the height of the potential barrier between the two material, a voltage is created (and also an electrical current, of course). We can record the voltage and the intensity of the resulting current at the positive and negative side of the diode.
This simple device allows a simple recording of the total output power, because there is no electrical input. We plan to record this electrical energy during months or even years, to exclude the possibility of a chemical origin.
It is important to note that these devices have no electrical input. There is also no thermal input.
The energy is released as electrical current, and this is very easy to record with high accuracy.
We are using diodes made of palladium as the metal, and silicon as the semiconductor. We have also tried other semiconductors like aluminum nitride and organic semiconducting ink. But we only published our experiments with silicon. The palladium is loaded with deuterium simply by the gas-loading method.
We do not know the effective loading value, but it is probably rather high, because of the micrometer size of the palladium powder.
A diode is basically a surface of contact with a metal (electronic conductor) and a semiconductor (hole conductor). We think that the deuterium nuclei which are in the palladium will be driven in the direction of the electric field.
Once these deuterium nuclei will arrive at the interface between palladium and the semiconductor, they will accumulate there. The probability of fusion probably will increase .
Better: if reactions of cold nuclear transmutation take place into the junction, an excitation of the electrons will occur at this place (as in the junction zone of a photovoltaic cell).
A solar cell is a nothing more than a flat diode with a large surface. When photons fall on the junction zone, some atoms are excited, and electrons pass from a low energy level to a higher energy level. A spontaneous electric voltage thus will appear. It is what we observed.
In our diodes, the nuclear energy is transmitted to the electrons before thermalization.
In order to get a surface of junction as large as possible, our fusion diodes are made as powder diodes, with a large surface junction made up of a semiconductor powder in contact with palladium powder charged with deuterium .
The weight of palladium powder is comprised between 1 and 2 g by diode. This energy very quickly appears as a spontaneous potential difference which can reach over 0.5 V/junction (open circuit) (Fig. 2). Figure 2. Powder fusion diode (length: 14 cm, diameter: 1.6 cm).
Figure 3. Voltage recording at the ends of a fusion diode.
Diodes comprising of a stack of junctions were made, making it possible to obtain over 1 V at the poles of a very compact device of a few centimeters’ length.
The released power remains very low for the moment, (in the nanowatt range) but it should be noted that it is presented in the form of directly usable electrical energy, and not of thermal energy (Fig. 3).
Of course, we have made blank and control experiments. We have built three diodes each time, one filed with pure deuterium (1.5 bar) another filled with hydrogen at the same pressure, and another filled with pure argon. We observed no voltage with argon filling, a little voltage with hydrogen, twice the voltage with deuterium.
We think that the observed voltage with hydrogen is generated by the little amount of deuterium in the hydrogen (0.015% of deuterium in natural hydrogen). But it is difficult to avoid the deuterium leak, and the ensuing voltage drop. We plan to seal a diode in a glass tube, and measure the energy produced for several months.
Thus, it will be possible to determine whether the energy observed is actually of nuclear origin, or if it is an artefact of electrochemical origin. After several months, it will be sufficient to weigh the copper deposited on a cathode (a tiny wire of copper) whose weight is known at the beginning of the experiment to prove that the energy produced is of nuclear origin (or not. . . ).
Of course, it is rather tedious to work with powders. But the “Fusion Diode” effect is highly reproducible, even with thin films of organic semiconductors. The authors used many different embodiments of the “Fusion Diode”.
Another team working on “fusion diodes” has made diodes by vacuum metallizing silicon wafers. On one side is deposited a palladium film, and on the other a gold film (forthcoming publication).
Figure 4. Stack of fusion diodes (please read “PVC” instead of the wrong acronym “PVS”).
We used sheets of aluminum foil covered on one side by a thin sheet of palladium, and on the other by a layer of semiconducting paint (Plexcorer Organic Conductive Ink, Sigma). Little disks are then cut with a punch and these disks are stacked on top of one another and compressed with a hydraulic press. A valve makes it possible to pressurize the container with deuterium (Fig. 4).
A better method would be to use a plastic semiconductor film covered with a palladium sheet on one side, and a gold leaf on the other side. Whether in the form of metal powders or thin metal foils, it is possible to quickly test a large number of alloys containing deuterium or hydrogen.
The higher the voltage, the better the LENR properties of the tested alloy. A large number of new alloys have been developed over the last 20 years by the metal-hydride battery industry, and also for the storage of hydrogen. Many of these alloys are available in the supplier’s catalogs (Sigma–Aldrich).
These alloys are much cheaper than palladium, and their price will drop considerably as soon as they are produced in industrial quantities. Nickel alloys look promising .
By way of example, the properties of the ZrV2 H5.5 alloy are better than those of pure palladium (3% weight of hydrogen versus 0.5% for PdH0.6 and equivalent pressure at 300 K of 10−8 bar versus 0.02 bar for palladium) (Ref: D. Chandra et al., Material Matters, Vol 6, no. 2, Sigma–Aldrich eds., 2010).
3. The Use of the Reifenschweiler Effect
The Dr. Otto Reifenschweiller was heading the neutrons generators department of PHILIPS during the 1960s. In 1964, Reifenschweiler noticed that the apparent beta-decay of the tritium absorbed into titanium changes with the temperature of the titanium.
Reifenschweiler has waited his retirement to publish his observations . Here is the curve obtained by Reifenschweiller: the apparent radioactivity of tritium decreases by 40% (Fig. 5).
In our opinion, the number of disintegrations per second does not change, it is just the yield of counting X-rays produced by bremsstrahlung that varies.
We believe that at low temperatures, the tritium nuclei contained in the metal combine two by two to form composite bosons (two tritium nuclei of opposite spin form a composite boson, such as helium-3 nuclei in superfluid helium-3). The tritium nuclei have a spin of 1/2. They are therefore fermions.
In superconductors, the electrons combine two by two to form composite bosons of spin 0 (the two electrons of each pair are of opposite spin 1/2). These composite bosons can form a superconducting quantum phase.
We hypothesize that tritium nuclei can also associate two by two to form composite spin-zero bosons.
These composite bosons can therefore form a Bose–Einstein Condensate (we will not discuss here the physical phenomena that make possible the existence of a BEC at room temperature) [11,12].
In this case, during the beta decay of a triton in this BEC, there is no more recoil of the nucleus: the energy of beta rays and neutrinos increases.
The whole spectrum of beta electrons is shifted slightly towards high energies, and the counting efficiency increases. As the temperature increases, the pairs of tritium nuclei break and the Bose–Einstein Condensate disappears, and thus the counting efficiency of the radioactivity decreases.
The decay energy of tritium is divided into three parts: the electron energy, the neutrino energy, and the recoil energy of the helium-3 nucleus (Fig. 6).
We hypothesize that when the tritium nuclei are engaged in a BEC, it is the whole BEC that absorbs the recoil energy. As a result, there is very little energy transmitted to the BEC, and therefore, correlatively, there is more energy carried by the neutrino and the beta electron.
The spectrum of the beta rays is thus shifted to the “high” energies (Fig. 7). If the BEC is suppressed by the rise of the temperature, in the opposite way, the spectrum is moved towards the low energies.
This effect is extremely weak. But by chance, we have a natural amplifier that helps us to highlight it. Indeed, in the Reifenschweiler experiments, the conversion of beta rays into X-rays by bremsstrahlung is used.
This effect is mainly caused by the upper part of the energy spectrum of tritium (low energy X-rays do not come out of the experimental setup, nor do they enter the Geiger counter, so they are not counted). A small shift to high energy will therefore have a relatively large effect.
This phenomenon is very important for our field of research because many authors have asserted that the “Nuclear Active Environment” that allows the LENRs is due to the formation of Bose–Einstein Condensates [4–7].
It is therefore possible to use the Reifenschweiller effect to sort the new alloys containing hydrogen according to their capacity to house BECs. (Of course, we will use a simpler experimental device than that of Reifenschweiler: small sealed ampoules glass containing the alloy powder and tritium, and a small programmable oven.)
It is probably possible to design experimental devices even simpler, and bringing even more convincing results.
4. The Magnetic Alignment of the Tritium Pairs
This effect, which we have postulated, but not yet observed, would make it possible to very quickly test many new hybrid-forming alloys. We propose to make sealed glass sources containing alloy powder and tritium.
These sources will be placed in the gap of a powerful electromagnet. When the electromagnet will be turned on, the spins of the tritium nuclei will align with the magnetic field and the composite bosons will be destroyed.
The condensate of Bose– Einstein will disappear. The beta spectrum will be shifted slightly towards the low energies and the counting efficiency of the radioactivity will decrease.
If it exists, this new effect will be easy to prove and it can be very useful to sort the best NAE alloys, regardless of the theoretical importance of this effect.
Despite the quality of the experimental results proving the reality of the Fleischman–Pons effect (excess heat in palladium and deuterium alloys), the majority of scientists are still not convinced of the existence of LENRs.
We believe that the three phenomena of the “Fusion Diode” effect, the Reifenschweiler effect, and the magnetic suppression of the triton’s pairs, if confirmed, could be the basis for new techniques to confirm the calorimetry experiments.
It would also be possible to use these effects to quickly select new alloys that can be used to produce LENRs.
Here there is a possible explanation as to why the BECs will STOP forming and then re-forming.
for the cold fusion ping list
About the Reifenschweiler Effect
contribution from A. Alberts
Ludwik Kowalski; 11/xx/2006
Department of Mathematical Sciences
Montclair State University, Upper Montclair, NJ, 07043
About two months ago Albert Alberts, from Netherlands, mentioned some observations made by Otto Reifenschweiler. This was on the restricted Internet list for CMNS researchers. Asked for a clarification, Alberts wrote:
“The ‘Reifenschweiler effect’ is the observation that the beta-decay of tritium half-life 12.5 years is delayed reversibly by about 25-30% when the isotope is absorbed in 15 nm titanium-clusters in a temperature window in between 160-275 C. Remarkably at 360 C the original radioactivity reappears. The effect is absent in bulk metal. Discovered around 1960/1962 at Philips Research Eindhoven, The Netherlands Reifenschweiler extensively discussed his observation with o.a Casimir (the director of research at the time), Kistemaker (ultracentrifuge expert), and although no satisfactory explanation was found, R. was allowed to publish it. At the time a unique example as to how an electronic environment might affect nuclear phenomena.”
In a private e-mail message Alberts, who used to be a physics teacher, wrote: “I don’t know if that work was replicated, he was invited to, I think, Sandia and later to Los Alamos to demonstrate the effect, instigated by a fellow named Cox. What I do know is that it was replicated in the Philips labs many times, supervised by the eminent Casimir at the time. The beta-rays were detected by Geiger-Mueller counters, at the time Philips had the most advanced evaporation/evacuation techniques possible. Even electron microscopy. The work was criticized by a German fellow, but Reifenschweiler retaliated. That stuff should be in his reprints.” He also wrote that he is in contact with Dr. Reifenschweiler (who is quite old) and that he has some old manuscripts. Subsequently I asked Alberts to compose an essay on Reifenschweiler effect. He agreed. His essay will be shown below as soon as it arrives. I think Reifenschweiler himself will assist in writing a good summary. Meanwhile let me mention that a French researcher, Fabrice David, also summarized Reifenschweiler effect in 2004. That was the topic of his presentation at ICCF11 (11th International Conference on Cold Fusion) in Marseilles.
ALBERTS’ ESSAY WILL BE PLACED HERE
Very interesting paper. The manufacture of a Bose-Einstein condensate would explain many things about LENR, although how a BEC could form at anything like room temperature is hard to visualize, and the authors are coy on this rather important detail.
Still, their big-picture view of the overall state of LENR research is interesting and instructive.
There have been room temperature BECs formed out of polaritons. And high temperature BECs are forming at higher and higher temperatures almost every day.
My theory is that these particles form LINEAR BECs after they form Luttinger Liquids which form at much higher temperatures than ordinary temperatures due to effects of linearity.
Vibrating 1 Dimensional Luttinger Liquid Bose Einstein Condensate theory [V1DLLBEC]
Scientific Milestone: A room temperature Bose-Einstein ...
Polariton Bose-Einstein condensate at room temperature in an Al (Ga)N nanowire-dielectric microcavity with a spatial potential trap, by Ayan Das, Pallab Bhattacharya, Junseok Heo, Animesh Banerjee, and Wei Guo, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, February 19, 2013, vol. 110 no. 8.
Bose-Einstein Condensate Made at Room Temperature for ...
The quantum mechanical phenomena, known as Bose-Einstein Condensate (BEC), was first demonstrated in 1995 when experiments proved that the septuagenarian theory did in fact exist in the physical world. Of course, to achieve the phenomena a state of near absolute zero (-273 Celsius, -459 Fahrenheit) had to be created.
Bose-Einstein condensate observed in room-temperature ...
Scanning tunneling microscopy reveals unexpected optical phonon effect In a recently published open-access paper in the journal Nature Scientific Reports, scientists reported the observation of a room-temperature condensate of optical phonons, called a Bose-Einstein (B-E) condensate. “We did not predict this B-E condensate in our model.
Polariton Bose Einstein condensate at room temperature in ...
Search domain pnas.orghttps://www.pnas.org/content/pnas/110/8/2735.full.pdf
Polariton Bose-Einstein condensate at room temperature in an Al(Ga)N nanowire-dielectric microcavity with a spatial potential trap Ayan Das a,1, Pallab Bhattacharya , Junseok Heoa, Animesh Banerjeea, and Wei Guob aCenter for Photonic and Multiscale Nanomaterials, Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI
It seems to me that a demonstration of BEC formation in conjunction with excess heat production, or any other manifestation of nuclear activity (neutron generation, tritium generation, gamma ray flux, etc.) would be a game-changer for LENR.
A "linear BEC" sounds rather like the "hydroton" model of Edmund Storms, at least to one who's knowledge of the subject is as limited as mine. I see from what you've offered, and from a Google search, that there are many workers who are pursuing BEC-related theoretical explanations for LENR effects. I was not aware of this until now.
Also the Reifenschweiler effect is something I was completely unaware of, and is pleasantly obscure and therefore seems credible, yet another demonstration that there are things going on within condensed matter physics that might have an effect on nuclear processes even at relatively low temperatures and pressures.
All of which conspires to make the effort to strangle cold fusion in the crib all the more reprehensible, short-sighted, and antithetical to the scientific endeavor. Water under the dam, I suppose; many if not most of those who instigated it are retired. I know personally of one physicist who took part in the organized quashing effort who is now deceased. At his funeral, the faculty colleague who gave his scientific eulogy asserted that "if cold fusion ever turned out to be real, the physics researched by Professor "X" (the decedent) will be critical for explaining it."
I've always thought this was a rather odd way to eulogize someone who enthusiastically participated in the organized effort to discredit Pons and Fleischmann back 1989, almost seeming like a posthumous effort to hedge the bets of the dearly departed; perhaps this was as a result of second thoughts expressed by "X" during the years after the hubbub died down. "X" passed away in 2012, not long after he retired, so he had 23 years to think twice about the subject.
BTW, the area of interest of "X" was the production of large quantities spin-stabilized hydrogen, and the exploration of the physics of that phase of the element.
"conversion of beta rays into X-rays by bremsstrahlung is used."
Because I do not understand it.
I once was looking into this with regards to BECs.
Re: [Vo]:BEC transforms photon frequency
Kevin O'Malley Mon, 27 May 2013 18:43:11 -0700
This paper verifies that a photon eradiated Bose-Einstein condensate will cut the frequency of incoming photons by dividing that frequency between N numbers of atoms.
***So if one assumes a gamma ray is emitted by a BEC cold fusion event, eventually one could go backwards and measure the frequency generated to see how many atoms formed the BEC, right? And the average frequency would give us the average # of atoms per BEC. I wonder if anyone has ever measured emitted frequencies of LENR experiments.
On Mon, May 27, 2013 at 12:49 AM, Axil Axil janap...@gmail.com wrote:
This paper verifies that a photon eradiated Bose-Einstein condensate will cut the frequency of incoming photons by dividing that frequency between N numbers of atoms.
Rydberg excitation of a Bose-Einstein condensate
“The results of theoretical simulations are represented by the continuous lines.
According to the super-atom picture the collective Rabi frequency for the coherent excitation of N atoms is frequency (collective) = square root(number of atoms) X frequency(single);
Where the single-particle Rabi frequency (single) is app 2 pi x 200 kHz for our experimental parameters.”
How would they demonstrate that it is a BEC?
A “linear BEC” sounds rather like the “hydroton” model of Edmund Storms, at least to one who’s knowledge of the subject is as limited as mine. I see from what you’ve offered, and from a Google search, that there are many workers who are pursuing BEC-related theoretical explanations for LENR effects. I was not aware of this until now.
***I proposed my theory on Vortex-L and Edmund Storms was an active participant. He couldn’t get past the notion that BECs just plain HAVE TO form at close to absolute zero even when it was plain to see that their temperatures of formation was rising. IIRC, the polariton room temperature formation of BECs came at around the time I was in correspondence with him on Vortex-L.
Eventually we came to a loggerheads when I was talking about laser application to LENR. Dr. Stephen Chu was Obama’s nobel-winning science advisor who won it by laser coooooling a group of atoms into a BEC. And Dr. Meulenberg & KP Sinha formed a LENR environment by shining a laser on THEIR experiment. Sinha told me by phone that he was COOLING the device by using the laser.
That was too much for Ed Storms. He broke off communication, soon afterwards he openly quit posting on Vortex-L. It seemed like he was stuck on thinking that lasers heat up things rather than can be used to cool them down.
I think that fact somehow negates his theory.
Also the Reifenschweiler effect is something I was completely unaware of, and is pleasantly obscure
***Yes it strikes me as very obscure as well, and possibly not even replicated.
and therefore seems credible, yet another demonstration that there are things going on within condensed matter physics that might have an effect on nuclear processes even at relatively low temperatures and pressures.
***Atoms don’t interact in the same way inside condensed matter, and I doubt the branching ratios of nuclear decay are the same, either.
All of which conspires to make the effort to strangle cold fusion in the crib all the more reprehensible, short-sighted, and antithetical to the scientific endeavor.
***Well, yeah. So you see my passion for digging into this.
Water under the dam, I suppose; many if not most of those who instigated it are retired. I know personally of one physicist who took part in the organized quashing effort who is now deceased.
***Planck’s observation that science advances one funeral at a time.
At his funeral, the faculty colleague who gave his scientific eulogy asserted that “if cold fusion ever turned out to be real, the physics researched by Professor “X” (the decedent) will be critical for explaining it.”
***I do not understand what you said here.
I’ve always thought this was a rather odd way to eulogize someone who enthusiastically participated in the organized effort to discredit Pons and Fleischmann back 1989, almost seeming like a posthumous effort to hedge the bets of the dearly departed;
***Oh, ok, I think I’m starting to understand.
perhaps this was as a result of second thoughts expressed by “X” during the years after the hubbub died down. “X” passed away in 2012, not long after he retired, so he had 23 years to think twice about the subject.
***Well, I think he was wrong to quash it. If it was so wrong it woulda died a Polywater type of death.
BTW, the area of interest of “X” was the production of large quantities spin-stabilized hydrogen, and the exploration of the physics of that phase of the element.
***Science is very territorial.
The Cold Fusion/LENR Ping List
Keywords: ColdFusion; LENR; lanr; CMNS
Best book to get started on this subject:
Why Cold Fusion Research Prevailed by Charles Beaudette
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regarding “A “linear BEC” sounds rather like the “hydroton” model of Edmund Storms”
A Bose Einstein Condensate is when a group of atoms start acting like one atom, in concert.
Lots of hints that what’s going on in LENR is BECs. But the drawback is that BECs form at such low temperatures. So the trick is to find how BECs might form at higher temperatures, find evidence for it.
That evidence is slowly arriving.
A Linear BEC would be a linear formation of perhaps only a few atoms, acting in concert.
Here is where I think there might be an intersection with Ed’s model. When that vibrating linear BEC runs into an edge dislocation of the matrix... it BENDS the BEC. It stresses it such that 2 of the captured atoms fuse together because the Coulomb Barrier is so low inside the BEC.
Look at Figure 1. Scheme of edge dislocation loops in Pd containing condensed H/D.
I posted that article here
A recent high-profile tinkerer claimed to be making great progress in the NiH realm of LENR. That area had become a backwater because the Anomalous Heat Effect was so hard to generate in that platform.
But this new guy introduced some way of separating H2 gas into H1 gas [perhaps Technetium], and loaded up the lattice with H1 gas per his scientist friend Focardi.
H1 gas really wants to become H2 gas and will bond quickly with surrounding H1 atoms to form it, in an endothermic reaction. That means the surrounding lattice will have a new H2 gas molecule and will be colder. Perhaps cold enough to form a very small, localized [linear] BEC.
Perhaps the phase coherent nature of laser radiation forces the species into a linear geometry, which is then "injected" into the metal lattice as a group (like a syringe). Some will scatter off, cooling the lattice. The rest become a BEC.
KP Sinha said that, since the laser is only one frequency, it absorbs other frequencies of heat. Or sumthin like that. Either way, the net result is cooling.
One of the alternatives to calorimetry is to measure Gamma rays. I was kicked off LENR Forum when I accepted the offer from Alan Smith to test Gammas. I set up a GoFundMe account to pay for it and those guys did not like it.
MFMP had posted they were seeing gammas several years ago. It was “replicated” within 48 hours by Biberian and then the guy who had the gamma detector took his toys and went home. They never updated their web page, they basically moved on to other things even though this was the HOLY GRAIL.
Years later, Bob Greenyer has a mumbling explanation of it which makes little sense.
Bob Greenyer —> Desireless • 4 days ago
Because with careful calorimetry, Alan was unable to see any excess heat in any of his runs.
After many attempts to find out additional details from Mizuno, it became clear that not everything is being disclosed. Alan is therefore not keen to work on ‘Replication” where replication is technically impossible.
When we did Celani wires, we got 12.5% excess on second run and nearly 20% on Steel and Glass cells. With our best guess at what Rossi was doing, and combined with learning from Piantelli and Parkhomov, we got around 20% excess. After multiple runs with Mizuno - it is still a dud yet the claims were so bold and claimed procedure so high.
We now understand that these systems can produce fake ‘gamma’ signals, established by Matsumoto by 1995 - this is likely the ‘Gamma’ we saw in Oct 2013 in Celani leaky dual cell and the ‘Signal’ (which appears to go into the gamma range with no characteristic x-rays) we saw years later in GS 5.2
Have you got data on excess heat and schematics for how you are assessing it.
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