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The FReeper Foxhole Profiles General Winfield Scott - Nov 22nd, 2003 ^

Posted on 11/21/2003 11:59:54 PM PST by SAMWolf


Keep our Troops forever in Your care

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for all those serving their country at this time.

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Winfield Scott
(1786 - 1866)


No one person would have more influence on the United States Army during its first 100 years of existence than General Winfield Scott. Known as Old Fuss and Feathers because of his attention to detail and a penchant for gaudy uniforms, Winfield Scott fought in the War of 1812, the Blackhawk War, the Seminole Wars, the Mexican-American War, and the War for Southern Independence (American Civil War). A Civilian Conservation Corps park and lake bear the name of the man who oversaw the removal of the Cherokee from the state of Georgia.

Born of parents who were both wealthy and famous (his father was a hero in the American Revolution), Winfield Scott attended The College of William and Mary in Williamsburg, Virginia. The evolving upheaval in relations between the United States and Britain at the start of the 19th century ended an uninspired legal career for the six foot, five inch Scott.

During the War of 1812 Lt. Colonel Scott led a series of attacks against combined British and Canadian forces between Fort George and Fort Erie, on the Canadian side of the border west of Buffalo, New York. He was captured on October 11, 1812, in the rout of American forces during the Battle of Queenston Heights (near Niagra-on-the-Lake) and served time as a prisoner-of-war on the Canadian frontier. Scott and his longtime friend Captain John Wool fought in this battle. After his release the young officer returned to duty and fought throughout the region.

Battle of Lundy's Lane

At the Battle of Lundy's Lane, Scott was ambushed by a force of British regulars. Rather than retreat, Scott ordered an advance, which convinced the British commander that Scott's detachment was part of a larger army. The arrival of additional British troops halted their orderly retreat and the engagement continued. For more than two hours the 1300 men in Scott's command were under withering fire from the British. Less than 400 men were still fighting when American re-enforcement's arrived. Scott withdrew and reorganized his men, but while looking for a place to attack was hit with a bullet, shattering a bone. On July 25, 1814 the war ended for Winfield Scott. The Battle of Lundy's Lane ended a draw.

After the War he married, worked on military books and hobnobbed with New York society. Over the next 15 years the flamboyant Scott angered many of his peers, including future president Andrew Jackson.

Scott returned to active military duty in 1832 to fight in various "Indian Wars" and was called upon to replace John Wool as commander of Federal troops in the Cherokee Nation just prior to the Trail of Tears. Spreading from the Blue Ridge Mountains west to the Cumberland Plateau, the Cherokee had sworn in 1819 to give no more land to encroaching settlers. The United States Supreme Court agreed with the Cherokee's right to self-rule, but Andrew Jackson did not and in 1835 he convinced a small group of these American Indians to sign the Treaty of New Echota. General Wool had become disenchanted with the idea of forcing the Cherokee from their "Enchanted Land."

Receiving orders on April 6, 1838, Scott arrived at New Echota, Cherokee Nation that May and immediately began with his plans for removal. He divided the Nation into three military districts and The Cherokee were rounded up and herded into unsanitary "forts," one of which was named for the general. Nearly one-third of all the Cherokee deaths attributed to the Trail of Tears would come as a result of this confinement.

The first parties to leave Georgia suffered huge losses in both people and livestock, attempting to travel west in the scorching heat of summer. The Cherokee clearly viewed Scott as their "warden" when they appealed directly to him to postpone the removal until cooler months. "We, your prisoners, wish to speak to you...We have been made prisoners by your men but do not fight you..."

The appeal worked. Scott not only agreed to postpone the removal, he backed a proposal for the departing parties to be led by Cherokee chiefs rather than the U. S. Army. For this Winfield Scott expected, and got, an incredible backlash from the pro-removal forces. Even former President Andrew Jackson wrote to protest Scott's decision.

The general, in spite of serious personal problems, was determined to accompany a group of Cherokee west. He left Athens, Tennessee, on October 1, 1838, and continued with the Cherokee to Nashville, where he received orders to return to Washington.

During the Mexican War (1846-48) General Scott led a brilliant five month campaign which ended in his replacement because of problems with subordinate officers. Winfield Scott would be nominated for President by the Whigs in 1852 and lose in the general election to Franklin Pierce.

General Winfield Scott, commanding general of the Union Army
From the Collections of The Mariners' Museum

Even though the Civil War broke out after his 75th birthday the corpulent commander continue to lead his men. Too large to mount a horse, Scott formulated a detailed plan for the defeat of the Confederacy that included a blockade of southern ports. Some thought he was senile because the common belief on both sides was it would be a quick war. He was removed as commander by President Lincoln before the end of 1861, however, almost all of the elements of his "Anaconda Plan" would later be used by a desperate Lincoln in an attempt to win the war.

Major General Winfield Scott, "Old Fuss and Feathers"

When the original Medal of Honor was proposed in 1862 Scott came close to killing the idea. He was strongly against the European custom of awarding medals for heroism.

KEYWORDS: biography; cherokees; civilwar; freeperfoxhole; georgia; mexicanwar; union; veterans; warbetweenstates; winfieldscott
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General Winfield Scott
and the Mexican-American War (1846-1848)

With Zachary Taylor's troops stuck in northern Mexico, General Winfield Scott proposed a bold plan, an amphibious attack on the coastal Mexican town of Vera Cruz. Scott used his extensive experience with similar operations on the Canadian frontier during the War of 1812 in planning the attack. The attack was the largest amphibious landing of any nation up to that date.

General Winfield Scott
Commanding the largest amphibious force in history (to that date), Scott captures Vera Cruz ("True Cross") in 20 days. Courtesy National Archives

Beginning in February, 1847, Scott amassed nearly 12,000 troops at the Rio Grande on the border of Texas and Mexico. Opposing him would be more than 20,000 Mexicans, some of whom were seasoned veterans under the command of Santa Anna, the Centralist leader who 10 years earlier invaded Texas, ordered the massacre at Goliad and led the attack on the Alamo.

Scott landed about three miles south of the city on March 10, 1847, and encircled Vera Cruz in four days, laying siege to the Mexican city. By the end of the month the encircled city surrendered. It was the first in a series of successes that would make General Scott an American hero.

The landing at Vera Cruz. (Library of Congress)

Moving inland, Scott encountered 12,000 Mexican nationals at Cerro Gordo or El Telegrafo. In what was a textbook execution of a brilliant plan, Scott encircled Santa Anna's army and forced it to withdraw. A mistake by Gideon Pillow unfortunately cost the lives of hundreds of men, however, because of Pillow's close association with then President Polk, the error was downplayed in Scott's report.

As the General approached Mexico City he stopped. He could not attack the city because he needed General Santa Anna to remain as head of government. If he attacked and won, the general might have been relieved of duty. This upset some of his higher ranking subordinates, many of whom wanted to attack the city for personal reasons.

Scott's entry into Mexico City. (Library of Congress)

Finally, facing recruitment deadlines and financial problems, Scott was forced to attack. A three-prong advance caught the Mexican Army off-balance and sent them scurrying from the city and the surrounding countryside. The Mexican Army removed to Buena Vista. From here Santa Anna negotiated a peace treaty, then was quickly overthrown.

Winfield Scott had so impressed the people of Mexico that a delegation visited his camp to find out what he would require to lead the new government. Scott refused politely. His eye was on a bigger prize (President of the United States).

1 posted on 11/21/2003 11:59:55 PM PST by SAMWolf
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To: snippy_about_it; PhilDragoo; Johnny Gage; Victoria Delsoul; Darksheare; Valin; bentfeather; radu; ..
Letter to Winfield Scott
suggesting a General War Plan with Scott's Indorsement

General McClellan sent this letter to Winfield Scott, commander of the U.S. Army during the earliest stages of the war. In it he proposed a series of plans which he suggested would bring a speedy end to the war. It ran entirely counter to Scott's own "Anaconda" plan, as Scott points out in the attached indorsement.

Columbus, Ohio, April 27, 1861.

Commanding U. S. Army:

GENERAL: Communication with Washington being so difficult, I beg to lay before you some views relative to this region of country, and to propose for your consideration a plan of operations intended to relieve the pressure upon Washington and tending to bring the war to a speedy close. The region north of the Ohio and between the Mississippi and the Alleghanies forms one grand strategic field, in which all operations must be under the control of one head, whether acting offensively or on the defensive. I assume it as the final result that hostilities will break out on the line of the Ohio. For two reasons it is necessary to delay this result by all political means for a certain period of time: First, to enable the Northwest to make the requisite preparations, now very incomplete; second, that a strong diversion may be made in aid of the defense of Washington and the eastern line of operations.

First urging that the General Government should leave no means untried to arm and equip the Western States, I submit the following views: Cairo should be occupied by a small force, say two battalions, strongly intrenched, and provided with heavy guns and a gun-boat to control the river. A force of some eight battalions, to be in observation at Sandoval (the junction of the Ohio and Mississippi and the Illinois Central Railways), to observe Saint Louis, sustain the garrison of Cairo, and if necessary re-enforce Cincinnati. A few companies should observe the Wabash below Vincennes. A division of about 4,000 men at Seymour to observe Louisville, and be ready to support Cincinnati or Cairo. A division of 5,000 men at or near Cincinnati. Two battalions at or near Chillicothe. Could we be provided with arms, the Northwest has ample resources to furnish 80,000 men for active operations, after providing somewhat more than the troops mentioned above for the protection of the frontier. With the active army of operations it is proposed to cross the Ohio at or in the vicinity of Gallipolis and move up the valley of the Great Kanawha on Richmond. In combination with this Cumberland should be seized and a few thousand men left at Ironton or Gallipolis to cover the rear and right flank of the main column. The presence of this detachment and a prompt movement on Louisville or the heights opposite Cincinnati would effectually prevent any interference on the part of Kentucky. The movement on Richmond should be conducted with the utmost promptness, and could not fail to relieve Washington as well as to secure the destruction of the Southern Army, if aided by a decided advance on the eastern line.

Attributed to Mathew B. Brady
(American, 1823?-1896)
General Winfield Scott (1786-1866)
Half-plate daguerreotype, ca. 1848
Gift of William Macbeth Gallery

I know that there would be difficulties in crossing the mountains, but would go prepared to meet them. Another plan would be, in the event of Kentucky assuming a hostile position, to cross the Ohio at Cincinnati or Louisville with 80,000 men, march straight on Nashville, and thence act according to circumstances. Were a battle gained before reaching Nashville, so that the strength of Kentucky and Tennessee were effectually broken, a movement on Montgomery, aided by a vigorous movement on the eastern line toward Charleston and Augusta, should not be delayed. The ulterior movements of the combined armies might be on Pensacola, Mobile, and New Orleans. It seems clear that the forces of the Northwest should not remain quietly on the defensive, and that under present circumstances, if the supply of arms is such as to render it absolutely impossible to bring into the field the numbers indicated above, then offensive movements would be most effective on the line first indicated; but if so liberal a supply can be obtained as to enable us to dispose of 80,000 troops for the active army, then the second line of operations would be the most decisive. To enable us to carry out either of these plans it is absolutely necessary that the General Government should strain every nerve to supply the West with arms, ammunition, and equipments. Even to maintain the defensive we must be largely assisted. I beg to urge upon you that we are very badly supplied at present, and that a vast population eager to fight are rendered powerless by want of arms, the nation being thus deprived of their aid.

I have the honor to be, general, very respectfully, yours,

Major-General, Commanding Ohio Volunteers

MAY 2, 1861.

As at the date of this letter General McClellan knew nothing of the intended call for two years' volunteers, he must have had the idea of composing his enormous columns of three-months' men for operating against Nashville and Richmond--that is, of men whose term of service would expire by the time he had collected and organized them. That such was his idea appears from a prior letter, in which, although the Ohio quota is but about 10,000 men, the general speaks, I think, of having 30,000, and wants arms, &c., for 80,000. Second. A march upon Richmond from the Ohio would probably insure the revolt of Western Virginia, which if left alone will soon be five out of seven for the Union. Third. The general eschews water transportation by the Ohio and Mississippi in favor of long, tedious, and break-down (of men, horses, and wagons) marches. Fourth. His plan is to subdue the seceded States by piece-meal instead of enveloping them all (nearly) at once by a cordon of posts on the Mississippi to its mouth from its junction with the Ohio, and by blockading ships of war on the seaboard. For the cordon a number of men equal to one of the general's columns would probably suffice, and the transportation of men and all supplies by water is about a fifth of the land cost, besides the immense saving in time.

Respectfully submitted to the President.


General Winfield Scott's Letter to George McClellan
describing his general war plan
(The Anaconda Plan)

General Winfield Scott, commander of the U.S. Army, sent this letter to George McClellan during the earliest stages of the war. It was in reply to a letter from McClellan which set forth several proposals for the prosecution of the war. In this reply Scott gives his ideas on the subject, which were to become known as the Anaconda Plan.

Washington, May 3, 1861.

Commanding Ohio Volunteers, Cincinnati, Ohio:

SIR: I have read and carefully considered your plan for a campaign, and now send you confidentially my own views, supported by certain facts of which you should be advised.

First. It is the design of the Government to raise 25,000 additional regular troops, and 60,000 volunteers for three years. It will be inexpedient either to rely on the three-months' volunteers for extensive operations or to put in their hands the best class of arms we have in store. The term of service would expire by the commencement of a regular campaign, and the arms not lost be returned mostly in a damaged condition. Hence I must strongly urge upon you to confine yourself strictly to the quota of three-months' men called for by the War Department.

Major General Winfield Scott. (Library of Congress)

Second. We rely greatly on the sure operation of a complete blockade of the Atlantic and Gulf ports soon to commence. In connection with such blockade we propose a powerful movement down the Mississippi to the ocean, with a cordon of posts at proper points, and the capture of Forts Jackson and Saint Philip; the object being to clear out and keep open this great line of communication in connection with the strict blockade of the seaboard, so as to envelop the insurgent States and bring them to terms with less bloodshed than by any other plan. I suppose there will be needed from twelve to twenty steam gun-boats, and a sufficient number of steam transports (say forty) to carry all the personnel (say 60,000 men) and material of the expedition; most of the gunboats to be in advance to open the way, and the remainder to follow and protect the rear of the expedition, &c. This army, in which it is not improbable you may be invited to take an important part, should be composed of our best regulars for the advance and of three-years' volunteers, all well officered, and with four months and a half of instruction in camps prior to (say) November 10. In the progress down the river all the enemy's batteries on its banks we of course would turn and capture, leaving a sufficient number of posts with complete garrisons to keep the river open behind the expedition. Finally, it will be necessary that New Orleans should be strongly occupied and securely held until the present difficulties are composed.

General Winfield Scott, 1851
Oil portrait by Minor Kellogg, 1851
Courtesy The New York Historical Society

Third. A word now as to the greatest obstacle in the way of this plan--the great danger now pressing upon us - the impatience of our patriotic and loyal Union friends. They will urge instant and vigorous action, regardless, I fear, of consequences - that is, unwilling to wait for the slow instruction of (say) twelve or fifteen camps, for the rise of rivers, and the return of frosts to kill the virus of malignant fevers below Memphis. I fear this; but impress right views, on every proper occasion, upon the brave men who are hastening to the support of their Government. Lose no time, while necessary preparations for the great expedition are in progress, in organizing, drilling, and disciplining your three-months' men, many of whom, it is hoped, will be ultimately found enrolled under the call for three-years' volunteers. Should an urgent and immediate occasion arise meantime for their services, they will be the more effective. I commend these views to your consideration, and shall be happy to hear the result.

With great respect, yours, truly,


Additional Sources:

2 posted on 11/22/2003 12:00:37 AM PST by SAMWolf (You might have mail, I can't recall.)
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To: All
Resignation Letter to General Scott - Robert E. Lee

To General Winfield Scott
Commander-in-Chief, United States Army
Arlington, Washington City P.O.

April 20, 1861


Since my interview with you on the 18th instant I have felt that I ought not longer to retain my commission in the Army. I therefore tender my resignation, which I request you will recommend for acceptance.

It would have been presented at once, but for the struggle it has cost me to separate myself from a service to which I have devoted all the best years of my life & all the ability I possessed.

During the whole of that time, more than 30 years, I have experienced nothing but kindness from my superiors, & the most cordial friendship from my companions. To no one Genl have I been as much indebted as to yourself for the uniform kindness & consideration, & it has always been my ardent desire to merit your approbation.

I shall carry with me to the grave the most grateful recollections of your kind consideration, & your name & fame will always be dear to me. Save in the defence of my native State, I never desire again to draw my sword.

Be pleased to accept my most earnest wishes for the continuance of your happiness & prosperity & believe me most truly yours.

R.E. Lee


According to author John Ehle future United States President Andrew Jackson and Winfield Scott once agreed to a duel. Meeting at the appointed place and time both were convinced of the other's courage, so the duel was called off.

3 posted on 11/22/2003 12:01:02 AM PST by SAMWolf (You might have mail, I can't recall.)
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To: All

Veterans for Constitution Restoration is a non-profit, non-partisan educational and grassroots activist organization. The primary area of concern to all VetsCoR members is that our national and local educational systems fall short in teaching students and all American citizens the history and underlying principles on which our Constitutional republic-based system of self-government was founded. VetsCoR members are also very concerned that the Federal government long ago over-stepped its limited authority as clearly specified in the United States Constitution, as well as the Founding Fathers' supporting letters, essays, and other public documents.

Tribute to a Generation - The memorial will be dedicated on Saturday, May 29, 2004.

Actively seeking volunteers to provide this valuable service to Veterans and their families.

4 posted on 11/22/2003 12:01:28 AM PST by SAMWolf (You might have mail, I can't recall.)
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To: carton253; Matthew Paul; mark502inf; Skylight; The Mayor; Prof Engineer; PsyOp; Samwise; ...

FALL IN to the FReeper Foxhole!

Good Saturday Morning Everyone

If you would like added to our ping list let us know.

5 posted on 11/22/2003 3:52:22 AM PST by snippy_about_it (Fall in --> The FReeper Foxhole. America's History. America's Soul.)
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To: snippy_about_it
Good morning, Snippy and everyone at the Freeper Foxhole. Nice weather here today but colder tommorow.:-D
6 posted on 11/22/2003 4:04:27 AM PST by E.G.C.
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To: snippy_about_it
7 posted on 11/22/2003 4:05:38 AM PST by manna
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To: SAMWolf

Today's classic warship, USS Wyoming (BB-32)

Wyoming class battleship
displacement. 27,243 t.
length. 562'0"
beam. 93'2 1/2"
draft 28'6"
speed. 21.22 k.
complement. 1,063
armament. 12 12", 21 5", 2 3" 2 21" tt.

The USS Wyoming (Battleship No. 32) was laid down on 9 February 1910 at Philadelphia, Pa., by William Cramp and Sons; launched on 25 May 1911; sponsored by Miss Dorothy Eunice Knight, the daughter of former Chief Justice Jesse Knight of the Wyoming Supreme Court; and commissioned at the Philadelphia Navy Yard on 25 September 1912, Capt. Frederick L. Chapin in command.

Wyoming departed Philadelphia on 6 October and completed the fitting-out process at the New York Navy Yard, Brooklyn, N.Y., before she joined the fleet in Hampton Roads, Va. Reaching the Tidewater area on 30 December 1912, she became the flagship of Rear Admiral Charles J. Badger, Commander, United States Atlantic Fleet, soon thereafter. Sailing on 6 January 1913, the new battleship visited the soon to be completed Panama Canal and then conducted winter fleet maneuvers off Cuba before she returned to Chesapeake Bay on 4 March.

After gunnery practice off the Virginia capes, on the southern drill grounds, Wyoming underwent repairs and alterations at the New York Navy Yard between 18 April and 7 May. She then participated in war games off Block Island between 7 and 24 May-a period of activity broken by repairs to her machinery, carried out at Newport, R.I., between 9 and 19 May-before she underwent more repairs at Newport. She then visited New York City from 28 to 31 May for the festivities surrounding the dedication of the monument honoring the battleship Maine, destroyed in Havana harbor on 15 February 1898.

Shifting to Annapolis Md., on 4 June, Wyoming embarked a contingent of Naval Academy midshipmen and took the young officers-to-be on a summer cruise off the coast of New England that lasted into late August. Disembarking the "middies" at Annapolis on 24 and 25 August, Wyoming then conducted torpedo and target practices in the southern drill grounds, out of Hampton Roads, into the late autumn. She was docked at New York for repairs between 16 September and 2 October and then ran a full-power trial as she headed south to Norfolk to resume exercises off the Virginia capes before sailing for Europe on 26 October.

Reaching Valletta, Malta, on 8 November, the dreadnought-type battleship visited Naples, Italy, and Villefranche, France, during the course of her Mediterranean cruise. The battleship then left French waters astern on the last day of November and reached New York on 15 December.

Wyoming then underwent voyage repairs at the New York Navy Yard remaining there through the end of 1913. Getting underway on 6 January 1914, the battleship reached Hampton Roads on the morrow and spent the next three days coaling to prepare for the annual fleet exercises in the warmer Caribbean climes.

Wyoming exercised with the fleet, out of Guantanamo Bay and Guacanayabo Bay, Cuba, between 26 January and 15 March, before setting her course northward for Cape Henry, Va. She then ranged with the fleet from the southern drill grounds, off the Virginia capes, to Tangier Sound, for gunnery drills and practices. She remained engaged in that routine until 3 April, when she headed for the New York Navy Yard and an overhaul.

After that period of repairs, which lasted from 4 April to 9 May, Wyoming subsequently embarked a draft of men for transport to the fleet, departed Hampton Roads on 13 May, and headed for Mexican waters. She reached Veracruz on 18 May-less than a month after American sailors and marines had occupied that Mexican port.

Wyoming remained at Vera Cruz over the months that ensued, into the late autumn of 1914, before she returned northward. After conducting exercises off the Virginia capes en route, she put into the New York Navy Yard on 6 October and then underwent repairs and alterations which lasted until 17 January 1915.

Shifting down the coast upon completion of that yard period, Wyoming left Hampton Roads in her wake on 21 January for the annual exercises in Cuban waters and in the Caribbean. Returning to the Tidewater area on 7 April, the battleship carried out tactical exercises and maneuvers along the eastern seaboard-primarily off Block Island and the southern drill grounds-into the late autumn, when she again entered the New York Navy Yard for an overhaul.

After repairs lasting from 20 December 1915 to 6 January 1916, Wyoming got underway on the latter day, bound for war games in the southern drill grounds. She subsequently headed farther south, reaching Culebra, Puerto Rico, on 16 January. After vis iting Port-au-Prince, Haiti, on 27 January, Wyoming put into Guantanamo Bay on the 28th and then operated in Cuban waters-off Guantanamo and Guacanayabo Bays and the port of Manzanillo-until 10 April, when she sailed for New York.

Wyoming remained in the New York Navy Yard from 16 April to 26 June, undergoing repairs; she then operated off the New England coast, out of Newport, and off the Virginia capes through the remainder of 1916. Departing New York on 9 January 1917, Wyoming then conducted routine maneuvers in the Guantanamo Bay region through mid-March. She departed the Caribbean on 27 March and was off Yorktown, Va., when the United States entered World War I on 6 April 1917.

Over the months that ensued, Wyoming served in the Chesapeake Bay region as an engineering ship until 13 November 1917. On that day Rear Admiral Hugh Rodman broke his flag in New York (Battleship No. 34) as Commander, Battleship Division 9. After preparations for "distant service," Wyoming, New York, Delaware (Battleship No. 28), and Florida (Battleship No. 30) sailed for the British Isles on 25 November and reached Scapa Flow, Orkney Islands, on 7 December 1917. Although retaining their American designation as Battleship Division 9, those four dreadnoughts became the 6th Battle Squadron of the British Grand Fleet upon arrival in British waters.

Wyoming carried out maneuvers and tactical exercises with the units of the British Grand Fleet until 6 February 1918. On that day, she got underway with the other ships of the 6th Battle Squadron and eight British destroyers to guard a convoy route to Stavanger, Norway. En route, Wyoming dodged torpedo wakes off Stavanger, on 8 February but reached Scapa Flow safely two days later. In the following months, Wyoming continued to patrol off the British Isles, guarding the coastwise sea lanes against the danger posed by the still-powerful German High Seas Fleet.

Between 30 June and 2 July 1918, Wyoming operated with the 6th Battle Squadron and a division of British destroyers, guarding Allied minelayers as they Planted the North Sea Mine Barrage. Later, Wyoming returned to the Firth of Forth, where she was inspected by the King of England, His Majesty George V, along with other units of the Grand Fleet.

Although American and German capital ships never met in combat on the high seas, they nevertheless made rendezvous. On 21 November 1918-10 days after the armistice ended World War I-Wyoming, New York, Texas (Battleship No. 36), and Arkansas (Battleship No. 33) joined the Grand Fleet as it escorted the German High Seas Fleet into the Firth of Forth to be interned following the cessation of hostilities.

Later, Wyoming, hoisting the flag of Rear Admiral William S. Sims, Commander, Battleship Division 9, sailed on 12 December 1918 from Portland, England, bound for France. The following morning, she and other battleships rendezvoused with George Washington (Id. No. 3018 ) off Brest, France. Embarked in the transport was the President of the United States, Woodrow Wilson, enroute to the Paris Peace Conference.

After serving in the honor escort for the President and his party, Wyoming returned Admiral Sims to Plymouth, England, along with the newly appointed ambassador to Great Britain. Debarking her distinguished passengers on 14 December, the battleship loaded 381 bags of mail and, within a few hours, sailed for the United States. Reaching New York City on Christmas Day 1918, she remained there through New Year's Day 1919. On 18 January 1919, she became the flagship of Battleship Division 7, 3d Squadron, and broke the flag of Rear Admiral Robert E. Coontz.

Wyoming departed New York on 1 February and, following winter maneuvers in Cuban waters, returned north, reaching New York on 14 April. However, she stood out to sea soon thereafter, getting underway on 12 May to serve as a link in the chain of ships stretching across the Atlantic to guide the NC-boats on their flight across that ocean. After completing her duty as plane guard and meteorological station, Wyoming returned to Hampton Roads on the last day of May.

Later embarking midshipmen and taking them on their southern cruise in the Chesapeake Bay-Virginia capes area, Wyoming entered the Norfolk Navy Yard on 1 July to prepare for service in the Pacific. On that day, she became a unit of the newly design ated Pacific Fleet, assigned the duty as flagship for Battleship Division 6, Squadron 4. On the morning of 19 July, the fleet, led by flagship New Mexico (Battleship No. 40), got underway for the Pacific. Transiting the Panama Canal soon thereafter, the fleet reached San Diego, Calif., on 6 August.

Shifting to San Pedro, Calif. three days later, Wyoming operated out of that port into the autumn. After an overhaul at the Puget Sound Navy Yard, Bremerton, Wash., from 15 September 1919 to 19 April 1920, Wyoming returned to her base at San Pedro on 4 May. Over the next few months, the battleship exercised off the southern California coast. During that time, she was reclassified BB-32 on 17 July 1920.

Departing San Diego on the last day of August 1920, Wyoming sailed for Hawaiian waters and conducted exercises and maneuvers there through September. Returning to San Diego on 8 October, Wyoming subsequently conducted tactical evolutions off the western seaboard, ranging north to Seattle. Departing San Francisco, Calif., on 5 January 1921, Wyoming, over the ensuing weeks, conducted further drills, exercises, and maneuvers reaching from Panama Bay to Valparaiso, Chile, and was reviewed by the President of Chile on 8 February. Returning north via Panama Bay and San Pedro, Wyoming arrived at the Puget Sound Navy Yard on 18 March and remained there into the summer.

Upon completion of repairs, Wyoming headed south and, on 2 August, reached Balboa, Canal Zone, where she embarked Rear Admiral Hugh Rodman and members of the commission to Peru for transportation to New York City. Reaching her destination on 19 August, she disembarked her passengers and, that afternoon, broke the flag of Admiral Hilary P. Jones, the Commander in Chief, United States Atlantic Fleet.

Over the next 41 months, Wyoming operated primarily in the Atlantic, off the eastern seaboard of the United States, participating in Atlantic Fleet exercises, ranging from the coast of New England to the Virginia capes. She took part in the routine winter maneuvers of the fleet in Caribbean and Cuban waters, serving at various times as flagship for Vice Admiral John D. McDonald, Commander, Battleship Force; and, later, Commander, Scouting Fleet, and his successors, Vice Admiral Newton A. McCully an d Vice Admiral Josiah S. McKean. During that time, the ship received routine repairs and alterations at the New York Navy Yard and conducted a midshipman's training cruise in the summer of 1924, cruising to Torbay, England; Rotterdam, Holland; Gibraltar; and the Azores.

Departing New York on 26 January 1926, the battleship conducted battle practice in Cuban waters, out of Guantanamo Bay, and then transited the Panama Canal on 14 February to join the Battle Fleet for exercises along the coast of California. Wyoming next sailed for Hawaiian waters and operated in those climes from late April to early June. After a visit to San Diego from 18 to 22 June, the battleship returned to the east coast, via the Panama Canal, and arrived back at New York City on 17 July to resume operations off the coast of New England. Following those training evolutions with a cruise to Cuba and Haiti, Wyoming underwent an overhaul at the New York Navy Yard from 23 November 1925 to 26 January 1926. During her yard period, Comdr. William F. Halsey, Jr ., reported on board as the battleship's executive officer. The future fleet admiral served in Wyoming until 4 January 1927.

Wyoming subsequently took part in the Fleet's annual winter maneuvers in the Caribbean and then returned northward, reaching Annapolis on 29 May to embark midshipmen for their summer training cruise. After touching at Newport, R.I.; Marblehead, Mass.; Portland, Maine; Charleston, S.C.; and Guantanamo Bay, Wyoming returned to Annapolis on 27 August, disembarking the officers-to-be upon arrival. The ship then put into the Philadelphia Navy Yard for modernization.

Converted from a coal burner to an oil burner, Wyoming also received new turbines, blisters for added underwater protection against torpedoes, and other alterations. Completing the overhaul on 2 November 1927 and heading south for Norfolk, Wyomi ng then underwent a post-modernization shakedown cruise to Cuba and the Virgin Islands before returning to Philadelphia on 7 December. Two days later, she hoisted the flag of Commander, Scouting Fleet, Vice Admiral Ashley H. Robertson.

Over the next few years, Wyoming operated out of Norfolk, New York, and Boston, making training cruises for the Naval Reserve Officers Training Corps (NROTC) units hailing from Yale, Harvard, Georgia Tech, and Northwestern. That duty took her from the Gulf of Mexico to Nova Scotia and into the Caribbean, as well as to the Azores. During the course of that duty, she departed Hampton Roads on 12 November 1928; and, on the night of 13 and 14 November, picked up eight survivors of the sunken British merchant steamship Vestris; and landed them at Norfolk the following day, 16 November.

Relieved as flagship of the Scouting Force on 19 September 1930, Wyoming then became the flagship of Rear Admiral Wat T. Cluverius, Commander, Battleship Division 2, and performed that duty until 4 November. After then hoisting the flag of Rear Adm iral H. H. Christy, Commander, Training Squadron, Scouting Fleet, the battleship conducted a training cruise into the Gulf of Mexico, during which she visited New Orleans.

Returning north after that cruise, Wyoming was placed in reduced commission at the Philadelphia Navy Yard on 1 January 1931 to prepare-for demilitarization and conversion to a training ship in accordance with the 1930 London Treaty for the limitati on and reduction of naval armaments. During that process, Wyoming lost her blisters, side armor, and the removal of guns and turret machinery from three of her six main battery turrets. On 21 May 1931, Wyoming was relieved of her duties as flagship for the Scouting Force by Augusta (CA-31) and by Arkansas (BB-33) as flagship of the Training Squadron.

Wyoming subsequently visited Annapolis upon the completion of her demilitarization and, between 29 May and 5 June 1931, embarked Naval Academy midshipmen for a cruise to European waters. Sailing on 5 June, the ship was in the mid-Atlantic 10 days later, when she went to the aid of the foundering ice-cutting submarine Nautilus, commanded by the famed British Arctic explorer, Sir Hubert Wilkins. Wyoming took the disabled submersible in tow and took her to Queenstown, Northern Ireland. Later in the course of the cruise, the former battleship visited Copenhagen, Denmark; Greenock, Scotland; Cadiz, Spain; and Gibraltar, before she returned to Hampton Roads on 13 August. During her cruise, she had been redesignated from a battleship, BB-32, to a miscellaneous auxiliary, AG-17, on 1 July 1931.

Over the next four years, Wyoming continued summer practice cruises for Naval Academy midshipmen and training cruises for NROTC midshipmen with units from various universities. Her service took her throughout the Caribbean and the Gulf of Mexico, as well as to northern European ports and into the Mediterranean.

However, there were new jobs for the old campaigner. On 18 January 1935, she embarked men of the 2d Battalion, 4th Marine Regiment, at Norfolk, for the winter-spring landing assault practices at Puerto Rico and the Panama Canal Zone. In almost every succeeding year, Wyoming took part in amphibious assault exercises, as the elements of the Fleet Marine Force and Navy developed tactics for use in possible conflicts of the future.

Departing Norfolk on 5 January 1937, Wyoming transited the Panama Canal; headed for San Diego soon thereafter; and spent the following weeks engaged in assault landing exercises and gunnery drills at San Clemente Island, off the coast of California. On 18 February 1937, during the culminating phase of a multi-faceted (land, sea, and air) exercise, a shrapnel shell exploded prematurely as it was being rammed into one of the ship's 5-inch broadside guns. Six marines were killed, and 11 were wounded. Immediately after the explosion, Wyoming sped to San Pedro, where she transferred the wounded marines to the hospital ship RELIEF (AH-1).

Completing her slate of exercises and war games off the California coast on 3 March, Wyoming stood out of Los Angeles harbor on that day and headed back to the east coast. Returning to Norfolk on the 23d of the same month, the ship served as tempor ary flagship for Rear Admiral Wilson Brown, Commander, Training Squadron, from 15 April to 3 June, during the preparations for the upcoming Naval Academy practice cruise. Putting to sea on 4 June from Hampton Roads, Wyoming reached Kiel, Germany, on 21 June 1937, where she was visited by officers from the ill-fated German "pocket battleship" Admiral Graf Spee. Her embarked midshipmen subsequently toured Berlin before Wyoming sailed for home on 29 June, touching at Torbay, England, and Funchal, Madeira, before returning to Norfolk on 3 August.

After local exercises, Wyoming disembarked her midshipmen at Annapolis on 26 August. For the next few months, Wyoming continued in her role as training ship-first for Naval Reserve units and then for Merchant Marine Reserve units, ranging from Boston to the Virgin Islands and from New York to Cuba, respectively, before she underwent an overhaul at the Norfolk Navy Yard between 16 October 1937 and 14 January 1938.

For the next three years, Wyoming continued her operations out of Norfolk, Boston, and New York, visiting Cuban waters, as well as Puerto Rico and New Orleans. In addition, she conducted a Naval Academy midshipman's practice cruise to European waters in 1938, visiting Le Havre, France; Copenhagen; and Portsmouth, England. Ultimately, on 2 January 1941, Wyoming became the flagship for Rear Admiral Randall Jacobs, Commander, Training, Patrol Force, and continued in her training ship duties into the autumn months.

In November 1941, Wyoming embarked on yet another phase of her career-that of a gunnery training ship. She departed Norfolk on 25 November 1941 for gunnery training runs out of Newport, R.I., and was off Platt's Bank when the Japanese attacked Pear l Harbor, Territory of Hawaii, on 7 December 1941.

Putting into Norfolk on 28 January 1942, Wyoming sailed out into the lower reaches of Chesapeake Bay on 5 February to begin a countless chain of gunnery training drills in that area that would carry her through World War II. So familiar was her appearance in that area that Wyoming earned the nickname of the "Chesapeake Raider." Assigned to the Operational Training Command, United States Atlantic Fleet, the former dreadnought battleship provided the platform on which thousands of gunners trained in guns, ranging from 5-inch to .50-caliber.

Refitted at Norfolk between 12 January and 3 April 1944, Wyoming took on a different silhouette upon emerging from that yard period; the rest of her 12-inch turrets were removed, and replaced with twin-mount 5-inch guns; in addition, newer models of fire control radars were installed. She resumed her gunnery training activities on 10 April 1944, operating in the Chesapeake Bay region. The extent of her operations can be seen from a random sampling of figures; in a single month, November 1944, Wyoming trained 133 officers and 1,329 men in antiaircraft gunnery. During that month, she fired 3,033 5-inch shells, 849 3-inch; 10,076 40-millimeter; 32,231 20 millimeter; 66,270 .30-caliber; and 360 1.1-inch ammunition. She claimed the distinction of firing off more ammunition than any other ship in the fleet, training an estimated 35,000 gunners on some seven different types of guns.

On 30 June 1945, Wyoming completed her career as "Chesapeake Raider" when she departed Norfolk for the New York Navy Yard and alterations. Leaving the yard on 13 July 1945, she entered Casco Bay soon thereafter, reporting for duty to Vice Admiral Willis A. Lee, Commander, Composite Task Force 69. She fired her first experimental gunnery practice at towed sleeves, drone aircraft, and radio-controlled targets, as the largest operating unit of the force established to study methods and tactics for dealing with the Japanese kamikazes. Subsequently, Composite Task Force 69 became the Operational Development Force, United States Fleet, on 31 August 1945. Upon the death of Admiral Lee, the reins of command passed to Rear Admiral R. P. Briscoe.

Even after the broadening of the scope of the work of the force to cover all the operational testing of new devices of fire control, Wyoming remained the backbone of the unit through 1946. On 11 July 1947, Wyoming entered the Norfolk Naval Shipyard and was decommissioned on 1 August 1947. Her men and material were then transferred to Mississippi (AG-128) (ex-BB-41).

Wyoming's name was struck from the Navy list on 16 September 1947, and her hulk was sold for scrapping on 30 October 1947. She was then delivered to her purchaser, Lipsett, Inc., of New York City, on 5 December 1947.

8 posted on 11/22/2003 4:48:35 AM PST by aomagrat (IYAOYAS)
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To: SAMWolf
The Wyoming had 4 main turrets aft! At the time of her launching, she was the largest battleship in the world. No battleship had more big guns until the HMS Agincourt was commissioned in WWI.
9 posted on 11/22/2003 4:51:50 AM PST by aomagrat (IYAOYAS)
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To: E.G.C.
Good morning EGC. Nice weather here as well, we don't get colder until Tuesday.
10 posted on 11/22/2003 5:01:39 AM PST by snippy_about_it (Fall in --> The FReeper Foxhole. America's History. America's Soul.)
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To: manna
Good morning manna!
11 posted on 11/22/2003 5:02:08 AM PST by snippy_about_it (Fall in --> The FReeper Foxhole. America's History. America's Soul.)
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To: aomagrat
Good morning amomagrat.
12 posted on 11/22/2003 5:11:13 AM PST by snippy_about_it (Fall in --> The FReeper Foxhole. America's History. America's Soul.)
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To: snippy_about_it; SAMWolf; radu; Darksheare; All
Good morning everyone!!

Happy Saturday!
13 posted on 11/22/2003 7:04:25 AM PST by Soaring Feather (I have a sword in my hand. I am a poet bentfeather.)
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To: bentfeather
Bouncing about as usual.
14 posted on 11/22/2003 7:35:31 AM PST by Darksheare ("I'm not scary, but I play it on TV!")
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To: Darksheare
15 posted on 11/22/2003 7:37:48 AM PST by Soaring Feather (I have a sword in my hand. I am a poet bentfeather.)
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To: snippy_about_it
Having then gifts differing according to the grace that is given to us, let us use them. —Romans 12:6

How has God gifted you to serve?
If you don't know, prayerfully seek godly counsel
and then reach out to build others up.

God uses ordinary people to carry out His extraordinary plan.

16 posted on 11/22/2003 7:39:42 AM PST by The Mayor (Through prayer, finite man draws upon the power of the infinite God.)
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To: SAMWolf
On This Day In History

Birthdates which occurred on November 22:
1511 Erasmus Reinhold Germany, mathematician (calculated planetary table)
1710 Wilhelm Friedemann Bach composer, son of JS Bach (Sinfonias 64)
1819 George Eliot England, novelist (Silas Marner)
1835 Frank C Armstrong Brig Gen (Cavalry Commander under Forrest)
1856 Heber J Grant Salt Lake City, 7th President of Mormon church
1857 George Gissing English writer (Thyrza, Crown of Life)
1868 John Nance Garner (D) 32nd VP (1933-41)
1869 Andre Gide France, novelist (Lafcadio's Adventures-Nobel 1947)
1888 Tarzan of the Apes, according to Edgar Rice Burroughs' novel
1890 Charles de Gaulle Lille France, President of France (1958-69)
1898 Wiley Post Grand Plain TX, aviator/parachutist (crashed in Alaska)
1899 Hoagy Carmichael Bloomington IN, actor/songwriter (Stardust)
1901 Joaquin Rodrigo Sagunto, Valencia, Spain, composer (Juglares)
1904 Roland Winters Boston MA, actor (Mama, Smothers Brothers)
1905 James Burnham philosopher (Coming Defeat of Communism)
1906 Lee Patrick NYC, actress (Henrietta-Topper, Maltese Falcon)
1910 Mary Jackson Milford MI, actress (Emily-Waltons)
1912 Doris Duke NYC, multi-millionaire (American Tobacco heiress)
1913 Benjamin Britten Lowestoft Suffolk England, composer (Beggar's Opera)
1918 Claiborne Pell (Sen-D-RI)
1921 Rodney Dangerfield Babylon NY, comedian (Caddyshack, Back to School)
1922 Fikret Dzhamil Amirov Kirovabad Russia, Azerbaijani composer (Shur)
1924 Geraldine Page Kirksville Mo (Interiors, Trip to Bountiful)
1925 Gunther Schuller NYC, hornist/composer (Visitation)
1928 Juno Stover-Irwin US, diver (Olympic-silver-1956)
1928 Pat Smythe England, equestrian jumper (Olympic-bronze-1956)
1930 Owen K Garriott Enid, Oklahoma, astronaut (Skylab 3, STS-9)
1932 Robert Vaughn NYC, actor (Napoleon Solo-Man from UNCLE, Battle Beyond the Stars)
1935 Ludmila Belousova Protopopov USSR, pairs skater (Oly-gold-1964, 68)
1939 Allen Garfield Newark NJ, actor (Candidate, Beverly Hills Cop II)
1940 Terry Gilliam Minneapolis, comedy writer-animator (Monty Python)
1941 Tom Conti Scotland, actor (Reuben, Reuben)
1942 Guion S Bluford Jr Philadelphia PA, Col USAF/astr (STS 8, STS 61A, STS 39)
1943 Billie Jean King Cal, tennis pro (Wimbledon 1968, 72, 73, 75)
1950 Greg Luzinski baseball player (Phillies, White Sox)
1950 Little Steven rocker (Springsteen-Born to Run)
1950 Tina Weymouth rocker (Talking Heads-& She Was)
1957 Sharon Bailey rocker (Amazulu-Excitable)
1958 Jamie Lee Curtis Los Angeles CA, actress (Halloween, True Lies)
1961 Mariel Hemingway Ketchum Id, actress (Manhattan, Personal Best)
1964 Stephen Geoffreys Cincinatti OH, actor (Faternity Vacation)
1966 Brian Robbins Brooklyn NY, actor (Eric-Head of the Class)
1966 Nicholas Rowe London England, actor (Young Sherlock Holmes)
1967 Boris Becker West Germany, tennis player (Wimbledon 1985,86,89)
1973 USAF_SSgt Assembled out of old F-4, C-123, and P-38 parts! Mother reported to have said to father "This is ALL your fault, never touch me again!"
(A birthday is just the first day of another 365-day journey around the sun. Enjoy the trip!)

Deaths which occurred on November 22:
0950 Lotharius, King of Italy (947-50), dies
1594 Martin Frobisher, English vice-admiral/explorer, dies
1718 Edward "Blackbeard" Teach English pirate, dies off Virginia coast
1825 Ann Bailey pioneer, dies
1871 Oscar J Dunn (Lt Gov-La), dies suddenly, charges he was poisoned
1896 George Washington Gale Ferris inventor (Ferris wheel), dies
1943 Lorenz Hart lyricist, dies in NY
1944 Arthur S Eddington dies
1963 Aldous Huxley English novelist. ("Brave New World" )
1963 C.S.Lewis English novelist. ("The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe.")
1963 John F Kennedy 35th U.S. President, shot dead in Dallas, Texas (by Lee Harvey Oswald)
1980 Leonard Barr comedian (Dean Martin Show, Szysznyk), dies at 77
1980 Mae West dies at her Hollywood residence at 87
1982 Burton Turkus lawyer/author/TV host (Mr Arsenic), dies at 80
1983 Michael Conrad actor (Hill Street Blues), dies of cancer at 58
1992 Sterling Holloway, US actor (Golddiggers of 1933, Batman), dies at 87


[03/27/73 RELEASED BY PL, ALIVE IN 98]

POW / MIA Data & Bios supplied by
the P.O.W. NETWORK. Skidmore, MO. USA.

On this day...
365 [Felix II] ends his reign as Catholic Pope
498 St Symmachus begins his reign as Catholic Pope
498 [Lawrence] begins his reign as Catholic Pope
1221 Frederik II Hohenstaufen crowned Roman-German Emperor
1497 Portuguese navigator Vasco da Gama rounds Cape of Good Hope
1675 English king Charles II adjourns parliament
1809 Peregrine Williamson of Baltimore patents a steel pen
1831 The opera "Robert Le Diable" is produced (Paris)
1842 Mount St Helens in Washington, erupts
1851 The opera "La Perle Du Br‚sil" is produced (Paris)
1864 Battle at Griswoldville, Georgia, ends after 650 casualties
1864 Union General O Howard orders plunderers shot to death
1884 T Thomas Fortune starts NY Freeman (NY Age) newspaper
1886 Victoria Street Cable Tram route begins in Melbourne, Australia
1898 The opera "Iris" is produced (Rome)
1906 International Radio Telecommunications Com adopts "SOS" as new call for help
1910 Arthur Knight patents steel shaft golf clubs
1915 The Anglo-Indian army, led by British General Sir Charles Townshend, attacks a larger Turkish force under General Nur-ud-Din at Ctesiphon, Iraq, but is repulsed.
1917 National Hockey Association disbands
1917 NHL founded with Montreal Canadiens, Montreal Maroons, TorontArenas, Ottawa Senators & Quebec Bulldogs
1922 Library Ave in the Bronx named
1923 Coolidge pardons WW I German spy Lothar Witzke, sentenced to death
1924 England orders Egyptians out of Sudan
1925 Red Grange signs with Chicago Bears directly out of college
1927 1st snowmobile patent granted to Carl Eliason (Sayner, Wisc)
1928 "Bolero" by Maurice Ravel, 1st performed publicly, in Paris
1930 1st US football game broadcast to England (Harvard 13, Yale 0)
1932 Pump patented that computes quantity & price delivered
1934 "Santa Claus Is Comin' to Town" 1st heard on Eddie Cantor's show
1935 China Clipper (flying boat) took off from Alameda, CA, carrying 100,000 pieces of mail on 1st trans-Pacific airmail flight
1942 Soviet troops complete the encirclement of the German Sixth Army at Stalingrad.
1943 FDR, Churchill & Chiang Kai-shek meet to discuss ways to defeat Japan
1945 Jim Benton, Cleveland end, gains 303 yards (NFL record)
1950 79 die in a train crash in Richmond Hills NY
1950 Lowest NBA score, Ft Wayne Pistons (19), Minneapolis Lakers (18)
1956 16th modern Olympic games opens in Melbourne
1956 Bill Sharman (Boston) begins NBA free throw streak of 55 games
1957 Mickey Mantle beats Ted Williams by 1 vote for MVP
1959 Boston Patriots enter the AFL
1959 NY Titans (AFL) 1st draft choice (George Izo, QB, Notre Dame)
1963 Beatles release their 2nd album "With the Beatles" in the UK
1967 BBC unofficially bans "I am the Walrus" by the Beatles
1967 Silver hits record $2.17 an ounce in New York
1967 UN Sec council passes resolution 242-Israel must give back occupied land
1968 Beatles release "The Beatles," (White Album)in UK, their only double album
1972 Flyers start Islanders on 15 game winless streak
1972 Pittsburgh Penguins set NHL record for scoring fastest 5 goals (2m7s)
1974 UN General Assembly recognizes Palestine right to sovereignty
1975 Juan Carlos proclaimed king of Spain
1977 Regular Concorde passenger service between NY & Europe begins
1980 Georgia tanker at Pilottown La, spills 1.3 million gallons of oil after an anchor chain caused a ship to leak
1981 San Diego Charger Dan Fouts passes for 6 touchdowns vs Oakland (55-21)
1982 Columbia returns to Kennedy Space Center via Kelly AFB, Texas
1985 Columbia moves to the Vandenberg AFB for mating of STS 61-C
1986 Mike Tyson KOs Trevor Berbick to win WBC heavyweight title
1986 Wayne Gretzky, Edmonton, became 13th NHLer to score 500 goals
1987 Patriots shutout Indianapolis 24-0
1989 Conjunction of Venus, Mars, Uranus, Neptune, Saturn & the Moon
1989 Kirby Pucket signs record $3,000,000 per year Minnesota Twins contract
1989 US 63rd manned space mission STS 33 (Discovery 9) launches into orbit
1989 Eastern Airlines pilots & flight attendants end their strike, but most are not rehired
1990 George Bush visits US troops in Saudi Arabia during Thanksgiving
1990 Margaret Thatcher announces her resignation as British Prime Minister
1993 Mexico's Senate approved the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA).
1996 - OJ Simpson takes stand as hostile witness in the wrongful death lawsuit filed against him, saying it is "absolutely not true"
2000 While the nation waited to see who would be the next president, the Florida Supreme Court ruled that hand count of the state's presidential ballots could continue. The Republicans had sought to block the recount, brought on by ballot questions in some counties.

Note: Some Holidays are only applicable on a given "day of the week"

Guinea : Portugese Aggression Anniversary
Lebanon : Independence Day (1943)
Bern Switzerland : Onion Market Day-autumn festival (Monday )
US : National Children's Book Week Begins (Monday)
US : Thanksgiving (Thursday)
US : Start Your Own Country Day
US : Moms and Dads Day
Arab : Id ai-Adha
Norse Winter Festival.
National Epilepsy Awareness Month

Religious Observances
Christian : Memorial of St Cecilia, virgin/martyr/music patron

Religious History
1220 Pope Honorius III (pope from 1216) crowned Holy Roman Emperor Frederick in St. Peter's, on the promise that Frederick would uphold the rights of the Church, and promote a crusade.
1633 Irish Catholic Cecil Calvert, 27, sent two ships (the Ark and the Dove) from Ireland to establish a colony in America as a refuge for fellow Catholics. His work later earned Lord Calvert the nickname, "Colonizer of Maryland."
1849 Austin College was chartered in Texas at Huntsville under Presbyterian sponsorship. In 1876 the school campus was moved to Sherman, TX.
1873 American lawyer Horatio G. Spafford's four daughters drowned when their passenger ship, while crossing the Atlantic, collided with another and sank. The following month, as his own ship passed over the spot of the earlier tragedy, Spafford penned the words to the enduring hymn, "It is Well With My Soul."
1963 Death of C.S. Lewis, 65, Anglican scholar, novelist and Christian apologist. Well_known for his children's classic, "The Chronicles of Narnia" (1950_56), Lewis also penned other Christian classics, including "The Screwtape Letters" (1943) and "The Great Divorce" (1946).

Source: William D. Blake. ALMANAC OF THE CHRISTIAN CHURCH. Minneapolis: Bethany House, 1987.

Thought for the day :
"Of all the ills that men endure, hope is the only cheap and universal cure."

Question of the day...
Why does your nose run, and your feet smell?

Murphys Law of the day...(Ettorre's Observation)
The other line moves faster.

Oddment and exotica "fact" #759...
Chicken soup was considered an aphrodisiac in the Middle Ages.
17 posted on 11/22/2003 8:19:40 AM PST by Valin (We make a living by what we get, we make a life by what we give.)
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To: snippy_about_it; SAMWolf
Morning Glory Snip & Sam~

Santa Anna winds are really ripping this AM . . . to damn windy to play golf.

Speaking of Santa Ana . . .

Opposing him would be more than 20,000 Mexicans, some of whom were seasoned veterans under the command of Santa Anna, the Centralist leader butcher and coward who 10 years earlier invaded Texas, ordered the massacre at Goliad and led the attack on the Alamo.

Reading about Winfield Scott, I couldn't help but think about Patton. Any chance this was a "reincarnation" thing? ;o)

18 posted on 11/22/2003 8:39:02 AM PST by w_over_w (DO NOT WASH! This tagline is undergoing a pixil dust experiment.)
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To: snippy_about_it
Good Morning Snippy.
19 posted on 11/22/2003 9:18:38 AM PST by SAMWolf (You might have mail, I can't recall.)
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To: E.G.C.
Good morning E.G.C. Bird bath was frozen over and we have frost on everything this morning.
20 posted on 11/22/2003 9:19:25 AM PST by SAMWolf (You might have mail, I can't recall.)
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