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The FReeper Foxhole Remembers The Bonus Army of 1932 - Mar. 30th, 2003 ^ | Brian R. Train

Posted on 03/30/2003 12:00:09 AM PST by SAMWolf

Dear Lord,

There's a young man far from home,
called to serve his nation in time of war;
sent to defend our freedom
on some distant foreign shore.

We pray You keep him safe,
we pray You keep him strong,
we pray You send him safely home ...
for he's been away so long.

There's a young woman far from home,
serving her nation with pride.
Her step is strong, her step is sure,
there is courage in every stride.
We pray You keep her safe,
we pray You keep her strong,
we pray You send her safely home ...
for she's been away too long.

Bless those who await their safe return.
Bless those who mourn the lost.
Bless those who serve this country well,
no matter what the cost.

Author Unknown


FReepers from the USO Canteen, The Foxhole, and The Poetry Branch
join in prayer for all those serving their country at this time.



U.S. Military History, Current Events and Veterans Issues

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We hope to provide an ongoing source of information about issues and problems that are specific to Veterans and resources that are available to Veterans and their families.

In the FReeper Foxhole, Veterans or their family members should feel free to address their specific circumstances or whatever issues concern them in an atmosphere of peace, understanding, brotherhood and support.

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Hard economic times always incur a certain amount of social dislocation and consequently create opportunities for politically extreme movements. The global economic event that began in 1929, known as the Great Depression, allowed radical movements of the Left and Right to make headway in Europe during the 1930's. As one of the major industrial powers and one of the hardest hit by the Great Depression, radical groups like these could have posed a serious challenge to public order inthe United States. There were many instances of labour unrest and strikes that turned violent, incidents that prompted temporary mobilisations of state National Guards. There were also instances where regular Army troops were called out in aid of the civil power. The worst incident of this type was the Bonus Army March in Washington in the summer of 1932.

At the end of World War One, as the American Expeditionary Force was being demobilised, a grateful U.S. government passed legislation that authorised the payment of cash bonuses to war veterans, adjusted for length of service, in 1945. However, the Crash of 1929 wiped out many veterans' savings and jobs, forcing them out into the streets. Groups of veterans began to organise and petition the government to pay them their cash bonus immediately. In the spring of 1932, during the worst part of Depression, a group of 300 veterans in Portland, Oregon organised by an ex-Sergeant named Walter Walters named itself the 'Bonus Expeditionary Force' or 'Bonus Army,' and began travelling across the country to Washington to lobby the government personally. By the end of May over 3,000 veterans and their families had made their way to the capital. Most of them lived in a collection of makeshift huts and tents on the mud flats by the Anacostia River outside of the city limits. Similar ghettos could be found sheltering the migrant unemployed and poor outside any large city in the United States and were called 'Hoovervilles.' By July, almost 25,000 people lived in Anacostia, making it the largest Hooverville in the country.

In June, the Patman Bonus Bill, which proposed immediate payment of the veterans' cash bonuses, was debated in the House of Representatives. There was stiff resistance from Republicans loyal to President Hoover, as the estimated cost of the bill was over $2 billion and the Hoover Administration was adamant about maintaining a balanced budget. The bill passed in the Congress on June 15, but was defeated in the Senate only two days later. In response, almost 20,000 veterans slowly shuffled up and down Pennsylvania Avenue for three days in a protest local newspapers titled the 'Death March.'

As the weather and the rhetoric grew hotter, concern grew that the Bonus Army Marchers could cause widespread civil disorder and violence. There were scuffles with the police and some Senators' cars were stoned by unruly crowds of veterans. Retired Marine General Smedley Butler, an immensely popular figure among veterans and who had become a vocal opponent of the Hoover Administration, participated in Bonus Army demonstrations and made inflammatory speeches (He would be approached in 1933 by Fascist sympathisers in the American Legion, who would try to involve him in an actual plot to seize power in a coup d'etat.). It was alleged at the time that the March was directed by the Communist Party of the USA in pursuit of a genuine revolution, but it has since been established that the Party's only actual involvement was sending a small number of agitators and speakers. Nevertheless, President Hoover considered the Bonus Army Marchers a threat to public order and his personal safety. Contrary to tradition, he did not attend the closing ceremonies for that session of Congress on July 16 and many members left the Capitol building through underground tunnels to avoid facing the demonstrators outside.

Many of the Marchers left Washington after Congress adjourned, but there were still over 10,000 angry, restless veterans in the streets. On July 28, 1932, two veterans were shot and killed by panicked policemen in a riot at the bottom of Capitol Hill. This provided the final stimulus. Hoover told Patrick J. Hurley, the Secretary of War, to tell General Douglas Macarthur, then the Army Chief of Staff, that he wished the Bonus Army Marchers evicted from Washington. Troops from nearby Forts Myer and Washington were ordered in to remove the Bonus Army Marchers from the streets by force.

One battalion from the 12th Infantry Regiment and two squadrons of the 3rd Cavalry Regiment (under the command of Major George S. Patton, who had taken over as second in command of the Regiment less than three weeks earlier) concentrated at the Ellipse just west of the White House. At 4:00 p.m. the infantrymen donned gas masks and fixed bayonets, the cavalry drew sabres, and the whole force (followed by several light tanks) moved down Pennsylvania Avenue to clear it of people.

Against the advice of his assistant, Major Dwight D. Eisenhower, Macarthur had taken personal command of the operation. President Hoover had ordered Macarthur to clear Pennsylvania Avenue only, but Macarthur immediately began to clear all of downtown Washington, herding the Marchers out and torching their huts and tents. Tear gas was used liberally and many bricks were thrown, but no shots were fired during the entire operation. By 8:00 p.m. the downtown area had been cleared and the bridge across the Anacostia River, leading to the Hooverville where most of the Marchers lived, was blocked by several tanks.

That evening Hoover sent duplicate orders via two officers to Macarthur forbidding him to cross the Anacostia to clear the Marchers' camp, but Macarthur flatly ignored the President's orders, saying that he was 'too busy' and could not be bothered by people coming down and pretending to bring orders.' Macarthur crossed the Anacostia at 11:00 p.m., routed the marchers along with 600 of their wives and children out of the camp, and burned it to the ground. Then, incredibly, he called a press conference at midnight where he praised Hoover for taking the responsibility for giving the order to clear the camp. He said, 'Had the President not acted within 24 hours, he would have been faced with a very grave situation, which would have caused a real battle.... Had he waited another week, I believe the institutions of our government would have been threatened.' Patrick J. Hurley, the Secretary of War, was present at this conference and praised Macarthur for his action in clearing the camp, even though he too was aware that Hoover had given directly contrary orders. It was this sort of insubordination and manipulation that would lead to Macarthur being summarily relieved of his command of the UN forces in Korea in 1951.

The last of the Bonus Army Marchers left Washington by the end of the following day. Hoover could not publicly disagree with his Chief of Staff and Secretary of War, and ended up paying the political cost of this incident. The possibility of widespread civil unrest growing into a popular revolution had been averted, but the forceful eviction of the Bonus Army Marchers, even though not one shot had been fired and only four people killed (the two demonstrators who had been shot by the police and two infants asphyxiated by tear gas), helped to tilt public opinion against Hoover and certainly contributed to his defeat in the 1932 election.

In the end, some money was paid to veterans but not without further difficulties. Within a year of the Bonus Army Incident, President Roosevelt imposed the Economy Act of 1933 which cut veterans disability allowances by 25%. In the effort to cut federal expenses, veterans were viewed as having inordinate special status over civilians. During the 1932 election campaign, he had publicly proclaimed: "No one [merely] because he wore a uniform must therefore be placed in a special class of beneficiaries over and above all other citizens. The fact of wearing a uniform does not mean that he can demand and receive from his government a benefit which no other citizen receives." Congress, nevertheless, quickly restored the cut in benefits. Pressure from veterans' groups continued until a lump-sum bonus law was passed over Roosevelt's veto in 1936. Eventually $2.5 billion was awarded to veterans of World War One.

KEYWORDS: bonusarmy; depression; douglasmacarthur; franklinroosevelt; freeperfoxhole; herberthoover; veterans; wwi
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In 1924, a grateful Congress voted to give a bonus to World War I veterans - $1.25 for each day served overseas, $1.00 for each day served in the States. The catch was that payment would not be made until 1945. However, by 1932 the nation had slipped into the dark days of the Depression and the unemployed veterans wanted their money immediately.

In May of that year, some 15,000 veterans, many unemployed and destitute, descended on Washington, D.C. to demand immediate payment of their bonus. They proclaimed themselves the Bonus Expeditionary Force but the public dubbed them the "Bonus Army." Raising ramshackle camps at various places around the city, they waited.

The veterans made their largest camp at Anacostia Flats across the river from the Capitol. Approximately 10,000 veterans, women and children lived in the shelters built from materials dragged out of a junk pile nearby - old lumber, packing boxes and scrap tin covered with roofs of thatched straw.

Discipline in the camp was good, despite the fears of many city residents who spread unfounded "Red Scare" rumors. Streets were laid out, latrines dug, and formations held daily. Newcomers were required to register and prove they were bonafide veterans who had been honorably discharged. Their leader, Walter Waters, stated, "We're here for the duration and we're not going to starve. We're going to keep ourselves a simon-pure veteran's organization. If the Bonus is paid it will relieve to a large extent the deplorable economic condition."

June 17 was described by a local newspaper as "the tensest day in the capital since the war." The Senate was voting on the bill already passed by the House to immediately give the vets their bonus money. By dusk, 10,000 marchers crowded the Capitol grounds expectantly awaiting the outcome. Walter Waters, leader of the Bonus Expeditionary Force, appeared with bad news. The Senate had defeated the bill by a vote of 62 to 18. The crowd reacted with stunned silence. "Sing America and go back to your billets" he commanded, and they did. A silent "Death March" began in front of the Capitol and lasted until July 17, when Congress adjourned.

A month later, on July 28, Attorney General Mitchell ordered the evacuation of the veterans from all government property, Entrusted with the job, the Washington police met with resistance, shots were fired and two marchers killed. Learning of the shooting at lunch, President Hoover ordered the army to clear out the veterans. Infantry and cavalry supported by six tanks were dispatched with Chief of Staff General Douglas MacArthur in command. Major Dwight D. Eisenhower served as his liaison with Washington police and Major George Patton led the cavalry.

By 4:45 P.M. the troops were massed on Pennsylvania Ave. below the Capitol. Thousands of Civil Service employees spilled out of work and lined the streets to watch. The veterans, assuming the military display was in their honor, cheered. Suddenly Patton's troopers turned and charged. "Shame, Shame" the spectators cried. Soldiers with fixed bayonets followed, hurling tear gas into the crowd.

By nightfall the BEF had retreated across the Anacostia River where Hoover ordered MacArthur to stop. Ignoring the command, the general led his infantry to the main camp. By early morning the 10,000 inhabitants were routed and the camp in flames. Two babies died and nearby hospitals overwhelmed with casualties. Eisenhower later wrote, "the whole scene was pitiful. The veterans were ragged, ill-fed, and felt themselves badly abused. To suddenly see the whole encampment going up in flames just added to the pity."
1 posted on 03/30/2003 12:00:10 AM PST by SAMWolf
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To: MistyCA; AntiJen; Victoria Delsoul; SassyMom; bentfeather; GatorGirl; radu; souris; SpookBrat; ...
Excerpts from The Memoirs of Herbert Hoover,
3 volumes, 1952 -1953.

In the summer of 1932 the Commander in Chief of the Armed Forces ordered the U.S. Army into action--to attack the veterans of the U.S. Army. General Douglas MacArthur, Colonel Dwight D. Eisenhower, and Major George S. Patton led the mounted soldiers, who wielded billy clubs and tear gas canisters. When it was all over the veterans' shanties and tents lay in smoldering piles. Proud veterans of World War I were driven from the nation's capital. "We were heroes in 1917," said one veteran bitterly, "but we're bums now."

How could President Hoover have been so heartless? This is his explanation in his own words.

First, the background. In the face of the great depression, veterans asked that they be paid their wartime bonus immediately (full payment was scheduled for 1945). They argued that they needed the aid to feed their families during the depression. They also argued that by spending their bonus on cars, appliances, and houses, they would help create jobs and thus lessen the severity of the depression for others. In order to draw attention to their plan, some 15,000 veterans came to Washington and camped out--until they were driven away.

Hoover's explanation is reprinted below. I will only mention in passing that this is Hoover's explanation--many have denied its validity.

The bonus march was in considerable part organized and promoted by the Communists and included a large number of hoodlums and ex-convicts determined to raise a public disturbance. They were frequently addressed by Democratic congressmen seeking to inflame them against me for my opposition to the bonus legislation. They were given financial support by some of the publishers of the sensational press. It was of interest to learn in after years from the Communist confessions that they also had put on a special battery of speakers to help Roosevelt in his campaign, by use of the incident.

When it was evident that no legislation on the bonus would be passed by the Congress, I asked the chairmen of the Congressional committees to appropriate funds to buy tickets home for the legitimate veterans. This was done and some 6,000 availed themselves of its aid, leaving about 5,000 mixed hoodlums, ex-convicts, Communists, and a minority of veterans in Washington.

[Government officials asked marchers to vacate some old government buildings so that renovation work could proceed.] Whereupon more than 1,000 of the disturbers marched from camps outside of the city and made an organized attack upon the police. In the melee Police Commissioner Glassford failed to organize his men. Several were surrounded by the mob and beaten up; two policemen, beaten to the ground, fired to protect their lives and killed two marchers. Many policemen were injured.

...At my direction to Secretary of War Hurley, General Douglas MacArthur was directed to take charge. General Eisenhower (then Colonel) was second in command. Without firing a shot or injuring a single person, they cleaned up the situation.

...The misrepresentation of the bonus incident for political purposes surpassed any similar incident in American history. Not only did Roosevelt use the incident in the 1932 campaign, but Democratic orators also continued to use it for twenty years after, despite all the refutations and proof to the contrary. I was portrayed as a murderer and an enemy of veterans.
2 posted on 03/30/2003 12:00:35 AM PST by SAMWolf (Time for Bush and Rumsfeld to open another Front - on the Press Corps)
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To: All
'That mob was a bad looking mob. It was animated by the essence of revolution. The gentleness, the consideration, with which they had been treated had been mistaken for weakness and they had come to the conclusion, beyond the shadow of a doubt, that they were about to take over in some arbitrary way either the direct control of the government or else to control it by indirect methods. It is my opinion that had the President ... let it go on another week the institutions of our government would have been very severely threatened.'

-- General Douglas MacArthur

3 posted on 03/30/2003 12:00:53 AM PST by SAMWolf (Time for Bush and Rumsfeld to open another Front - on the Press Corps)
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To: All
The State of the Union is Strong!
Support the Commander in Chief

Click Here to Send a Message to the opposition!

4 posted on 03/30/2003 12:01:17 AM PST by SAMWolf (Time for Bush and Rumsfeld to open another Front - on the Press Corps)
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To: All

5 posted on 03/30/2003 12:01:47 AM PST by SAMWolf (Time for Bush and Rumsfeld to open another Front - on the Press Corps)
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To: All
Good Morning Everybody.

Chow time!
NG's and ER's to the front of the line.
Standing Operating Procedures state:
Click the Pics For Today's Tunes

Click here to Contribute to FR: Do It Now! ;-) Kissed Night Dirty Maybe

6 posted on 03/30/2003 12:02:52 AM PST by SAMWolf (Time for Bush and Rumsfeld to open another Front - on the Press Corps)
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To: Michael121; cherry_bomb88; SCDogPapa; Mystix; GulfWar1Vet; armymarinemom; PatriotHewett; ...
FALL IN to the FReeper Foxhole!

To be removed from this list, please send me a blank private reply with "REMOVE" in the subject line! Thanks! Jen
7 posted on 03/30/2003 12:33:04 AM PST by Jen (Support our Troops * Stand up to Terrorists * Liberate Iraq)
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To: AntiJen

click on the graphic to see the complete Victory Series

8 posted on 03/30/2003 12:43:46 AM PST by DoughtyOne (Good morning everyone. Click on the graphic and eMail me a comment to our troops.)
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To: AntiJen
Aye, up late tonight are we lassie, or is it early tis mornin.

Night Shift Regards

alfa6 ;>}
9 posted on 03/30/2003 12:53:54 AM PST by alfa6 (GNY Highway's Rules: Improvise; Adapt; Overcome)
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To: DoughtyOne

Reuters: "Pause in Coalition Advance. Invading Paraguay by mistake."

10 posted on 03/30/2003 1:09:31 AM PST by ArneFufkin
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To: alfa6
Well... I'm an owl, so this is about the time I usually go to bed! hahahaha
11 posted on 03/30/2003 1:10:49 AM PST by Jen (Support our Troops * Stand up to Terrorists * Liberate Iraq)
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To: DoughtyOne
Very nice graphic D1. They ALL are! I visited your page and followed your instructions as requested! Thanks for this post - hope it becomes a regular Foxhole feature.
12 posted on 03/30/2003 1:17:47 AM PST by Jen (Support our Troops * Stand up to Terrorists * Liberate Iraq)
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To: ArneFufkin

Useful idiots or just idiots? You decide.
13 posted on 03/30/2003 1:18:54 AM PST by Jen (Support our Troops * Stand up to Terrorists * Liberate Iraq)
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To: AntiJen
Jen, who says there's repression and dictatorship in Saddam's Iraq?

I just saw the latest broadcast of Saddam and his victory counsel: some Iraqi auteur filmed in classic, pristine 8mm black and white film.

Oh .... it's a family film! Saddam is 9 years old ... gulp .. he just slit the throats of three kids who jumped ahead of him on some Black Sea Resort diving board line. What a cute little murderous rascal!

14 posted on 03/30/2003 1:47:12 AM PST by ArneFufkin
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To: AntiJen
15 posted on 03/30/2003 3:06:44 AM PST by E.G.C.
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To: AntiJen; SAMWolf; SpookBrat; MistyCA; HiJinx; Victoria Delsoul; Vets_Husband_and_Wife; Dubya; ...



I want to thank you all for your prayers and well wishes for my father and for my family.

I spoke with my sister yesterday and she told me that Dad was home and resting, he seems to be doing okay. My mom has to make an appointment for him to see his doctor on Monday to see what can be done to make his heart stop acting so "goofy". My sister also told me that they had to increase his medication.

But all praise goes to God! and to FREEPER prayers! :^)


16 posted on 03/30/2003 4:35:36 AM PST by Pippin ( God bless George W. Bush and God bless America)
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To: SAMWolf
On This In History

Birthdates which occurred on March 30:
1135 Maimonides [Moses Ben Maimon] Còrodoba Spain, philosopher/physician
1222 Nichiren Japan, Buddhist priest/saint
1432 Mehmed II [Fâtih] Sultan of Turkey (1451-81)
1672 Peter I "the Great" Romanov great tsar of Russia (1682-1725)
1674 Jethro Tull agricultural writer (Basildon), baptised
1681 Pieter Snyers Flemish painter/engraver
1687 Johann Balthasar Freisslich composer
1697 John-Baptist Xavery Flemish sculptor
1719 Sir John Hawkins England, wrote 1st history of music
1727 Tommaso Traetta Italy's opera composer/band leader (Farnace)
1746 Francisco Jose de Goya Fuendetodos Spain, painter/etcher (Naked Maja)
1750 John Stafford Smith composer
1772 Johann Wilhelm Wilms composer
1790 Joseph Smith Rear Admiral (Union Navy), died in 1877
1804 Salomon Sulzer composer
1805 Adrien de La Fage composer
1811 Angelo Catelani Italian composer/conductor
1815 Wincenty Studzinski composer
1823 Joseph Farmer Knipe Brigadier General (Union volunteers), died in 1901
1824 Innis Newton Palmer Bvt Major General (Union volunteers)
1825 Samuel Bell Maxey Brigadier General (Confederate Army), died in 1895
1830 Auguste Tolbecque composer
1830 Julius F A Bahnsen German philosopher
1835 Bernhard Scholz composer
1836 Karl Freiherr von Stumm-Halberg German industrialist/politician
1842 John Fiske [Edmund Fisk Green] US historian/philosopher
1844 Paul M Verlaine France, lyric poet (Sagesse Bonbeur)
1853 Vincent van Gogh Zundert Netherlands, artist who always lent an ear (Irises)
1864 Franz Oppenheimer German sociologist/politician
1865 Heinrich Rubens German physicist
1872 Sergey Nikiforovich Vasilenko composer
1876 Clifford Whittingham Beers US, mental hygiene pioneer
1880 Sean O'Casey Ireland, playwright (Playboy of the Western World)
1882 Melanie Klein Austrian/British psycho analysis
1883 Jo Davidson US, sculptor (Woodrow Wilson, Walt Whitman)
1886 Stanislaw Lesniewski Poland, logician/mathematician
1887 Albert P Termote Flemish/Dutch sculptor (Charles the Great)
1888 Anna Q Nilsson Ystad Sweden, actress (Shenandoah, Uncle Tom's Cabin)
1891 Jan B Cammans Flemish actor (Brothers Karamazov)
1892 Erwin Panofsky German/US art historian
1894 Sergei Ilyushin Russian airplane builder (Ilyushin)
1895 Jean Giono French writer (World Chant)
1898 Heinz Risse writer
1898 Joyce Carey London England, actress (Black Windmill)
1899 Irving Thalberg US producer (MGM)
19-- Steve Summers rocker (Pretty Boy Floyd-Rock & Roll)
1903 Countee Cullen US poet (Color, Ballad of the Brown Girl)
1903 Sol C Siegel US, producer (High Society, Gentlemen prefer blondes)
1904 Akarova [Marguerite Acarin], Belgian dancer (Les Biches)
1905 Mikio Oda Japan, triple jumper (Olympics-gold-1928)
1908 Camille Schmit composer
1908 Kurt Bruggemann composer
1908 Leslie O'Brien "Chuck" Fleetwood-Smith Chinese cricket bowler
1909 Ernst Gombrich OM/FBA/director (Warburg Institute)
1911 Dennis Gomm musician
1912 Andrew Rodger Waterson scholar/naturalist
1912 Jack Cowie cricketer (successful New Zealand fast bowler either side of WWII)
1913 Frankie Laine [Frank Paul LoVecchio] Chicago IL, singer (Hey, Good Lookin', That's My Desire)/ actor (Frankie Laine Show, Rawhide)
1913 Gottfried Reinhardt theatre producer
1913 Richard Helms CIA head (1966-73)
1914 Sonny Boy Williamson [John Lee] blues musician (Down & Out Blues)
1917 Els Aarne composer
1917 Herbert Anderson actor (Henry-Dennis The Menace)
1917 Rudolf Bruci composer
1918 John Gray FRS/marine biologist
1918 Joseph Allen Jr Boston MA, actor (Death of a Champion)
1919 McGeorge Bundy Boston MA, national security adviser under JFK
1919 Ramsay Ames actress (G-Men Never Forget, Ali Baba & 40 Thieves)
1920 Turhan Bey Vienna Austria, actor (Dragon Seed, Ali Baba & 40 Thieves)
1921 Countess of Sutherland English great land owner/multi-millionaire
1921 Kan Ishii composer
1921 Oto Ferenczy composer
1922 German Germanovich Galinin composer
1922 J F Coates naval architect
1922 Peter Jona Korn composer
1923 Herbert Asmodi writer
1924 Milko Kelemen composer
1925 Ivo Malek composer
1925 John Wells MP
1926 John Heddle Nash singer
1926 Lord Rayner
1926 Ray McAnally Buncrana County Donegal Ireland, actor (My Left Foot, Empire State, Sicilian)
1926 Werner Torkanowsky Berlin Germany, conductor (New Orleans Symphony)
1927 Lord Armstrong of Ilminster
1927 Wally Grout cricketer (great Aussie wicket-keeper)
1928 Diether de la Motte composer
1928 Richard Trant British General
1928 Tom Sharpe English historian/author (Riotous Assembly, Want)
1929 Richard Dysart Brighton MA, actor (Leland MacKenzie-LA Law)
1929 Shirley Stoler Brooklyn NY, actress (Frankenhooker, 7 Beauties)
1930 Browne-Wilkinson lord
1930 David Staple joint president (Council of Churches for Britain & Ireland)
1930 John Astin Baltimore MD, actor (I'm Dickens He's Fenster, Gomez-Addams Family)
1930 Peter Marshall [Pierre LaCock] Huntington Long Island NY, TV game show host (Hollywood Squares)
1930 Rolf Harris Bassendean Western Australia, Australian/British cartoonist/singer (Tie Me Kangaroo Down Sport)/actor (The Little Convict)
1931 Aleksey Vasilyevich Sorokin Russian cosmonaut
1931 Harold Burrage US singer/pianist (Hi Yo Silver)
1931 Sandor Szokolay composer
1932 A J Zuckerman Dean (Royal Free Hospital School of Medicine)
1933 Jean-Claude Brialy Aumale Algeria, actor (Circle of Love, Cousins)
1934 Lord Tanlaw
1935 Alan Jackson CEO (BTR)
1935 Gordon Mumma composer
1935 John Charles Eaton composer
1936 Mark Burns British director (Juggernaut)
1936 Richard Baker Santa Fe NM, Zen teacher (Dharma Sangha)
1937 J S Jennings CEO (Shell Transport & Trading Co)
1937 Jay W Macintosh Gainesville GA, actress (Sons & Daughters)
1937 Lord MacLaurin of Knebworth
1937 Warren Beatty Richmond VA, actor (Bonnie & Clyde,Shampoo, Dick Tracy)
1938 Martin Dunne Lord-Lieutenant (Warwickshire)
1940 Astrud Gilberto Brazil, singer (Girl From Ipanema)
1940 Jerry Lucas Middletown OH, NBA center (New York Knicks, NBA rookie of year 1964, Olympics-gold-60)
1940 Norman Gifford cricketer (respected England slow left-armer 1964-73)
1941 Brendan O'Friel CEO (Prison Governors Association)
1941 Robert C Smith (Representative-Republican-NH, 1985- )
1941 Ron Johnston Vice-Chancellor (Essex University)
1941 Sven Hamrin Sweden, road race cycler (Olympics-bronze-1964)
1942 George Esson Chief Constable (Dumfries & Galloway)
1942 Graeme Edge Rochester Staffordshire England, rock drummer (Moody Blues-Nights in White Satin, Your Wildest Dreams)
1943 Bob Blewett cricketer (father of Greg South Australia batsman 1975-79)
1944 Gerrit Komrij Dutch poet/essayist (Happy Schizo)
1945 Eric Clapton [Eric Patrick Clapp] Ripley England, legendary guitarist/singer (Yardbirds, Cream, Tears in Heaven)
1948 Dave Ball rocker (Procul Harum)
1948 Jim Dandy Mangrum vocalist (Black Oak Arkansas-Jim Dandy)
1948 Justin Deas Connellsville PA, actor (Buzz-Guiding Light, Dream Lover, As the World Turns, Santa Barbara)
1948 M A King FBA, economist
1948 Nigel Jones British MP
1949 Leslie Joan Corn theatre producer/director/writer
1949 Sue Cook British broadcaster
1950 Dave McCurdy (Representative-Democrat-OK, 1981- )
1950 Eugene Bowen composer (Wonder's Edge)
1950 Joseph Cali New York NY, actor (Nick-Today's FBI)
1950 Rupert Greenall rock keyboardist (Fixx)
1951 John Gosden racehorse trainer
1955 Randy Van Warmer Indian Hills CO, vocalist (Just When I Needed You Most)
1957 Elena V Kondakova Moscow Russia, cosmonaut (STS 84)
1957 Paul Reiser New York NY, actor (My 2 Dads, Diner, Aliens, Mad About You)
1957 Yelena Vladimirovna Kondakova Russian cosmonaut (Soyuz TM 20, STS 84)
1958 Joseph Paul Sindelar Fort Knox KY, PGA golfer (British Columbia Open-1985, 87)
1959 Daniel Seifried Kitchener Ontario, Canadia Tour golfer (1981 Thunder Bay)
1960 William D Johnson US alpine skier
1962 M C Hammer [Stanley Kirk Burrell] Oakland CA, rapper (U Can't Touch This)
1963 Jenny Lidback Lima Peru, LPGA golfer (1995 du Maurier Ltd Classic)
1963 Lomas Brown NFL tackle (Detroit Lions, Arizona Cardinals)
1964 Corey Millen Cloquet MN, NHL center (Calgary Flames)
1964 Dave Ellett Cleveland OH, NHL defenseman (Toronto Maple Leafs)
1964 Tracy Chapman US singer/songwriter (Freedom Now, I Got a Fast Car)
1965 Karel Novacek Prostejov Czechoslovakia, tennis star (1994 Hilversum)
1965 Piers Morgan editor (Daily Mirror)
1967 Ian Ziering West Orange NJ, actor (Steve Sanders-Beverly Hills 90210)
1967 Julie Richardson Auckland New Zealand, tennis star (1992 Futures-Canberra)
1968 Celine Dion Québec Canada, singer (I'm Your Woman)
1968 Donna D'Errico Dothan AL, playmate (September 1995)/actress (Baywatch)
1969 Marco Foddis pop drummer (Pestilence)
1969 Mark Astley Calgary, NHL defenseman (Buffalo Sabres)
1970 George Coghill WLAF safety (Scottish Claymores)
1970 Mark Consuelos Zaragosa Spain, actor (Mateo Santos-All My Children)
1970 Secreteriat race horse, triple crown (1973)
1970 Shane Bertsch Denver CO, Nike golfer (1994 Permina Basin Open-14th)
1971 Mari Holden Milwaukee WI, cyclist (Olympics-96)
1972 Brenden Stai NFL guard (Pittsburgh Steelers)
1972 Matt Joyce NFL/WLAF guard/tackle (Cardinals, Seahawks, Claymores)
1972 Peggy Zlotkowski Miss France-Universe (1989)
1973 [Kirk] Kareem Streete-Thompson Ithaca NY, 100 meter/long jumper
1973 Caroline Ramagos Miss Mississippi-USA (1996)
1973 Melinda Penn Miss British Virgin Islands-Universe (1997)
1973 Rodney Thomas running back (Tennessee Oilers)
1974 Martin Love cricketer (high scoring Queensland batsman, Australia 1995)
1976 Chris Canty cornerback (New England Patriots)
1976 Toby Gowin punter (Dallas Cowboys)
1978 Wendy Christina Roberts Miss South Carolina Teen-USA (1996)
1980 Liriel Higa Los Angeles CA, rhythmic gymnast (Olympics-96)
1983 ? California condor chick, San Diego CA, 1st born in captivity hatches

Deaths which occurred on March 30:
0988 Arnulf II count of Flanders (965-988), dies
1202 Joachim Van Fiore Italian religious founder (Joachimism), dies
1547 François I of Valois-Angoulême King of France (1515-47), dies at 52
1707 Sébastien le Prestre Vauban French fortress architect, dies at 73
1757 Johann Wenzel Anton Stamitz composer, dies at 39
1764 Pietro Antonio Locatelli Italian violinist/composer, dies at 68
1840 George (Beau) Brummell Dandy, dies
1864 Louis Alexander Balthasar Schindelmeisser composer, dies 52
1871 W F A A Louisa/Lovisa queen of Sweden/Norway, dies at 42
1872 Nicolaos Mantzaros composer, dies at 76
1873 Benedict Augustin Morel psychologist (dementia praecox), dies at 63
1875 Marie Moke Pleyel composer, dies at 63
1879 David van der Kellen Dutch coin engraver, dies at 74
1879 Thomas Couture French painter/author, dies at 63
1884 Hans Hampel composer, dies at 61
1906 Betsy Perk [Christina E], journalist/writer/feminist, dies at 73
1910 Jean Moréas [Y Papadiamantopoulos], Greek/French poet, dies at 53
1912 Karl May German writer (Winnetou/Kara Ben Nemsi), dies at 70
1925 Rudolf Steiner Austrian philosopher (anthroposophy), dies at 64
1926 Feliks E Dzerzjinski Lithuanian organizer (KGB), dies at 48
1935 Romanos Hovakimi Melik'yan composer, dies at 51
1942 Alfred Coville French historian (Lesson premier Valois), dies at 81
1945 Karel Moor composer, dies at 71
1946 John S S P V Gort viscount of Limerick/Hamsterley, dies at 59
1948 Mahatma Gandhi assassinated in New Delhi
1949 Dattaram Dharmaji Hindlekar cricketer (4 Tests for India), dies
1949 Friedrich C R Bergius chemist (brown coal, Nobel 1931), dies at 64
1950 Léon Blum French premier (People's Front Govt), dies at 77
1953 Roderich Mojsisovics-Mojsvar composer, dies at 75
1955 Harl McDonald US composer (Santa Fé Trail), dies at 55
1960 Fritz Klimsch German sculptor/painter, dies at 90
1960 Joseph Haas German opera composer (Totenmesse), dies at 81
1961 P J Melotte discovered Jupiter's 8th satellite Pasiphae, dies
1963 Alexander Vasil'yevich Gauk composer, dies at 69
1964 Willem CN Andriessen Dutch composer/pianist (Beethoven), dies at 76
1966 Erwin Piscator German director (Plebeians test rebellion), dies at 72
1966 Maxfield Parrish US painter, dies at 95
1969 Lucien Bianchi Belgian auto racer, dies at 34
1971 Selmer Jackson actor (Life & Legend of Wyatt Earp), dies at 82
1972 Gabriel Heather US news anchor, dies at 81
1972 Peter Whitney actor (Rough Riders), dies at 55
1974 Ludovicus J Rogier Dutch historian (Reborn in Freedom), dies at 79
1975 Peter Bamm writer, dies
1976 Jacqueline Royaards-Sandberg actress (Hostage Rights), dies at 99
1977 Levko Mykolayevich Revutsky composer, dies at 88
1978 George Paine lefty cricket spinner (for England in West Indies 1935), dies
1978 Harold Gimblett cricketer (Batted in 3 Tests for England), suicide
1979 Airey Neave British MP (Conservatives), killed by terrorist bomb
1981 Dewitt Wallace US founder (Reader's Digest), dies at 91
1981 Noel Harford cricketer (8 Tests for New Zealand 1955-58), dies
1983 Pál Kadosa Hungarian composer/pianist, dies at 79
1984 Peter Yarrall strongest Englishman/weighed 826 lb (374.7 kg), dies
1985 Harold Peary actor (Herb-Blondie, Willy), dies of heart attack at 76
1986 James F Cagney actor (Public Enemy, Angels With Dirty Faces, Yankee Doodle Dandy), dies at his Stanfordville NY farm at 86
1986 John Ciardi US poet/interpreter (Dante), dies at 69
1989 Dort Clark actor (In Harm's Way), dies
1991 Jan Willem Hofstra Dutch actor/writer (Friends of My Friends), dies
1992 Art Hannes announcer, dies of a respiratory ailment at 72
1992 Luigi De Laurentiis Italian producer (Toto, Macaroni), dies
1993 Jeremy Siegrist actor (Adventures of Darly & Samy), dies hiking at 20
1993 Richard C Diebenkorn Jr US painter (Ocean Park Paintings), dies at 70
1994 Albert Goldman rock biographer (Elvis, John Lennon), dies at 66
1994 Sid Weiss bassist, dies at 79
1995 Graham Anthony Richard Lock cricketer, dies at 65
1995 Paul A Rothchild record producer, dies at 59
1995 Rozelle Claxton pianist/arranger, dies at 82
1995 Tony Lock cricketer (174 wickets for England), dies
1996 Hugh Edward Lance Falkus filmmaker/naturalist, dies at 78
1996 Ryoei Saito businessman, dies at 79
2002 HM Queen Elizabeth the Queen Mother dies at Royal Lodge, Windsor, at 101

On this day...
0239 -BC- 1st recorded perihelion passage of Halley's Comet
0804 Liudger becomes 1st bishop of Münster
0988 Boudouin IV with the Beard becomes earl of Flanders
1282 Furious inhabitants of Palermo attack French occupation force
1422 Ketsugan, Zen teacher, performs exorcisms to free aizoji temple
1456 Prince Louis of Bourbon elected bishop of Liege
1474 Duke Sigismund van Tirol ends contacts with Switzerland
1492 King Ferdinand & Queen Isabella sign decree expelling Jews from Spain
1533 Henry VIII divorces his 1st wife, Catherine of Aragon
1533 Thomas Cranmer becomes archbishop of Canterbury
1603 Battle at Mellifont: English army under Lord Mountjoy beats Irish
1778 Playwright Voltaire crowned with laurel wreath
1814 Britain & allies march into Paris after defeating Napoleon
1822 Congress combined East & West Florida into Florida Territory
1842 Ether was used as an anaesthetic for 1st time by Dr Crawford Long (Jefferson GA)
1856 Russia signs Peace of Paris, ending the Crimean War
1858 Pencil with attached eraser patented (Hyman L Lipman of Philadelphia)
1863 Danish prince Wilhelm Georg of Sleeswÿk-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg chosen as king George of Greece
1864 Skirmish at Mount Elba AR
1865 Battle at 5 Forks Virginia
1866 Bedrich Smetana's "Verkaufte Braut" (Sold Bride), premieres
1867 US purchases Alaska from Russia for $7,200,000 (2¢ an acre-Seward's Folly)
1870 15th Amendment passes, guarantees right to vote regardless of race
1870 Texas becomes last confederate state readmitted to Union
1889 John T Reid opens 1st US golf course (Yonkers NY)
1893 Thomas F Bayard becomes 1st US ambassador in Great Britain
1895 British inventor Birt Acres films Oxford-Cambridge
1900 Dutch 2nd Chamber accepts Compulsory education law
1909 Queensboro Bridge opens, linking Manhattan & Queens
1911 Lötschberg tunnel in Switzerland (13,735 meter) completed
1912 French protectorate in Morocco established
1916 Stanley Cup: Montréal Canadiens (NHA) beat Portland Rosebuds (PCHA), 3 games to 2
1918 Stanley Cup: Toronto Arenas (NHL) beat Vancouver Millionaires (PCHA), 3 games to 2
1919 Belgian Army occupies Düsseldorf
1919 Gandhi announces resistance against Rowlatt Act
1919 Paul Claudel's "Tête d'Or" premieres in Paris France
1922 KGY-AM in Olympia WA begins radio transmissions
1922 WWL-AM in New Orleans LA begins radio transmissions
1923 Zeta Phi Beta Sorority, formed at Howard University in 1920, incorporates
1925 Stalin supports rights of non-Serbian Yugoslavians
1925 Stanley Cup: Victoria Cougars (WCHL) beat Montréal Maroons (NHL), 3 games to 1
1930 Babberich-H soccer team forms
1932 Amelia Earhart is 1st woman to fly solo cross the Atlantic
1935 Newfoundland changes time to 3½ hours W of Greenwich, repeats 44 seconds
1940 2nd NCAA Men's Basketball Championship: Indiana University beats Kansas 60-42
1941 German counter offensive in North-Africa
1942 1st RSHA-transport from France arrives in camp Birkenau
1942 SS murders 200 inmates of Trawniki labor camp
1943 5th NCAA Men's Basketball Championship: University of Wyoming beat Georgetown 46-34
1943 British 1st army recaptures Sejenane
1944 781 British bombers attack Neurenberg
1945 289 anti-fascists murdered by Nazis in Rombergpark Dortmund
1945 USSR invades Austria during WWII
1946 "St Louis Woman" opens at Martin Beck Theater NYC for 113 performances
1946 Australia beats New Zealand in cricket at 3 30pm on 2nd day
1946 Last Test Cricket appearance of Bill O'Reilly (5-14 & 3-19)
1950 Phototransistor invention announced, Murray Hill NJ
1952 6th Tony Awards: Fourposter & King & I win
1952 Patty Berg wins LPGA New Orleans Women's Golf Open
1953 Einstein announces revised unified field theory
1954 Test Cricket debut of Garry Sobers vs England at Kingston
1955 27th Academy Awards: "On the Waterfront", Marlon Brando & Grace Kelly win
1956 USSR performs nuclear test
1957 1st performance of Walter Piston's 4th Symphony
1959 WNED TV channel 17 in Buffalo NY (PBS) begins broadcasting
1961 NASA civilian pilot Joseph A Walker takes X-15 169,600' (51,690 meter)
1963 France performs underground nuclear test at Ecker Algeria
1964 Astronaut John Glenn withdraws from Ohio senate race
1966 Barbra Streisand stars on "Color Me Barbra" special on CBS
1967 Cover picture of Beatles' "Sergeant Pepper" is photographed
1968 General Ludvik Svoboda elected President of Czechoslovakia
1969 Kathy Whitworth wins LPGA Port Malabar Golf Invitational
1970 Miles Davis Bitches Brew released
1970 Soap opera "Somerset" premieres
1970 Strouse, Adams, Comden & Green's musical "Applause" premieres at Palace Theater NYC for 900 performances
1970 USSR wins its 8th straight world hockey championship
1972 "A Funny Thing Happened on the Way to the Forum" opens at Lunt-Fontanne NYC for 156 performances
1972 North Vietnamese troops enter South Vietnam
1972 US performs nuclear test at Nevada Test Site
1973 Ellsworth Bunker resigns as US ambassador to South Vietnam
1975 Ron Lalonde scores the 1st hat trick by a Washington Capital
1976 Israel kills 6 Palestinians protesting land confiscation
1978 "History of the American Film" opens at ANTA Theater NYC for 21 performances
1980 Mark Medoff's "Children of a Lesser God" premieres in New York NY
1980 Nancy Lopez wins LPGA Women's Kemper Golf Open
1981 43rd NCAA Men's Basketball Championship: Indiana beats North Carolina 63-50
1981 President Reagan shot & wounded by John W Hinckley Jr
1982 3rd space shuttle mission-Columbia 3 lands at White Sands NM
1982 John Pielmeier's "Agnes of God" premieres in New York NY
1983 Ray Cooney's "Run for your Wives" premieres in London
1983 USSR performs nuclear test at Eastern Kazakhstan/Semipalitinsk USSR
1984 US ends participation in multinational Lebanon peace force
1986 "Tango Argentino" closes at Mark Hellinger Theater NYC after 198 performances
1986 5th NCAA Women Basketball Championship: Texas beats Southern California 97-81
1987 59th Academy Awards: "Platoon", Paul Newman & Marlee Matlin win
1987 Vincent van Gogh's "Sunflowers" sells for record £22.5M ($39.7 million)
1988 2nd Soul Train Music Awards
1988 Tamil Nadu beat Railways by inns & 144 to win Ranji Trophy
1990 Jack Nicklaus made his debut in the "Seniors" golf tournament
1991 "Speed of Darkness" closes at Belasco Theater NYC after 36 performances
1991 1st exhibition baseball games at Joe Robbie Stadium (Yankees-Orioles)
1991 44th NCAA Ice Hockey Chanmpionship: Northern Michigan beats Boston University 8-7; Northern Michigan's 1st NCAA hockey title
1991 Last issue of Dutch Newspaper "Vrÿe Folk" (Free People)
1991 PBA National Championship Won by Mike Miller
1991 William Kennedy Smith allegedly rapes a woman
1991 William Kennedy Smith allegedly rapes a woman (found not guilty)
1992 64th Academy Awards (Silent of the Lambs sweeps with Best Picture, Anthony Hopkins as Best Actor and Jodie Foster as Best Actress)
1992 CBS TV premieres overnight news program "Up To The Minute"
1992 Man accidentally backs into A's Jose Canseco's $225,000 Lamborghini
1992 PJ Patterson, resigns as 6th Prime Minister of Jamaica
1992 WNSR-FM (105.1) changes callsign to WMXV-FM (New York NY)
1993 French government of Balladur forms
1993 Jamaican premier Percival Patterson wins parliamentary election
1993 Lanford Wilson's "Redwood Curtain" premieres at Brooks Atkinson Theater NYC for 40 performances
1993 New South Wales beat Queensland by eight wickets to win Sheffield Shield
1993 Punjab beat Maharashtra by 120 runs to win Cricket's Ranji Trophy
1994 ABC Masters Tournament won by Hobo Boothe
1994 Bombay beat Bengal by 8 wickets to win Cricket's Ranji Trophy
1994 England Cricket all out for 46 at Port-of-Spain
1995 "Arcadia" opens at Vivian Beaumont Theater NYC for 204 performances
1996 Lara hits 146 cricket not out in ODI vs New Zealand at Port-Of-Spain
1996 New York Mets beats New York Yankees 5-3 in an exhibition game
1996 Prince Edward & girl-friend Sophie Rhys-Jones visited Greystoke Castle
1997 16th NCAA Women's Basketball Championship: Tennessee beats Old Dominion 68-59
1997 26th Nabisco Dinah Shore Golf Championship won by Betsy King
1997 Southwestern Bell Dominion Senior Golf
1997 Steve Elkington wins Golf's Players Championship
1998 60th NCAA Men's Basketball Championship: at Alamodome San Antonio, Kentucky beats Utah 78-69

Note: Some Holidays are only applicable on a given "day of the week"

Alaska : Seward Day (1867) - - - - - ( Monday )
US Virgin Island : Transfer Day (1917) - - - - - ( Monday )

Religious Observances
Roman Catholic : Commemoration of St Leonard Murialdo, Italian priest/educator
Christian : Easter Sunday

Religious History
1135 Birth of Moses Maimonides, medieval Jewish scholar. Considered the foremost Talmudist of the Middle Ages, his most important writing was "Guide to the Perplexed" (1190), in which he tried to harmonize Rabbinic Judaism with the increasingly popular Aristotelianism of his day.
1492 The Jews were expelled from Spain by Inquisitor_General Tom's Torquemada (Spanish Inquisition).
1771 English founder of Methodism John Wesley wrote in a letter: 'Suffer all, and conquer all.'
1863 Ownership of Wilberforce University in Ohio was transferred to the African Methodist Episcopal Church. The school had been founded seven years earlier by the Methodist Episcopal Church.
1917 All imperial lands, as well as lands belonging to monasteries, were confiscated by the Russian provisional government.

Thought for the day :
"Public speaking takes a two minute idea, and a two hour vocabulary."
17 posted on 03/30/2003 4:38:47 AM PST by Valin (Age and deceit beat youth and skill)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

To: Pippin
I spoke with my sister yesterday and she told me that Dad was home and resting, he seems to be doing okay. My mom has to make an appointment for him to see his doctor on Monday to see what can be done to make his heart stop acting so "goofy".

We are...pleased! revel in them. Because all to soon they're gone.
18 posted on 03/30/2003 4:45:38 AM PST by Valin (Age and deceit beat youth and skill)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 16 | View Replies]

To: Valin
Thanks, Valin!
19 posted on 03/30/2003 4:49:21 AM PST by Pippin ( God bless George W. Bush and God bless America)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 18 | View Replies]

To: SAMWolf
Good Morning SAM
20 posted on 03/30/2003 5:21:51 AM PST by Soaring Feather
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 2 | View Replies]

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