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The FReeper Foxhole Remembers The Battle of Nashville - 1864 - Jan. 20th, 2003 of Nashville ^

Posted on 01/20/2003 5:39:50 AM PST by SAMWolf

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Nashville, Tenn. Dec. 15-16, 1864.

After the battle of Franklin on Nov. 30, Maj.Gen. George H. Thomas, commanding at Nashville ordered Gen. Schofield to fall back to that city, where Thomas had been industriously engaged for some time in collecting an army of sufficient strength to drive the Confederate forces under Gen. Hood out of the State of Tennessee. Gen. A. J. Smith, with three divisions of the Army of the Tennessee, had been expected to arrive from Missouri in time to reinforce Schofield at Franklin, but he did not reach Nashville until the last day of November.

At the time of the battle of Nashville Thomas' army numbered altogether about 55,000 men, though less than 45,000 were actually engaged.

  • The 4th corps, temporarily commanded by Brig.Gen. T. J. Wood, Gen. Stanley having been wounded at Franklin, was composed of three divisions commanded respectively by Brig.Gens. Nathan Kimball W. L. Elliott and Samuel Beatty;
  • the 23rd corps, under Maj.Gen. John M. Schofield, consisted of two divisions,
    • the 2nd commanded by Maj.Gen. D. N. Couch
    • the 3rd by Brig. Gen. J. D. Cox; (the 1st division of this corps was absent on detached duty);
  • three divisions of the Army of the Tennessee, (Maj.Gen. A. J. Smith's command)
    • the 1st commanded by Brig.Gen. John McArthur,
    • the 2nd by Brig.Gen. Kenner Garrard,
    • and the 3rd by Col. J. B. Moore,
  • the provisional detachment of Maj. Gen. J. B. Steedman, consisting of one division under the immediate command of Brig. Gen. Charles Cruft;
  • the post of Nashville, troops of the 20th corps, under command of Brig. Gen. John F. Miller;
  • the quartermaster's division, commanded by Bvt. Brig. Gen. J. L. Donaldson,
  • the cavalry corps under command of Bvt. Maj. Gen. J. H. Wilson, consisting of Croxton's brigade of the 1st division,
  • the 5th division commanded by Brig.Gen. Edward Hatch,
  • the 6th division under command of Brig.Gen. R. W. Johnson,
  • and the 7th division under Brig.Gen. J. F. Knipe.
With this force of infantry and cavalry were 40 batteries of light artillery.

Hood's army was organized as follows:
  • Lee's corps, Lieut.Gen. S. D. Lee, was composed of the divisions of Johnson, Stevenson and Clayton;
  • Stewart's corps, Lieut.Gen. A. P. Stewart, consisted of the divisions of Loring, French and Walthall;
  • Cheatham's corps, Lieut.Gen. B. F. Cheatham, included the infantry divisions of Cleburne and Bate,
  • and the cavalry division of Gen. J. R Chalmers.
    Gen. Cleburne was killed at the battle of Franklin and his division was commanded at Nashville by Brig.Gen. J. A. Smith.
The strength of Hood's army has been variously estimated at from 30,000 to 39,000 men of all arms. Col. Stone, who went into the subject somewhat exhaustively, fixes it at 37,937.

Nashville is situated on the south side of the Cumberland river. In December, 1864, several turnpike roads radiated from the city between the southeast and southwest, all running through a country somewhat broken. Six miles due south are the Brentwood hills, along the east side of which ran the Franklin pike, while the Hillsboro pike ran along the western base. Two creeks rise in these hills, their sources being less than a mile apart. Brown's creek flows northeast, emptying into the Cumberland above the city, and Richland creek flows northwest into the river some distance below. Along the ridge between the two streams ran the Granny White pike. The Nolensville pike entered the cite from the southeast, crossing Brown's creek not far from the Chattanooga railroad, while north of the railroad, and between it and the river, ran the Murfreesboro, Chicken and Lebanon pikes. Another range of hills near the city had been fortified by order of Thomas.

Hood followed Schofield from Franklin and during the afternoon of Dec. 2, his cavalry engaged the Union skirmishers in front of Nashville. The next day the whole Confederate force appeared, the Federal skirmishers were crowded back, and Hood proceeded to form his main line on the hills immediately south of the Union fortifications. The morning of the 4th found his salient on Montgomery hill, within 600 yards of the Union works. Cheatham's corps on the right occupied a position behind Brown's creek, extending from the railroad to the Franklin pike , Stewart's corps formed the center and lay across the Granny White pike, while Smith's corps on the left extended the line to the Hillsboro pike. From there to the river below, across the Hardin and Charlotte pikes, and from Cheatham's right to the river above the cavalry was posted.

Having taken this position Hood did not attack the works in front of the city, but spent several days in reducing some of the smaller outlying garrisons and blockhouses along the railroad. This gave Thomas time to complete his preparations, to mount and equip his cavalry and thoroughly organize his troops. Gen. Grant in Virginia and the authorities at Washington grew impatient at the delay, fearing that Hood would eventually elude Thomas' pass round Nashville, and invade Kentucky as Bragg had done in the summer of 1862. But Thomas was guarding the fords and bridges with his cavalry, and the gunboats of Fitch's squadron were patrolling the river above and below the city. Gen. Lyon, with a detachment of Confederate cavalry, did succeed in crossing at Clarksville on the 9th with a view to destroying the Louisville & Nashville railroad, but Thomas despatched Gen. E. M. McCook, with two brigades of the 1st cavalry division, to look after Lyon, so that the latter's expedition proved fruitless.

Grant, however, was of the opinion that Thomas should have given battle before the enemy had time to recover from the blow received at Franklin, and on Dec. 2, he telegraphed Thomas to leave the defenses of Nashville to Donaldson's division and attack Hood at once. Although this telegram was not an official order, its language was scarcely less imperative, but Thomas was so anxious to increase his force of cavalry, and so certain that he could do so within a few days, he decided to wait until he could attack with every assurance of success. In reply to Grant's telegrams Thomas said: "I now have infantry enough to assume the offensive, if I had more cavalry, and will take the field anyhow as soon as the remainder of Gen. McCook's division of cavalry reaches here, which I hope will be in two or three days. We can get neither reinforcements nor equipments at this great distance from the North very easily, and it must be remembered that my command was made up of the two weakest corps of Gen. Sherman's army, and all the dismounted cavalry except one brigade, and the task of reorganizing and equipping has met with many delays, which have enabled Hood to take advantage of my crippled condition. I earnestly hope, however, in a few more days I shall be able to give him a fight." This explanation was evidently not satisfactory, either to Grant or to Sec. of War Stanton, and Thomas was again urged to attack the enemy in his front. It was a case of the man at the desk a thousand miles away trying to direct the operations of the man in the field.

The record of Thomas at Mill Springs and Chickamauga ought to have been a sufficient guarantee of his ability to command an army or to plan a campaign, yet that record availed him nothing now, when the secretary of war and the lieutenant- general of the Federal armies were "spoiling for a fight." On the 6th Grant sent another telegram to Thomas, directing him to attack at once, and to wait no longer to remount his cavalry. To this Thomas replied that he would make the necessary dispo- sition and attack, "agreeably to your orders, though I believe it will be hazardous with the small force of cavalry now at my command." This elicited a sarcastic telegram from Stanton to Grant, in which he said: "Thomas seems unwilling to attack because it is hazardous, as if all war was any but hazardous. If he waits for Wilson to get ready, Gabriel will be blowing his last horn."

To such sneers as this the hero of Chickamauga paid no at tention but went quietly ahead completing his arrangements for a battle that was to forever destroy the usefulness of Hood's army as a factor in the War of the Rebellion. By the 9th he was ready to attack, but a severe storm came on, covering the ground with a thick coating of sleet, over which it was impos- sible to move troops with that celerity so essential to success in making an assault on an enemy.

On the 9th Gen. Halleck telegraphed him as follows: "Lieut.-Gen. Grant expresses much dissatisfaction at your delay in attacking the enemy." To this Thomas replied: "I feel conscious I have done everything in my power, and that the troops could not have been gotten ready before this. If Gen. Grant should order me to be relieved, I will submit without a murmur." He seems to have had a premonition of what was about to occur, for on the same day Grant asked the war department to relieve Thomas and turn over the command of the army at Nashville to Schofield.

When notice of this order was received at Nashville, Thomas called a council of his corps commanders and asked their advice, informing them that he was ordered to give battle immediately or surrender his command. The council was unanimous in the opinion that it was impracticable to make any attack until the ice should melt. The order relieving Thomas was then suspended, but on the 13th Grant again became impatient and ordered Gen. Logan to proceed at once to Nashville, and the next day started for that place himself to assume command of the army in person.

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By noon on the 14th the ice had melted sufficiently to permit the movement of troops. At 3 p.m. Thomas called together his corps commanders and laid before them his plan of battle for the following morning. Steedman was to make a feint against the enemy's right, while Smith, with the three divisions of the Army of the Tennessee, was to form his troops on the Hardin pike and make a vigorous assault on Hood's left.

In this movement Smith was to be supported by Wilson, with three divisions of cavalry, and one division of cavalry was to be sent out on the Charlotte pike to clear that road of the enemy and keep watch on Bell's landing. Wood was directed to leave a strong skirmish line in his works from Lawrens' hill to his right, form the remainder of the 4th corps on the Hillsboro road to support Smith's left, and at the same time move against the left and rear of the salient on Montgomery hilt Schofield, after leaving a strong line of skirmishers in the trenches from Lawrens' hill to Fort Negley, was to move with the rest of the 23rd corps and cooperate with Wood, protecting his left against any attack by the enemy.

The troops under Donaldson, Miller and Cruft were to occupy the inner line of works and guard the approaches to the city. At 4 a.m. on the 15th everyone within the Federal works was awake and at daylight the several commands began to move to their assigned positions. A dense fog hung over the field during the early morning hours, completely concealing the movements of the Federal troops. Each officer seemed to feel the injustice of the imputation cast on Thomas, and all now moved as if determined to vindicate the valor of the Army of the Cumberland and the honor and judgment of its commander. At 6 o'clock Steedman moved out on the Murfreesboro pike and 2 hours later began his demonstration against Cheat- ham's right.

One of the most famous depictions of the Battle of Nashville
was painted by Howard Pyle (1853-1911),known as the "Father of American Illustration."
The Fifth, Seventh, Ninth, and Tenth Minnesota Regiments fought in a deadly charge across a muddy cornfield near Shy's Hill on Dec. 16, 1864.
More than 300 soldiers were left on the field.

This demonstration was so vigorous that it was virtually an assault. The roar of his artillery and the rapid fire of his musketry soon drew Hood's attention to that part of his line. Reinforcements were hurried to Cheatham and Steedman withdrew his men after they had carried part of the enemy's entrenchments, as they were subjected to an enfilading fire and the object of the feint had been gained, though toward noon Col. Thompson, with three regiments of colored troops assaulted and carried the left of the front line of Confederate works on the Nolensville pike, holding his position there until the next morning. Smith had to move farther than anticipated, and the movements of his men were retarded by the fog and mud, so that it was 10 o'clock before he reached the first of the detached redoubts which Hood had built between his left flank and the river. This was between the Hardin and Hillsboro roads and was manned by a detachment of Walthall's infantry, with 4 pieces of artillery. Hatch and McArthur opened fire on it with their batteries, Coon's cavalry brigade dismounted and charged, carrying the redoubt and capturing the guns. At the same time McArthur charged from another direction and as the enemy was retiring captured 15O prisoners. The captured redoubt was under the fire of another and stronger one, and the two commands now turned their attention to its reduction. Again Coon's brigade, armed with repeating rifles, advanced up the hill, firing as they went, while McArthur was in such close support that the Confederates saw they were doomed to defeat and made the attempt to abandon the redoubt. Just then McArthur ordered a charge, which was successfully made, and 250 prisoners were added to those already taken. In the meantime Hatch had engaged a portion of French's division near Richland creek and driven it back beyond the Hardin house, where Col. Spaulding, with the 12th Tenn. cavalry made a brilliant charge, capturing 43 prisoners and the headquarters train of Chalmers' division.

As soon as Wood heard the sound of Smith's guns, he moved against Montgomery hill, swinging to the left as he advanced in an effort to uncover the enemy's flank. At 1 p. m. Post's brigade of Beatty's division dashed up the hill and over the entrenchments. He was promptly supported by the rest of the division, and the enemy's salient was in possession of the Federals. Wood then threw his reserve brigade of each division to his right and engaged the enemy with his entire corps. This movement of the 4th corps to the right caused Thomas to order Schofield to the right of Smith.

In executing this movement Couch's division pushed beyond the second captured redoubt and carried the enemy's line on a range of hills parallel to the Granny White pike. Cox's division moved still farther to the right, driving the Confederates from the hills along Richland creek. As Schofield was thus moving to the right Smith bore to the left, assaulted Walthall's division behind a stone wall near the Hillsboro road driving Reynolds' brigade on the left in confusion and finally routed the entire division.

At sunset the whole Confederate army had been driven from its original line and forced back to the Brentwood hills. During the night Hood formed a new line with his right resting on Overton's hill near the Franklin pike and extending from there along the base of the Brentwood hills, his left being refused a little west of the Granny White pike. The Union forces bivouacked on the field, and Thomas gave orders for each corps to move forward at 6 o'clock the next morning, not halting until the enemy should be met. If Hood showed a disposition to accept battle a general attack was to be made, but if he should retreat the whole army was to be pushed forward in pursuit.

The battle on the 16th was opened by the advance of the 4th corps on the Franklin pike. The enemy's skirmishers were driven back and Wood pressed forward to the main line of works on Overton's hill. Steedman came up on the Nolensville road and formed on Wood's left, while Smith connected with Wood's right, forming a continuous line of battle. Schofield occupied a position facing east, perpendicular to Smith's line, and Wilson, on the right of Schofield, was directed to gain the enemy's rear with his cavalry. By noon Wilson had reached the rear and stretched his line across the Granny White pike. Thomas then ordered an assault on Overton's hill, in the hope of gaining the Franklin road, thereby cutting off the last avenue of retreat. Morgan's brigade of Steedman's command, with the left brigades of the 4th corps, moved forward to the assault, advancing in the face of a heavy fire of infantry and artillery until near the crest, when a line of reserves arose and opened such a destructive fire that the column was compelled to fall back.

The heaviest losses sustained by the Union army was in this attack on Overton's hill. Immediately following Wood's repulse here Smith and Schofield moved against the enemy's works in their front, carried everything before them broke the line in a dozen places, captured all the artillery and several thousand prisoners. At the same time Wilson attacked the enemy in the rear, clinching his possession of the Granny White pike and completely shutting off retreat by that road. Wood and Steedman, hearing the shouts of victory on their right, now made another assault on Overton's hill, and although they were met by the same heavy fire as before, the onset was irresistible. As the Federal lines advanced the enemy broke in confusion, leaving all his artillery and many prisoners in the hands of the victorious assailants.

The Angel of Peace tops the Battle of Nashville Monument

On through Brentwood pass the Confederates fled, a disorganized mob, closely pursued by the 4th corps for several miles, or until darkness put an end to the chase for that day. The pursuit was continued for ten days, but owing to the delays encountered in crossing Rutherford's creek and Duck river, both swollen by recent rains and the bridges destroyed, Hood got so far in advance that he crossed the Tennessee river at Bainbridge on the 26th and the chase was abandoned.

The Union loss in the battle of Nashville was 387 killed, 2,562 wounded, and 112 missing. No detailed report of the Confederate losses was made. Hood reached Tupelo, Miss., with about 21,OOO men. In his report of the campaign he says: "The official records will show that my losses including prisoners, during the entire campaign do not exceed 10,000 men." On the other hand Thomas officially reports the capture of 13,189 prisoners, and it is known that the Confederate loss in killed and wounded at the battle of Franklin alone was about 5,000 to say nothing of Nashville and the other engagements of the campaign. In addition to the prisoners reported by Thomas, the Union army captured 72 pieces of artillery, and a large number of battle- flags.

Notwithstanding Grant's severe criticisms of Thomas' delay, he sent a telegram congratulating him on his victory, and Sec. Stanton ordered a salute of 100 guns to be fired on the 16th to celebrate the event. Gen. Cullum, in speaking of the battle of Nashville, says: "The best tactical battle of the war, so decisive in results, was the last and crowning glory of Thomas' campaigns; but it sufficed to stamp him as one of the foremost soldiers of the great civil contest a general who had never been defeated, and one whose victories had placed him among the greatest heroes of the Republic."

1 posted on 01/20/2003 5:39:50 AM PST by SAMWolf
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To: MistyCA; AntiJen; Victoria Delsoul; SassyMom; bentfeather; GatorGirl; radu; souris; SpookBrat; ...
The Battle of Nashville

Before Sherman set out for Savannah, the commander of the Confederate army in Georgia, General John B. Hood, decided to invade Tennessee. Hood's purpose was to draw Sherman back after him and defeat the Federals in the mountains. Sherman, however, refused to be drawn; he trusted Thomas to deal with Hood. As Hood marched into Tennessee, Sherman marched across Georgia. Hood's one chance of victory was to get into Tennessee and smash the small army there before Thomas could concentrate enough men to hold the state. But instead of moving rapidly, Hood moved slowly, and on his way to Thomas' base at Nashville he suffered a bad defeat at Franklin. After Franklin, Hood had no chance to win, and he should have retired to Georgia. However, he chose to go on to Nashville. With his little army, he took position on the hills south of the city and waited--for what he could not have given a rational answer.

In Nashville, Thomas was gathering an army that would eventually number almost 70,000. Thomas was a good general, a hard-hitting attacker, but he always took a long time to get ready to attack. He moved like a sledgehammer when he moved, but he never advanced until his army was prepared down to the last knapsack. All during December Thomas stayed in his works at Nashville. He was readying a paralyzing blow at Hood, but he did not fully inform the government what he was planning. To Lincoln it seemed that Thomas was avoiding battle with the Confederates. The President did not know that the battered Confederate army was incapable of offensive action; he feared that while Thomas dallied at Nashville Hood would strike for Kentucky. Finally, Lincoln directed Stanton to take up Thomas' inaction with Grant. the Secretary telegraphed Grant that Lincoln was worried by Thomas' disposition to lay in his fortifications indefinitely, which looked to the President like the old McClellan-Rosecrans strategy. Grant, who knew how slow Thomas was, immediately sent several sharp dispatches to Thomas urging him to attack at once. Thomas replied that he wanted to build up his cavalry before attacking and that he would launch an offensive as soon as possible. Not impressed with Thomas' pledge of early action and completely misjudging Thomas' generalship, Grant informed the government that Thomas was excellent on defense but did not know how to fight offensively and would probably never attack Hood. Grant advised that Thomas be relieved and the command of his army be given to John M. Schofield, one of his corps generals.

Lincoln was astonished at Grant's recommendation to remove Thomas. When he had asked Grant to spur Thomas to action, he had never dreamed that the general in chief would go to the length of ousting Thomas from command. Although the President was disturbed by Thomas' slowness, he saw no reason to relieve him. He greatly admired Thomas and had ever since Chickamauga. Nevertheless, he did not want to oppose Grant on the issue of Thomas. The general in chief, Lincoln believed, ought to have the right to choose his field commanders. Halleck transmitted to Grant Lincoln's reactions to the proposed removal. If Grant wished Thomas relieved, he was to issue an order to that effect, and nobody in the government would oppose the order. But, added Halleck, the responsibility for relieving Thomas would have to be Grant's because nobody in the government wanted Thomas removed. Undeterred by Lincoln's obvious disapproval of what he was asking, Grant then prepared an order relieving Thomas and appointing Schofield to the command.

Grant telegraphed the order to Halleck with the instructions to send it to Thomas. Before it went over the wires, two dispatched from Thomas arrived in Washington stating that as he was moving out to attack Hood a sleet storm had set in to halt all operations. Halleck, showing a good sense of responsibility, informed Grant of the import of Thomas' communications and asked Grant if he still wanted to transmit the removal order. Grant agreed to suspend the order until the weather cleared and Thomas had a chance to prove he meant to fight. Several days passed before Thomas could move, and Grant became impatient again. He started for Washington to see Lincoln. From the capital, he intended to go to Nashville and personally relieve Thomas. He reached Washington on December 15 and went into conference at the war Department with Lincoln, Stanton, and Halleck. The President tried to talk Grant out of removing Thomas and, voicing good army doctrine, said that Thomas on the ground was better able to judge his situation than was Grant five hundred miles away in Washington. But Grant, unreasonably angry at Thomas, insisted on relieving him. With great reluctance, Lincoln let Grant have his way. As the General in Chief was about to start, a telegram arrived at the War Department from a military telegraph official with Thomas' army announcing that on the fifteenth Thomas had attacked Hood, smashed the enemy line, and would complete his work the next day with a great victory. Grant called off his trip to Nashville and congratulated Thomas. The victory at Nashville was the only one in the war so complete that the defeated army practically lost its existence.

Professor Ernest Butner

2 posted on 01/20/2003 5:40:20 AM PST by SAMWolf (To look into the eyes of the wolf is to see your soul)
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To: All
'After the fall of Atlanta, we marched northward into Tennessee over frozen ground and how cold it was! Our shoes were worn out and our feet were torn and bleeding . . . the snow was on the ground and there was no food. Our rations were a few grains of parched corn. When we reached the vicinity of Nashville we were very hungry and we began to search for food. Over in a valley stood a tree which seemed to be loaded with fruit. It was a frost bitten persimmon tree, but as I look back over my whole life, never have I tasted any food which would compare with these persimmons.'

-- Confederate veteran Milton Cox

3 posted on 01/20/2003 5:40:47 AM PST by SAMWolf (To look into the eyes of the wolf is to see your soul)
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To: All

Thanks, Doughty!

4 posted on 01/20/2003 5:41:08 AM PST by SAMWolf (To look into the eyes of the wolf is to see your soul)
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To: SAMWolf

5 posted on 01/20/2003 5:41:29 AM PST by SAMWolf (To look into the eyes of the wolf is to see your soul)
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To: SAMWolf
Today's graphic

6 posted on 01/20/2003 5:42:47 AM PST by GailA (Throw Away the Keys, Tennessee Tea Party, Start a tax revolt in your state)
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To: All
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7 posted on 01/20/2003 5:43:30 AM PST by Support Free Republic (Your support keeps Free Republic going strong!)
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To: SAMWolf; All
Good Morning Sam.

Good read today as each day.
8 posted on 01/20/2003 5:45:25 AM PST by Soaring Feather
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To: SAMWolf
On This Day In History

Birthdates which occurred on January 20:
1586 Johann Hermann Schein German composer (Fontana d'Israel)
1622 Susanna van Baerle Dutch poet/wife of Geeraert Burns
1654 Michiel de Swaen South Netherlands physician/poet
1681 Francesco Bartolomeo Conti composer
1703 Joseph-Hector Fiocco composer
1716 Carlos III king of Naples/Spain (1759-88) Pompei/Jesuits
1716 Jean-Jacques Barthélemy French historical writer (Greek Antiquity)
1732 Richard H Lee US farmer (signed Declaration of Independence)
1743 Pascal Boyer composer
1760 Charles III king of Spain (1759-88)
1761 Giovanni Domenico Perotti composer
1762 Jerome-Joseph de Momigny composer
1763 Theobald Wolfe Tone Irish patriot
1775 Andre-Marie Ampere Lyon France, discovered electromagnetism
1782 Johan B J F S archduke of Austria
1806 Nathaniel Willis writer/editor/founder (American Monthly Magazine)
1809 Sebastian de Iradier Spanish composer (La Paloma)
1812 Ralph Pomeroy Buckland Bvt Major General (Union volunteers), died in 1892
1813 Jacon Gartner Lauman Bvt Major General (Union volunteers), died in 1867
1820 Anne Jemima Clough England, promoted higher education for women
1831 Pieter J Joubert General (South Africa)
1843 Pierre-Paul Cambon French diplomat (Madrid, Constantinople, London)
1844 Johan Peter Selmer composer
1847 W R Pettiford Founder (Alabama Penny Savings Bank)
1855 Amedee-Ernest Chausson Paris France, composer (Poème for Violin & Orchestra)
1865 Friedrich A H von Waldeck brother of queen Emma/last ruler of Waldeck
1866 Richard Le Gallienne English writer (Maker of Gainborg)
1868 Wilhelm Schäfer German writer (Ein Totschläger)
1870 Guillaume Jean Joseph Nicolas Lekeu composer
1873 Charles A Ellwood US, sociologist/psychologist
1873 Johannes V Jensen Denmark, novelist/poet/essayist (Energy Storage, Nobel 1944)
1877 Ruth St Denis Newark NJ, ballerina (Dances of the 5 Senses)
1878 Finlay Currie Scotland, actor (Quo Vadis, Ivanhoe, Avengers)
1883 Betram Home Ramsay English admiral/Commander Allied Naval Forces
1884 A[braham P] Merritt US, sci-fi author (Moon Pool, Creep Shadow!)
1889 Huddie "Leadbelly" Ledbetter Mooringsport LA, blues 12 string guitarist (Rock Island Line)
1891 Mischa Elman Talnoye Ukraine, US violinist
1892 Roscoe Ates Grange MS, actor (Deputy Roscoe-Marshal of Gunsight Pass)
1893 Kaj Birket-Smith Danish etnologist/anthropologist (Eskimos)
1894 Harold L Gray creator (Little Orphan Annie)
1894 Walter Hamor Piston Rockland Maine, composer (Incredible Flutis)
1895 Eva A Jessye US singer/actress/songwriter (Hallelujah)
1896 George Burns [Nathan Birnbaum], New York City NY, actor/comedian (Oh God)
1896 Rolfe Sedan New York City NY, actor (Mailman-George Burns Show)
1896 Elmer R Diktonius Finnish musicologist/author (Janne Kubik)
1897 Mae Busch Australian/US actress (Cowboy Socialist)
1898 Colin Clive [Greig], St Malo France, actor (Bride of Frankenstein)
1899 Alexander Tcherepnin composer
1899 Kenjiro Takayanagi Vice President (JVC)
19-- Colleen Zenk Pinter Barrington IL, actress (Barbara-As the World Turns)
19-- Karen Morris Gowdy Cheyenne WY, actress (Faith-Ryan's Hope)
1900 Boris Semyonovich Shekhter composer
1900 Doris Deane Wisconsin, entertainer
1903 Leon Ames Portland Indiana, actor (Mr Ed, Father of the Bride)
1903 Sybil Marion Rosenfeld theatre historian
1904 Theodore Brameld author/educator (Use of Explosive Ideas)
1904 Alexandra Danilova Peterhof Russia, ballerina (Turning Point)
1904 Renato Caccioppoli Italian mathematician/grandson of Bakunin
1907 Roy Welensky Premier (Rhodesia/Nyasaland 1956-63)
1908 Ian Peebles cricketer (Scottish leg-spinner, England 1927-31)
1908 Paula Wessely Austrian actress/producer (Masquerade)
1908 Wilfred Conwell Bain composer
1910 Abram Hill director/playwright/founder (American Negro Theater)
1910 Joy Adamson naturalist/author (Born Free)
1910 Ennio Porrino composer
1910 Lauritz Lauritzen German politician
1910 Nina Verchinina dancer choreographer/teacher
1912 Christopher Casson Irish actor (Zardoz, Educating Rita)
1914 Wensley Pithey Cape Town South Africa, actor (Winston Churchill-Ike)
1915 Joe Hitchcock darts player (leader of St Dunstan's Four)
1915 C W Ceram [Kurt W Marek], German/US writer (March of Archaeology)
1916 Jopie [Johan A] Pengel premier of Suriname (1963-69)
1916 Walter Bartley biochemist
1919 Alex Nicol Ossining NY, actor (Man From Laramie, Air Cadet)
1919 Royalton Kisch British conductor
1919 Stepan Lucky composer
1920 DeForest Kelley Atlanta GA, actor (Dr McCoy-Star Trek)
1920 Federico Fellini Rimini Italy, director (8½, Satyricon, La Dolce Vita)
1920 Peter Clemoes anglo-Saxon scholar
1920 Richard John Copeland Atkinson archaeologist
1920 Sam M Gibbons (Representative-D-FL, 1963- )
1921 Bernt Engelmann Germany, writer
1922 Ray Anthony Pennsylvania, orchestra leader (Ray Anthony Show, Peter Gunn Theme)
1922 Lord James Hanson English industrialist/House of Lords (Conservative)
1924 Yvonne Loriod Houilles France, pianist
1925 E Cardenal writer
1925 Edwin Gordon New York City NY, VOA correspondent
1925 Eugen Gomringer writer
1925 George Connol NFL Hall-of-Famer
1926 Patricia Neal Packard KY, actress (Hud, Subject Was Roses)
1926 Robert L Van Citters cardiology/advisory panelist/UW dean
1926 David Eugene Tudor Philadelphia PA, composer
1926 Michael Higgins Brooklyn NY, actor (1918, Wanda, Black Stallion)
1927 Geoffrey WT Atkins British World Champion racket player (1954-72)
1927 Olivier Strebelle Belgian sculptor/ceramist
1928 Martin Landau Brooklyn NY, actor (Mission Impossible, Tucker, Space 1999)
1928 Peter Donat Kentville Nova Scotia, actor (Flamingo Road, Different Story)
1928 William Berger Austria, actress (Adventure of Hercules)
1929 Arte Johnson Chicago IL, comedian (Laugh-in, Don't Call Me Charlie)
1930 Edwin E "Buzz" Aldrin Jr Montclair NJ, USAF/astronaut (Gemini 12, Apollo 11)
1931 Sawako Ariyoshi Japanese writer (Compound Pollution, Doctor's Wife)
1931 Thomas Roy Garrett museum curator
1933 Ron Townson St Louis MO, rock vocalist (5th Dimension-Up Up & Away)
1934 Tom Baker actor (Angels Die Hard, Vault of Horror)
1936 Eldred G Maduro minister (Netherlands Antilles)
1937 Dorothy Provine Deadwood SD, actress (Good Neighbor Sam, Darn Cat)
1939 Murle Breer LPGA golfer
1939 Nalin Chandra Wickramasinghe Indian astronomer
1940 Carol Heiss Jenkins New York City NY, figure skater (Olympics-gold/silver-56, 60)
1940 Jorge Peixinho composer
1941 Ronald Townson rock vocalist (5th Dimension-Aquarius)
1942 Slim Whitman yodeler/country singer (Home on the Range)
1943 Roeland HG "Roel" van Duyn Dutch Provo politician
1944 Isao Okano Japan, middleweight judo (Olympics-gold-1964)
1944 Eddie Shah English publisher (Today, Post)
1944 Lieven Soete Dutch publicist (Molotov-Ribbentrop-pact)
1945 Eric Stewart rock guitarist (10CC-I'm Not in Love)
1945 Peter Beckwith English real estate developer/multi-millionaire
1946 David Lynch Missoula MT, actor/director (Blue Velvet, Dune, Eraserhead, Twin Peaks)
1947 George Grantham rocker (Poco-Crazy Eyes)
1947 Malcolm McLaren founded rock group (Sex Pistols-God Save the Queen)
1948 Jerry L Ross Indiana, Lieutenant-Colonel USAF/astronaut (STS 61B, 27, 37, 55, 74, 88)
1948 Anatoly Shcharansky Soviet human rights activist/émigré
1948 Melvyn John Pritchard England, rocker (Barclay James Harvest)
1949 Ivana Trump former wife of Donald
1949 Kieron Walsh academic
1950 Henk Batenburgh cabaret performer/singer (Waaldrecht)
1951 Magomed Omarovich Tolboyev Russian cosmonaut
1952 Ian Hill bass guitarist (Judas Priest-Breakin the Law)
1952 Paul Stanley [Eisen], rock guitarist (KISS-Beth)
1955 Joe Doherty Ireland, IRA activist (jailed in US)
1955 Michael Anthony rock bassist/singer (Van Halen-Pretty Woman, Jump, 1984)
1956 John Naber US, 100m/200m backstroke swimmer (Olympics-4 gold-1976)
1956 Bill Maher comedian (Politically Incorrect)
1956 John McNally Naha Okinawa, US rapid fire pistol (Olympics-84, 88, 92, 96)
1956 John Phillips Naber Evanston IL, swimmer (Olympics-4 gold/silver-76)
1957 Leonard C Clements Cherry Point NC, PGA golfer (1994 Bob Hope-2nd)
1958 Lorenzo Lamas Los Angeles CA, actor (Lance-Falcon Crest, California Fever)
1959 Lea Antonoplis West Covina CA, tennis star
1963 Scott Fisher San Jose CA, Australian basketball forward (Olympics-96)
1964 Ozzie Guillen Oculare del Tuy Venezuela, shortstop (Chicago White Sox)
1964 Roger Smith Freeport Bahamas, tennis doubles player
1964 Ron Harper NBA guard (Chicago Bulls)
1964 Victoria Sellers London England, actress (Crime Zone, Warlords)
1965 Brad Brink US baseball pitcher (San Francisco Giants, Philadelphia Phillies)
1966 Tia Carrere Honolulu HI, actress (Wayne's World, General Hospital)
1966 Bert Weidner NFL guard (Miami Dolphins)
1966 Chris Morris NBA forward (Utah Jazz)
1966 Rich Gannon NFL quarterback (Kansas City Chiefs)
1966 Tracii Guns rock guitarist (LA Guns-It's Over Now)
1967 Joe Pasquale rocker (Prey)
1967 Mark Stepnoski NFL center (Houston/Tennessee Oilers)
1967 Stacey Dash Bronx NY, actress (Dionne-Clueless)
1968 Junior Murray cricketer (West Indies keeper, no relation to Derryck or David)
1968 Nick Anderson NBA guard/forward (Orlando Magic)
1969 Tia Marie Zorne Las Vegas NV, Miss America-Nevada (1990)
1969 Andre Romal Cason Virginia Beach VA, 100m runner
1969 Melissa Rivers New York City NY, TV hostess (MTV, CBS Morning News)
1970 Anita St Rose Miss Great Britain-Universe (1996)
1970 Dennis Hulshof soccer player (Go Ahead Eagles)
1970 Deon Figures cornerback (Jacksonville Jaguars)
1970 Marvin Benard Bluefields Nicaragua, outfielder (San Francisco Giants)
1970 Rob Gaudreau Lincoln, NHL center (Ottawa Senators)
1970 Ron Carpenter NFL/WLAF safety (New York Jets, Amsterdam Admirals)
1970 Skeet Ulrich actor (Scream)
1970 Terry Kirby NFL running back (Miami Dolphins, San Francisco 49ers)
1970 Thomas "Tom" Murray Buffalo NY, rower (Olympics-1996)
1971 Alan Young NFL defensive end (New York Jets)
1971 Andrei Skabelka NHL forward (Belarus, Olympics-98)
1971 Johnny Mitchell NFL tight end (New York Jets)
1971 Karin Smith Miss Minnesota USA (1996)
1972 Alcides Catanho NFL outside linebacker (New England Patriots)
1973 Eddie Kennison wide receiver (St Louis Rams)
1973 Jalen Rose NBA guard (Denver Nuggets)
1974 Calvin Harrison Orlando Florida, 200m/400m runner
1974 Rae Carruth wide receiver (Carolina Panthers)
1977 Paul "Goggo" Adams cricketer (lefty very unorthodox bowler for South Africa)

Deaths which occurred on January 20:
0250 Fabianus Pope (236-50)/saint, dies
0820 Abu Abdallah M ibn Idris al-Sjafi'i Islamic (Book of Mother), dies
0842 Theophilus Byzantine kaiser (829-42), dies
0882 Louis II/III the Younger German king (876-82), dies
1479 John II king of Aragon/Navarra, dies at 81
1569 Miles Coverdale English bible translator Great bible, dies at 80
1612 Rudolf II von Habsburg emperor of Germany (1576-1612), dies at 59
1639 Mustapha I sultan of Turkey (1622-23), dies
1666 Anna of Austria queen of France/daughter of Philip III, dies at 64
1691 Christian de Placker composer, dies at 77
1713 Pavao Vitezovic Croatian historian, dies
1727 John van Bylevelt Catholic apostle, dies
1745 Charles VII Albert German emperor (1742-45), dies at 47
1779 John Burman Dutch botanist/director (botanical gardens), dies at 71
1789 Johann Christoph Oley composer, dies at 50
1798 Christian Cannabich German composer/royal chaplain master, dies at 66
1813 C M Wieland writer, dies at 79
1819 Carlos IV King of Spain (1788-1808), dies at 70
1830 Michal Bogdanowicz composer, dies at 50
1837 John Soane English architect (Book of Designs), dies at 84
1838 Pierre-Louis Hus-Desforges composer, dies at 64
1857 Edward Francis Fitzwilliam composer, dies at 32
1859 B v Arnim writer, dies at 73
1859 Bettina Brentano composer, dies at 73
1862 General Felix Zollicoffer killed after mistakenly riding into union lines
1862 Felix Zollicoffer General killed after mistakenly riding into Union lines
1882 John Linnell British painter/miniaturist/engraver, dies
1890 Franz Paul Lachner composer, dies at 86
1891 David Kalakahua emperor of Hawaii, dies
1896 Heinrich M von Battenberg German son-in-law of Victoria, dies at 37
1900 John Ruskin English writer/critic (Dearest Mama Talbot), dies of influenza at 81
1900 R D Blackmore English novelist (Lorna Doone), dies at 74
1900 Richard D Blackmore English novelist (Lorna Doone), dies at 74
1905 Stanislaw Pilinski composer, dies at 65
1914 Emil Liebling composer, dies at 62
1914 Henry Southwick Perkins composer, dies at 80
1936 King George V of Britain dies at 70, succeeded by Edward VIII
1943 Giacomo Benvenuti composer, dies at 57
1947 Josh Gibson Negro League slugger, dies of a brain tumor at age 35
1948 Mahatma Gandhi India's pacifist, assassinated
1949 Josephus T J Cuypers architect (Amsterdam Stock Exchange), dies at 87
1952 Arthur Farwell composer, dies at 74
1954 Fred Root cricketer (England pace bowler in 3 Tests vs Australia 1926), dies
1954 Warren Bardsley cricketer (41 Tests for Australia, 2469 runs), dies
1957 James Connolly 1st Olympic winner (1896) since Barasdates (369 CE), dies
1959 Carl Switzer actor (Alfalfa-Our Gang), shot to death at 31
1960 Matt Moore actor (Deluge, Coquette), dies at 72
1962 Robinson Jeffers poet/playwright (Dear Judas), dies at 75
1964 Jan Rychlik composer, dies at 47
1965 Alan Freed DJ (Big Beat), dies at 42
1971 Gilbert M Anderson actor (1st Movie Cowboy), dies at 88
1973 Amilcar L Cabral fought for Guinea Bissau independence, murdered 51
1974 Edmund Blunden British poet/critic, dies at 77
1975 Franz André Belgian conductor, dies at 81
1984 Peter John [Johnny] Weissmuller actor (Tarzan, Jungle Jim), dies after a series of strokes in Acapulco at 79
1984 Jackie Wilson rocker, dies at 49 from a heart attack
1985 Jo Juda Dutch musician, dies at 75
1987 Tom Dollery cricketer (4 Tests for England 1947-50), dies
1988 Philippe de Rothschild Bordeaux Vineyard manager, dies in Paris at 86
1989 Beatrice Lillie actress (Thoroughly Modern Millie), dies at 94
1990 Barbara Stanwyck [Ruby Stevens], actress (Big Valley), dies at 82
1990 Miloslav Istvan composer, dies at 61
1990 Naruhito Higashi-Kuni Japanese PM (1945), dies
1991 Bill Riordon US tennis promoter (Jimmy Connors), dies
1991 Louis Seigner actor (Eclipse, Special Section), dies in a fire at 87
1992 Muhammad Abd al-Khaliq Hassuna Secretary-General of Arab League (1952-72), dies
1992 Roberto d'Aubuisson leader of El Salvador, dies
1993 Audrey Hepburn actress (Breakfast at Tiffany's, Roman Holiday), dies of colon cancer in Tolochenaz, Switzerland at 63
1993 Joseph Anthony [Deuster] US director/actor (Rainmaker), dies at 80
1993 Mercer McCleod entertainer, dies of heart failure at 86
1994 Jaramogi Oginga Odinga Kenyan Vice-President (1963-66), dies at about 81
1994 Matt Busby Scottish soccer coach (Manchester United), dies at 84
1995 John Halas Hungarian/US cartoonist (Animal Farm), dies at 81
1995 Mehdi Bazargan director Iranian oil corp/premier (1979), dies at 86
1995 Robert Shaw town Planner, dies at 81
1996 Buster Benton singer/guitarist, dies at 63
1996 David Robin Francis Guy Greville 8th Duke of Warwick, dies at 61
1996 Ellis Hillman politician, dies at 68
1996 Gerald Joseph Mulligan baritone saxophonist/composer, dies at 68
1996 Liesbeth Askonas concert agent, dies at 83
1996 Peter Stadlen pianist/critic, dies at 85
1996 Sidney Korshak lawyer, dies at 87
1997 Curt Flood centerfielder (Cards), dies of throat cancer at 59
1997 Edith Haisman the oldest survivor of Titanic, dies at 100
1997 Vladimir Yamnikov owner (Kristall vodka), dies of cirrhosis at 56
1998 Zevulun Hammer Vice PM of Israel, dies

On this day...
0250 St Fabian ends his reign as Catholic Pope (236-50)
0820 Book of mother, published
1045 Giovanni di Sabina elected Pope Sylvester III
1265 1st English Parliament called into session by Earl of Leicester
1320 Duke Wladyslaw Lokietek becomes king of Poland
1356 Scottish king Edward Baliol resigns
1503 Casa Contratacion (Board of Trade) found (Spain) to deal with American affairs
1513 Christian II succeeds Johan I as Danish/Norwegian king
1613 Peace of Knärod ends War of Kalmar between Denmark & Sweden
1648 Cornerstone of Amsterdam town hall laid
1667 Treaty of Andrussovo-ends 13 year war between Poland & Russia
1778 1st American military court martial trial begins, Cambridge MA
1781 1st edition of Pieter It Hoens "Post of Neder-Rhijn" published
1783 Hostilities cease in Revolutionary War
1785 Samuel Ellis advertises to sell Oyster Island (Ellis Island), no takers
1788 Pioneer African Baptist church organizes in Savannah GA
1800 Napoleon I's sister Carolina marries King Joachim Murat of Naples
1801 John Marshall appointed US chief justice
1807 Napoleon convenes the great Sanhedrin, Paris
1809 1st US geology book published by William Maclure
1840 Dumont D'Urville discovers Adélie Land, Antarctica
1840 Dutch King Willem II crowned
1841 China cedes Hong Kong to the British
1850 Investigator, 1st ship to effect northwest passage, leaves England
1860 Dutch troops conquer Watampone in Celebes
1866 Prim's Insurrection in Spain ends
1868 Florida constitutional convention meets in Tallahassee
1869 Elizabeth Cady Stanton becomes 1st woman to testify before Congress
1870 "City of Boston" vanishes at sea with all 177 aboard
1870 Hiram R Revels elected to fill unexpired term of Jefferson Davis
1872 California Stock Exchange Board organized
1879 British troops under Lord Chelmsford set camp at Isandlwana
1883 Billy Barnes takes a hat-trick, England vs Australia MCG
1887 US Senate approves the naval base lease of Pearl Harbor
1892 1st basketball game played (Massachusetts)
1910 Ottawa Senators sweep Edmonton in 2 for the Stanley Cup (2nd of 1910)
1920 Dutch 2nd Chamber passes school laws
1921 Mountain Autonomous Republic established in RSFSR
1921 Turkey declared in remnants of the Ottoman Empire
1921 British submarine K5 leaves with man & mouse
1921 Dagestan ASSR forms in RSFSR
1922 Arthur Honegger's ballet "Skating Rink" premieres, Paris
1925 USSR & Japan sign treaty of Peking, Seychelles back to USSR
1926 2nd German government of Luther begins
1929 1st feature talking motion picture taken outdoors, "In Old Arizona"
1930 1st radio broadcast of "Lone Ranger" (WXYZ-Detroit)
1934 Japan sends Henry Pu Yi as regent to emperor of Manchuria
1936 Edward VIII succeeds British king George V
1937 -45ºF (-43ºC), Boca CA (state record)
1937 1st Inauguration day on Jan 20th, (held every 4th years thereafter)
1939 Charles Ives' 1st sonata "Concord" premieres
1939 Hitler proclaims to German parliament to exterminate all European Jews
1941 Béla Bartók's 6th string quartet, premieres in New York City NY
1942 Nazi officials hold notorious Wannsee conference in Berlin deciding on "final solution" calling for extermination of Europe's Jews
1942 Japanese air raid on Rabaul New Britain
1942 Japanese invade Burma
1943 Lead SD, temp is 52ºF, while 1.5 miles away Deadwood SD records -16ºF
1943 Operation-Weiss Assault of German, Italian, Bulgarian & Croatian
1944 RAF drops 2300 ton bombs on Berlin
1945 FDR sworn-in for an unprecedented 4th term as President
1946 F Gouin follows De Gaulle as temporary leader of French government
1947 Brigadier General Edwin K Wright, USA, becomes deputy director of CIA
1949 President Truman announces his point 4 program
1949 J Edgar Hoover gives Shirley Temple a tear gas fountain pen
1950 "Dance Me a Song" opens at Royale Theater New York City NY for 35 performances
1950 Suriname becomes independent part in Realm of Netherlands
1952 British army occupies Ismailiya, Suez Canal Zone
1952 Louise Suggs wins LPGA Tampa Golf Open
1953 1st live coast-to-coast inauguration address (Eisenhower)
1953 1st US telecast transmitted to Canada-from Buffalo NY
1954 -70ºF (-57ºC), Rogers Pass, Montana (state 48 record)
1954 Dmitri Shostakovich's "Concertino opus 94" premieres
1956 Buddy Holly records "Blue Days Black Night" in Nashville
1957 Betsy Rawls wins LPGA Tampa Golf Open
1957 Gomulka wins Poland's parliamentary election
1957 Morton Gould's "Declaration" premieres in Washington DC
1958 Betsy Rawls wins LPGA Tampa Golf Open
1958 KUED TV channel 7 in Salt Lake City UT (PBS) begins broadcasting
1959 Dmitri Shostakovich's "Moscow-Tsjerjomoesjki" premieres in Moscow
1960 Patrice Lumumba sentenced to 6 months in Belgian Congo
1961 Robert Frost recites "The Gift Outright" at JFK's inauguration
1961 Arthur M Ramsay becomes archbishop of Canterbury
1961 Francis Poulenc's "Gloria" premieres in Boston
1961 Yugoslav ex-Vice-President Milovan Djilas flees
1962 "Kean" closes at Broadway Theater New York City NY after 92 performances
1964 "Meet The Beatles" album released in US
1965 JPL proposes modified Apollo flight to fly around Mars & return
1965 The Beatles appear on Shindig (ABC-TV)
1965 The Byrds record "Mr Tambourine Man"
1965 Generalissimo Francisco Franco meets with Jewish representatives to discuss legitimizing Jewish communities in Spain
1968 Houston ends UCLA's 47-game basketball winning streak, 71-69
1968 US female Figure Skating championship won by Peggy Fleming
1968 US male Figure Skating championship won by Tim Wood
1969 Richard M Nixon inaugurated as President
1969 U of Arizona reports 1st optical id of pulsar (in Crab Nebula)
1970 20th NBA All-Star Game East beats West 142-135 at Philadelphia
1970 23rd NHL All-Star Game East beat West 4-1 at St Louis
1970 Super Fight, computer mock championship between Ali & Marciano
1971 John Lennon meets Yoko Ono's parents in Japan
1971 Ard Schenk skates world record 1000m (1 18.8)
1974 Essex Community College beats Englewood Cliffs 210-67 in basketball
1974 4th NFL Pro Bowl AFC beats NFC 15-13
1974 7th ABA All-Star Game East 128 beats West 112 at Virginia
1975 5th NFL Pro Bowl NFC beats AFC 17-10
1975 Terrence McNally's "Ritz" premieres in New York City NY
1976 29th NHL All-Star Game Wales beat Campbell 7-5 at Philadelphia
1977 George Bush, ends term as 11th director of CIA
1977 Mr Knoche, serves as acting director of CIA through March 9
1978 Columbia Pictures pays $9.5 million for movie rights to "Annie"
1980 President Jimmy Carter announces US boycott of Olympics in Moscow
1980 Super Bowl XIV Pittsburgh Steelers beat Los Angeles Rams, 31-19 in Pasadena; Super Bowl MVP Terry Bradshaw, Pittsburgh, Quarterback
1980 US female Figure Skating championship won by Linda Fratianne
1980 US male Figure Skating championship won by Charles Tickner
1981 52 Americans held hostage in Iran for 444 days freed
1981 Islander Glenn Resch's 25th & last shut-out opponent-Flames 5-0
1981 Admiral Stansfield Turner, USN (Retired), ends term as 12th director of CIA
1981 Ronald Reagan inaugurated as President
1982 7 miners killed in an explosion in Craynor KY
1982 Honduras constitution goes into effect
1982 Piet Dankert elected chairman of European Parliament
1984 US female Figure Skating championship won by Rosalynn Sumners
1985 Cold front strikes US, at least 40 die (-27ºF (-33ºC) in Chicago)
1985 Super Bowl XIX San Francisco 49ers beat Miami Dolphins, 38-16 in Stanford; Super Bowl MVP Joe Montana, San Francisco, Quarterback
1986 1st federal holiday honoring Martin Luther King Jr
1986 Chunnel announced (railroad tunnel under English Channel)
1986 Military coup in Lesotho under General-Major Lekhanya & premier Leabua Jonathan
1987 Anglican Church envoy Terry Waite taken hostage in Beirut, Lebanon
1987 Rhino Records 1st #1-Billy Vera & the Beaters' "At This Moment"
1988 Arizona committee opens hearing on impeachment of Governor Evan Mecham
1988 André Hoffman skates world record 1500m (1 52.06)
1989 Bush inaugurated as 41st President & Quayle becomes 44th Vice President
1989 Reagan becomes 1st President elected in a "0" year, since 1840, to leave office alive
1989 Wayne Holdsworth takes a wicket 1st ball in 1st-class cricket
1990 US 64th manned space mission STS 32 (Columbia 10) returns from space
1990 47th Golden Globes Born on 4th of July, Driving Miss Daisy win
1991 Buffalo Bills beat Los Angeles Raiders 51-3 for AFC title
1991 Iraq pardes captured Allied airmen on TV
1991 Matt Barr's field goal with no time left gives New York Giant 15-13 victory over defending champs San Francisco 49ers, for NFC title
1991 US Patriot missiles begins shooting down Iraqi missiles
1991 "Black & Blue" closes at Minskoff Theater New York City NY after 829 performances
1991 "Les Miserables" opens at Pantages Theatre, Los Angeles
1991 "Peter Pan" closes at Lunt-Fontanne Theater New York City NY or 45 performances
1991 "Shogun - The Musical" closes at Marquis Theater New York City NY after 72 performances
1991 13th UCP Telethon
1991 Jane Geddes wins LPGA Jamaica Golf Classic
1992 Score begins selling international soccer cards
1992 Australia beat India 2-0 to win the World Series Cup
1993 Admiral Studeman, serves as acting director of CIA
1993 Bill Clinton inaugurated as 42nd President
1995 "Love! Valor! Compassion!" opens at Walter Kerr New York City NY for 276 performances
1995 1994-95 NHL Season begin after a lengthy strike
1995 Russian ruble drops to 3,947 per dollar (record)
1996 46th NHL All-Star Game East beat West 5-4 at Fleet Center Boston
1996 Australia defeat Sri Lanka 2-0 to win World Series Cup
1996 US female Figure Skating championship won by Michelle Kwan
1996 WPAT FM New York City NY radio station switches to English-Spanish format
1997 Comet Hale-Bopp crosses Mars' orbit
1997 Howard Stern Radio Show premieres in New Orleans LA on KKND 106.7 FM
1997 Pakistan defeats West Indies 2-0 to win Australia one-day Series
1998 Rock & Roll Hall of Fame inducts Mama & Papas, Eagles
1998 Warner Brothers TV Network begins Tuesday night programming

Note: Some Holidays are only applicable on a given "day of the week"

Bulgaria : Grandmother's Day/Babin Den
Mali : National Army Day
US : Martin Luther King Jr Day (1929) - - - - - ( Monday )
Virginia : Lee-Jackson Day - - - - - ( Monday )
Florida : Arbor Day - - - - - ( Friday )

Religious Observances
Anglican, Roman Catholic : Memorial of St Fabian, 20th pope (236-50) (opt)
Memorial of St Sebastian, martyr/patron of Andorra (opt)
Roman Catholic : Eve of St Agnes

Religious History
1669 Birth of Susannah Annesley, "Mother of Methodism." Born the 25th child in her family, she married Samuel Wesley in 1689 and bore him 19 children, the last two being John (1703) and Charles (1707) Wesley.
1758 English founder of Methodism John Wesley wrote in a letter: 'I cannot think of you, without thinking of God. Others often lead me to Him, as it were, going round about. You bring me straight into His presence.'
1879 Birth of Albert S. Reitz, American Baptist evangelist and clergyman. He published over 100 hymns during his lifetime. Of these, the one best remembered today is "Teach Me to Pray, Lord."
1918 In Russia, following the Bolshevik Revolution, all church property was confiscated and all religious instruction in the schools was abolished.
1942 At the notorious Wannsee Conference in Berlin, German Nazi officials decided on their "final solution," which called for a mass extermination of all the Jews in Europe.

Thought for the day :
" We make war that we may live in peace. "
9 posted on 01/20/2003 5:47:57 AM PST by Valin (Place your ad here)
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To: SAMWolf
Last widow of a Union veteran in Civil War dies at 93

Associated Press

Published Jan. 20, 2003

BLAINE, Tenn. -- Gertrude Janeway, the last widow of a Union veteran from the Civil War, has died in the three-room log cabin where she lived most of her life. She was 93.
Bedridden for years, she died Friday, more than six decades after the passing of the man she called the love of her life, John Janeway, who married her when he was 81 and she was barely 18.
``She was a special person,'' said the Rev. Leonard Goins, who officiated at her funeral Sunday.
``Gertie, as she was called, had a vision beyond that (cabin) that kept her going. She never had any wavering or doubt in her salvation. She was strong in that,'' he said.
She was to be buried Monday near her husband's slender military tombstone at tiny New Corinth Church cemetery.

An honorary member of the Daughters of Union Veterans of the Civil War, Mrs. Janeway was the last recognized Union widow. She received a $70 check each month from the Veterans Administration.

Still alive is Confederate widow Alberta Martin, 95, of Elba, Ala.

Mrs. Janeway, who lived her whole life in Blaine, about 30 miles north of Knoxville, was born 44 years after the Civil War ended.
In a 1998 interview, she said her husband rarely spoke about the war.
``He says the nighest he ever got to gettin' killed was when they shot a hole through his hat brim,'' she said, but he never told her where that happened.
Her husband was a 19-year-old Grainger County farm boy who ran away to enlist in 1864 after being encouraged by a group of Union horse soldiers that he met on his way to a Blount County grist mill.
He sent his horse home and signed up under the surname January because ``he was afraid his people would come and claim him,'' Mrs. Janeway said.

Two months later, he was captured by Confederates near Athens, Ga. He was later released and rejoined his unit, the 14th Illinois Cavalry. After the war, he spent many years in California before returning home to Tennessee and meeting then 16-year-old Gertrude.
Mrs. Janeway said her mother refused to sign papers to let her marry him before she turned 18. ``So my man says, 'Well, I will wait for her until you won't have to,''' she recalled. ``We sparked for three years.''

She remembered getting married in the middle of a dirt road in 1927 with family and friends gathered around. He bought her the cabin in 1932 and it was there that he died in 1937, at 91, from pneumonia.
``After he died, why it just seemed like a part of me went down under the ground with him,'' she said in the 1998 interview. ``He is the only one I ever had. There wasn't anybody else.''

© Copyright 2003 Star Tribune. All rights reserved.
10 posted on 01/20/2003 5:53:23 AM PST by Valin (Place your ad here)
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To: GailA
Good Morning GailA. Great graphic and thanks for digging today's Foxhole.
11 posted on 01/20/2003 5:56:03 AM PST by SAMWolf (To look into the eyes of the wolf is to see your soul)
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To: Valin
1964 "Meet The Beatles" album released in US

Still have that album

12 posted on 01/20/2003 5:58:20 AM PST by SAMWolf (To look into the eyes of the wolf is to see your soul)
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To: SAMWolf
Good Morning Everybody.
You Know The Drill
Click the Pics

Click The Logo For Fundraiser Thread Click here to Contribute to FR: Do It Now! ;-) Captain of Her Heart Johnny B. Good

Coffee & Donuts J

13 posted on 01/20/2003 6:03:48 AM PST by Fiddlstix (Tag Line Service Center: FREE Tag Line with Every Monthly Donation to FR. Get Yours. Inquire Within)
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To: U S Army EOD; PatriotGames; ProudEagle; sonsa; Fiddlstix; larryjohnson; auboy; 06isweak; ...
PING to the FReeper Foxhole daily thread in the VetsCoR Forum!

To be removed from this list, Click this link and send a BLANK FReepmail to AntiJen.

If you have comments for me to read, use this link. Thanks!

14 posted on 01/20/2003 6:20:56 AM PST by Jen (Dive on in to the FReeper Foxhole. BYOS (bring your own shovel))
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To: AntiJen
15 posted on 01/20/2003 6:27:44 AM PST by manna
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To: SAMWolf
"It was a case of the man at the desk a thousand miles away trying to direct the operations of the man in the field."
This sad state of affairs would repeat itself not 100 years later.
16 posted on 01/20/2003 6:31:28 AM PST by Darksheare (This tagline has been deleted by the Americans for Social Septicemia, "I got burning, in my soul!")
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Comment #17 Removed by Moderator

To: AntiJen
No longer dangling from ceiling fixture.
It came loose.
Continuing mission.
18 posted on 01/20/2003 6:33:59 AM PST by Darksheare (This tagline has been deleted by the Americans for Social Septicemia, "I got burning, in my soul!")
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To: AntiJen
Stopping by to plug a thread to one of our own deployed on the USS Tarawa. See today's USO Canteen thread and support our Freeper bkwells.,8
19 posted on 01/20/2003 6:35:13 AM PST by snippy_about_it (Pray for our troops!)
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To: Valin
Thanks for the story on the last Widow. The othjer day one of the last World War one vets passed away. 103 years old.
20 posted on 01/20/2003 6:35:17 AM PST by SAMWolf (To look into the eyes of the wolf is to see your soul)
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