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List of Papal Bulls on Jewish Question
Zionism ^

Posted on 11/10/2010 5:23:33 PM PST by Gamecock

Following is a partial list of Papal Bulls and other relevant documents regarding the Jewish question, illustrating both the partial protection offered the Jews at different times and the institutionalization of Anti-Semitism.

Where protection was offered, it was often done in a condescending manner, asserting the Christian duty to have mercy on the Jews even though they were collectively guilty of killing Jesus (or in modern times, "forgiving" the Jews for killing Jesus) or was simply rescinding previous decrees. Catholic persecution of Jews - and protection - began in the Middle Ages, but the persecution continued and was intensified well after the Middle Ages, notably in the Inquisition and in the formation and regulation of ghettos, which began in the 1500s, well after the end of the Middle Ages. The Papal bulls and encyclicals that advanced and supported anti-Semitism included the following sorts of decrees:

Many believed and hoped that Catholic persecution of Jews had ended in the period of Pope John XXIII. Recent Bulls and Encyclicals of Pope Benedict XVI that reinstate anti-Semitic prayers and Catholic societies do not augur well.

Pius V was perhaps the worst of the anti-Semitic Popes. He was nonetheless canonized and the canonization was not rescinded.

In addition to the actual regulations depriving Jews of livelihood or home or forcing conversions, the Bulls often were prefaced with language of racist incitement that indicated the attitude of the Catholic Church to Jews.

The Bull Cum Nimis Absurdum ("How completely absurd") of Paul IV, 1555, which created the ghetto of Rome, began with these words:

As it is completely absurd and improper in the utmost that the Jews, who through their own fault were condemned by God to eternal servitude,

The Bull

Hebraeorum gens ("The Jewish Race") 1569, of Saint Pius V, which expelled Jews from some of the Papal states, began with these words:

 "The Jewish people fell from the heights because of their faithlessness and condemned their Redeemer to a shameful death. Their godlessness has assumed such forms that, for the salvation of our own people, it becomes necessary to prevent their disease. Besides usury, through which Jews everywhere have sucked dry the property of impoverished Christians, they are accomplices of thieves and robbers; and the most damaging aspect of the matter is that they allure the unsuspecting through magical incantations, superstition, and witchcraft to the Synagogue of Satan and boast of being able to predict the future. We have carefully investigated how this revolting sect abuses the name of Christ and how harmful they are to those whose life is threatened by their deceit. On account of these and other serious matters, and because of the gravity of their crimes which increase day to day more and more, We order that, within 90 days, all Jews in our entire earthly realm of justice -- in all towns, districts, and places -- must depart these regions."

The above is quoted in modern anti-Semitic works, including Catholic publications and the Stormfront Website.

To the modern reader, the Papal bulls seem to present a conflicting picture. Sometimes privileges were revoked and sometimes extended. Often the same Pope would order protection of the Jews from bodily harm but enact discriminatory laws of various kinds. Thus, the church would encourage hatred of Jews, but then it would discourage violence against Jews. For Catholic theology there was no contradiction. The role of the Jews was to serve as an example of the wages of sin to Christians. Therefore, the Jews must be tortured and ridiculed, but never killed. 

The documents listed below are Papal Bulls unless otherwise noted. The Bulls get their titles from the initial words, generally the first three words, of the text of the document, which are known as the incipit. Note that there may be several Bulls with the same title by different Popes, and on entirely different subjects.

Explanation of terms:

"Jus Gasaga" - a corruption of "Jus Chazaka" - the law of the right of tenancy of Jews, usually in ghetto homes.

Catechumen - a person being taught the Catechism, a new convert. The Bulls called for a special tax on Jews, to be used to support the catechumens. The house of Catechumens in Rome was used as an instrument for forced conversion, and its victims included the chief Rabbi of Rome.

Neophyte - a new convert. 

The sources generally do not distinguish between Bulls, encyclicals and other documents of more limited circulation.

Papal Bulls and other documents Relating to Jews





Gregory I

Sicut  judaeis non


A letter, supplemented by others, provided limited protection of Jews. "Just as no freedom may be granted to the Jews in their communities to exceed the limits legally set for them, so they should in no way suffer through a violation of their rights"

The letter contained the phrase "Sicut Judaeis" - and thus to the Jews. Gregory forbade Jews to have Christian slaves, and encouraged conversions. The measures of protection along with limitations and persecution, and even the wording of Sicut iudaeis were repeated in subsequent bulls and letters of various popes. It became the model for treatment of Jews.

Calixtus II

Sicut Judaeis

c. 1120

Probably the first formal version of Sicut Judaies. Reiterates protection of the Jews in the wake of the persecutions of the first Crusade.

Innocent III

Post miserabile

Aug. 1198

Addressed to prelates of Europe and dealt with the need for another Crusade. Suspended payment of interest and principal to Jewish lenders for crusaders. Since many did not return, the debt was effectively cancelled.

Innocent III

Etsi non displiceat


Addressed to King of France. Accuses Jews of usury, blasphemy, arrogance, employing Christian slaves and murder. Urges king to put an end to the "evils."

Honorius III

Sicut  judaeis non debet esse licentia

Nov. 7, 1217

Forbids forced baptism of Jews or molestation. 

Honorius III

In general consilio


To archbishop of Toledo, requires enforcement of 4th Lateran Council decisions that Jews must wear special clothing and pay tithes to the local churches. 

Honorius III

Ad nostram Noveritis audientiam

April 29, 1221

Jews are obliged to carry a distinctive badge and forbidden to hold public office.

Gregory IX

Sufficere debuerat perfidioe judoerum perfidia

March 5, 1233

Jews forbidden to employ Christian servants.

Gregory IX

Etsi Judeorum


To prelates of France, urged prevention of physical violence against Jews.

Gregory IX

Si vera sunt


To kings and prelates of Spain and France - orders seizure of Talmud and other Jewish books and examination for blasphemy against Jesus. These books were regularly burned or censored. 

Innocent IV

Impia judoerum perfidia

May 9, 1244

French King ordered to burn the Talmud. Jews forbidden to employ Christian nurses.

Innocent IV

Lachrymabilem Judaeorum


To German prelates; orders an end to persecution of Jews and declares that the

blood libel accusation is false.

Clement IV

Turbato corde

July 26, 1267

Christians forbidden to embrace Judaism

Gregory X

Turbato corde

March 1, 1274

(Identical to previous.)

Nicolas III

Vineam Sorec

Aug. 4, 1278

Addressed to orders of friars - Preaching to the Jews is encouraged and friars are to be specially trained for this purpose. Also known as Vineam Soreth. 

Nicolas IV

Turbato corde

Sept. 5, 1288

Christians who embrace Judaism


Ex Parte Vestra

Aug. 12, 1317

Relapse of converts.


 Cum sit absurdum

June 19, 1320

Converted Jews need not be despoiled.

Clement VI

Quamvis Perfidiam

September 26, 1348

Tries in vain to dispel the superstition that Jews are responsible for Black Death by poisoning the wells

Urban V

Sicuti judaeis non debet

June 7, 1365

Forbidden to molest Jews or to force them to baptism.

Benedict XIII

Etsi doctoribus gentium


A collection of anti-Jewish church legislation that served as an inspiration to other Popes.

Martin V

Sedes apostolica

June 3, 1425

Jews obliged to wear distinctive badge.

Eugene IV

Dudum ad nostram audientiam

Aug. 4, 1442

Forbade Jews to live with Christians or fill public functions, etc.

Calixtus III

Si ad reprimendos

May 28, 1456

Confirmed the preceding Bull of Eugene IV forbidding Jews to live with Christians.

Sixtus IV

Numquam dubitavimus


To Ferdinand of Aragon, to appoint inquisitors to extirpate heresy and investigate backsliding of Jewish converts to Christianity. The Spanish

Inquisition and expulsion of the Jews from Spain followed.

Paul III

Cupientes judaeos

March 21, 1542

Privileges in favor of neophytes.

Paul III

Illius, qui pro dominici

Feb. 19, 1543

Establishment of a monastery for catechumens and neophytes.

Jules III

Pastoris aeternivices

Aug. 31, 1554

Tax in favor of neophytes

Paul IV

Cum Nimis Absurdum

July 14, 1555

Jews forbidden to live in common with Christians, to practice any industry, etc.

Paul IV

Dudum postquam

March 23, 1556

Tax in favor of neophytes

Pius IV

Cum inter ceteras

Jan. 26, 1562

Bull relative to monastery of catechumens.

Pius IV

Dudum e felicis recordationis

Feb. 27, 1562

Bull confirming that of Paul IV.

Pius V

Romanus Pontifex

April 19, 1566

Bull confirming that of Paul IV

Pius V

Sacrosanctae catholicae ecclesiae

Nov. 29, 1566

Bull relating to convent of neophytes

Pius V

Cum nos nuper

Jan. 19, 1567

Jews are forbidden to own real estate

Pius V

Hebraeorum gens

Feb. 26, 1569

Accuses Jews of many evils including magic. Orders expulsion of Jews from Church States except Rome and Ancona.

Gregory XIII

Vices ejus nos

Sept. 1, 1577

Obligatory preaching of Christian sermons to Jews;. Creation of college of neophytes.

Gregory XIII

Antiqua judaeorum improbitas

July 1, 1581

Against blasphemers.

Gregory XIII

Sancta Mater Ecclesiae

Sept. 1, 1584

Obligatory preaching of Christian sermons to Jews;100 men and 50 women must be sent every Saturday to listen to conversion sermons delivered in a church near the ghetto.

Sixtus V

Christiana pietas

Oct. 22, 1586

Privileges granted to Jews by relief of former edicts. These were reversed. by Clemen VIII. 

Clement VIII

Cum saepe accidere 

Feb. 28, 1592

Jews of Avignon forbidden to sell new goods.

Clement VIII

Caeca et obdurata

Feb. 25, 1593

Confirmation of the Bull of Paul III. Jews forbidden to dwell outside of Rome, Ancona, and Avignon.

Clement VIII

Cum Haebraeorum malitia

Feb. 28, 1593

It is forbidden to read the Talmud.

Paul V

Apostolicae servitutis

July 31, 1610

Regulars (of monks) obliged to learn Hebrew.

Paul V

Exponi nobis nuper fecistis

Aug. 7, 1610

Bull concerning the dowries of Jewish women.

Urban VIII

Sedes apostolica

April 22, 1625

Concerning heretical Portuguese Jews.

Urban VIII

Injuncti nobis

Aug. 20, 1626

Privileges granted to the monastery of catechumens

Urban VIII

Cum sicut acceptimus

Oct. 18, 1635

Obligation to feed poor Jews imprisoned for debt.

Urban VIII

Cum allias piae

March 17, 1636

Synagogues of the Duchies of Ferarri and Urban, to pay a tax of 10 ecus.

Alexander VII

Verbi aeterni

Dec. 1, 1657

Bull relating to rights of neophytes regarding jus gasaga.(rights of tenancy in the ghetto)

Alexander VII

Ad ea per quae

Nov. 15, 1658

Jus Gasaga (rights of tenancy in the ghetto)

Alexander VII

Ad apostolicae dignitatis

May 23, 1662

Concordat between the college of neophytes and German college.

Alexander VII

Illius, qui illuminat

March 6, 1663

Privileges favoring the fraternities of neophytes.

Alexander VIII

Animarum saluti

March 30, 1690

Bull relating to the neophytes in Indies.

Innocent XII

Ad radicitus submovendum

Aug. 31, 1692

Abolition of special jurisdiction

Clement XI

Propagandae per unicersum

March 11, 1704

Confirmation and extension of Paul III regarding neophytes.

Clement XI

Essendoci stato rappresentato

Jan. 21, 1705

Powers of Vicar of Rome in jurisdiction of catechumens and neophytes

Clement XI

Salvatoris nostri vices

Jan. 2, 1712

Transfer to "Pii Operai" the work of the catechumens.

Innocent XIII

Ex injuncto nobis

Jan. 18, 1724

Prohibits sale of new objects.

Benedict XIII

Nuper, pro parte dilectorum

Jan. 8, 1726

Establishment of dowries for young girl neophytes.

Benedict XIII

Emanavit nuper

Feb. 14, 1727

Necessary conditions for imposing baptism on a Jew.

Benedict XIII

Alias emanarunt

March 21, 1729

Forbidding the sale of new goods.

Benedict XIV


Feb. 28, 1747

The baptism of Jews

Benedict XIV

Apostolici Ministerii munus

Sept. 16, 1747

Right of repudiation of neophytes.

Benedict XIV

Singulari Nobis consoldtioni

Feb. 9, 1749

Marriages between Jews and Christians.

Benedict XIV

Elapso proxime Anno

Feb. 20, 1751

Concerning Jewish heretics.

Benedict XIV

Probe te meminisse

Dec. 15, 1751

Baptism of Jewish children

Benedict XIV

Beatus Andreas

Feb. 22, 1755

Martyrdom of a child by Jews. A blood libel concerning the murder of the child Andreas Oxner or Anderl von Rinn (Andreas of Rinn )

by Jews that supposedly took place in 1462 in Rinn near Innsbruck. Confirms the

blood libel as factual.  The Bull reviews the cases of ritual murder by Jews, which it explicitly upholds as a fact, and establishes the beatifcation but not the canonization of

Andreas of Rinn and Simon of Trent

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1 posted on 11/10/2010 5:23:37 PM PST by Gamecock
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To: metmom; RnMomof7; Dr. Eckleburg

Posted to refute the hogwash posted by FRoman Catholics accusing Prods of abusing Jews.

2 posted on 11/10/2010 5:25:33 PM PST by Gamecock ( Christianity is not the movement from vice to virtue, but from virtue to Grace.)
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To: Gamecock
Naw, just posted because...well, can't make it personal can we? But we know the truth. Both of us. Posting to the coven only confirms it.

It would help though, if you could provide the link to the thread where “FRoman Catholics” accuse “Prods” of abusing Jews.

3 posted on 11/10/2010 5:31:06 PM PST by IrishCatholic (No local Communist or Socialist Party Chapter? Join the Democrats, it's the same thing!)
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To: Gamecock

Jews were oppressed and killed in all parts of Christian Europe, by Catholics, Protestants and Orthodox.

4 posted on 11/10/2010 5:32:05 PM PST by Lurking Libertarian (Non sub homine, sed sub Deo et lege)
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To: Gamecock

Posted to remind you that the KKK/Democrat party was an equal opportunity lyncher of Jews, Catholics, Blacks and Republicans.

5 posted on 11/10/2010 5:41:24 PM PST by Jacquerie
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To: Gamecock

How Pius XII Protected Jews


The twentieth century was marked by genocides on an monstrous scale. One of the most terrible was the Holocaust wrought by Nazi Germany, which killed an estimated six million European Jews and almost as many other victims.

During this dark time, the Catholic Church was shepherded by Pope Pius XII, who proved himself an untiring foe of the Nazis, determined to save as many Jewish lives as he could. Yet today Pius XII gets almost no credit for his actions before or during the war.

Early in 1940, Hitler made an attempt to prevent the new Pope from maintaining the anti-Nazi stance he had taken before his election. He sent his underling, Joachim von Ribbentrop, to try to dissuade Pius XII from following his predecessor’s policies. “Von Ribbentrop, granted a formal audience on March 11, 1940, went into a lengthy harangue on the invincibility of the Third Reich, the inevitability of a Nazi victory, and the futility of papal alignment with the enemies of the Führer. Pius XII heard von Ribbentrop out politely and impassively. Then he opened an enormous ledger on his desk and, in his perfect German, began to recite a catalogue of the persecutions inflicted by the Third Reich in Poland, listing the date, place, and precise details of each crime. The audience was terminated; the Pope’s position was clearly unshakable.”

6 posted on 11/10/2010 5:47:06 PM PST by RedMDer (Forward With Confidence!)
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To: Gamecock
Nice list! Lets not forget Martin Luther though. All of Christianity took turns.

"On the Jews and their lies"

A precursor to Nazism

by Jim Walker

Originated: 07 Aug. 1996 Additions: 20 Nov. 2005 EXCERPT: Protestant Christians so admire Martin Luther that he stands as a respected "Patron Saint" to their beliefs and morals. Christians often quote him, theologians write books on him, and many name their children after him (Martin Luther King Jr., for example).

Although Luther did not invent anti-Jewishness, he promoted it to a level never before seen in Europe. Luther bore the influence of his upbringing and from anti-Jewish theologians such as Lyra, Burgensis, (and John Chrysostom, before them).

But Luther's 1543 book, "On the Jews and their lies" took Jewish hatred to a new level when he proposed to set fire to their synagogues and schools, to take away their homes, forbad them to pray or teach, or even to utter God's name.

Luther wanted to "be rid of them" and requested that the government and ministers deal with the problem. He requested pastors and preachers to follow his example of issuing warnings against the Jews.

He goes so far as to claim that "We are at fault in not slaying them" for avenging the death of Jesus Christ. Hitler's Nazi government in the 1930s and 40s fit Luther's desires to a tee.

So vehemently did Luther speak against the Jews, and the fact that Luther represented an honorable and admired Christian to Protestants, that his written words carried the "memetic" seeds of anti-Jewishness up until the 20th century and into the Third Reich. Luther's Jewish eliminationist rhetoric virtually matches the beliefs held by Hitler and much of the German populace in the 1930s.

Luther unconsciously set the stage for the future of German nationalistic fanaticism. William L. Shirer in his "The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich," puts it succinctly:

"Through his sermons and his magnificent translations of the Bible, Luther created the modern German language, aroused in the people not only a new Protestant vision of Christianity by a fervent German nationalism and taught them, at least in religion, the supremacy of the individual conscience.

But tragically for them, Luther's siding with the princes in the peasant rising, which he had largely inspired, and his passion for political autocracy ensured a mindless and provincial political absolutism which reduced the vast majority of the German people to poverty, to a horrible torpor and a demeaning subservience.

Even worse perhaps, it helped to perpetuate and indeed to sharpen the hopeless divisions not only between classes but also between the various dynastic and political groupings of the German people. It doomed for centuries the possibility of the unification of Germany."

In Mein Kampf, Hitler listed Martin Luther as one of the greatest reformers. And similar to Luther in the 1500s, Hitler spoke against the Jews. The Nazi plan to create a German Reich Church laid its bases on the "Spirit of Dr. Martin Luther."

The first physical violence against the Jews came on November 9-10 on Kristallnacht (Crystal Night) where the Nazis killed Jews, shattered glass windows, and destroyed hundreds of synagogues, just as Luther had proposed.

In Daniel Johah Goldhagen's book, Hitler's Willing Executioners, he writes: "One leading Protestant churchman, Bishop Martin Sasse published a compendium of Martin Luther's antisemitic vitriol shortly after Kristallnacht's orgy of anti-Jewish violence. In the foreword to the volume, he applauded the burning of the synagogues and the coincidence of the day: 'On November 10, 1938, on Luther's birthday, the synagogues are burning in Germany.' The German people, he urged, ought to heed these words 'of the greatest antisemite of his time, the warner of his people against the Jews.'"

Luther's, "On the Jews and Their Lies" can be found here: Luther

7 posted on 11/10/2010 5:53:36 PM PST by blasater1960 (Deut 30, Psalm 111...the Torah and the Law, is attainable past, present and forever.)
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To: Gamecock

Gamecock, Gamecock, Gamecock,....

Don’t you see? That isn’t what all those documents REALLY meant.

You have to go through the official, RCC, Vatican translator and be told what was REALLY meant by those statements.

Time for reeducation for you until you can stop thinking for yourself and deciding what what someone says is what they REALLY mean.

8 posted on 11/10/2010 6:07:30 PM PST by metmom (Welfare was never meant to be a career choice.)
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To: Gamecock; TSgt; RnMomof7; Alex Murphy; HarleyD; wmfights; Forest Keeper; the_conscience; ...
Great thread, Gamecock. Bookmarked.

The Vatican's Role in the Rise of Modern Anti-Semitism
by David Kertzer

9 posted on 11/10/2010 6:21:59 PM PST by Dr. Eckleburg ("I don't think they want my respect; I think they want my submission." - Flemming Rose)
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To: metmom

“A bigot is a person obstinately or intolerantly devoted to his or her own opinions and prejudices, especially one exhibiting intolerance, irrationality, and animosity toward those of differing beliefs. The predominant usage in modern American English refers to persons hostile to those of differing race, ethnicity, nationality, sexual orientation, various mental disorders, or religion.”

No translation needed for your post, now is there?

10 posted on 11/10/2010 6:38:29 PM PST by IrishCatholic (No local Communist or Socialist Party Chapter? Join the Democrats, it's the same thing!)
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To: Lurking Libertarian

Christians were hiding in the upper room from Jews; lots of people did lots of things at lots of different times.

11 posted on 11/10/2010 6:54:50 PM PST by kearnyirish2
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To: IrishCatholic

Of course not. Because that’s modern use which means what it says ABOUT the Catholic church, unlike what is said BY the Catholic church.

It’s only the stuff said BY the Catholic church that makes them look bad that needs reinterpreting, by them, of course.

12 posted on 11/10/2010 6:58:44 PM PST by metmom (Welfare was never meant to be a career choice.)
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To: metmom

Yea, no bigotry there.
You’re good to go.

13 posted on 11/10/2010 7:25:55 PM PST by IrishCatholic (No local Communist or Socialist Party Chapter? Join the Democrats, it's the same thing!)
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To: blasater1960; RnMomof7; Dr. Eckleburg; metmom
Luther's, "On the Jews and Their Lies"

Luther, as an ex-Augustinian, was no doubt heavily swayed by teachings such as this.

14 posted on 11/10/2010 8:26:46 PM PST by Gamecock ( Christianity is not the movement from vice to virtue, but from virtue to Grace.)
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To: Gamecock

Yup, and all those Bulls were absolutely appropriate for the time periods in which they were issued.

15 posted on 11/10/2010 8:33:53 PM PST by Melchiorre
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To: Gamecock
Posted to refute the hogwash posted by FRoman Catholics accusing Prods of abusing Jews.

Thank you for posting this. I'm just finishing up on a thread where Born Again Christians are being called "insane" by a RC FReeper because we say unless you believe The Gospel you are lost. Political correctness to try and gloss over your true beliefs gets tiring.

16 posted on 11/10/2010 8:46:43 PM PST by wmfights (If you want change support
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To: Gamecock
Luther, as an ex-Augustinian, was no doubt heavily swayed

Gotcha. Anything bad Protestants do or say is the Catholics' fault.

I guess Calvinist "utter depravity" is really a code phrase for "it's the Catholics' fault, not ours!". Why don't you just change the "U" in TULIP to read "utter Catholic depravity; utter Protestant innocence"? That would seem to be more consistent with your approach.

17 posted on 11/11/2010 2:01:51 AM PST by Campion
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To: Campion; wmfights; RnMomof7; Dr. Eckleburg; Quix

Gee, from reading Catholic posts here on FR, it seems the Catholics blame Prods for everything from Roman Catholic priests raping children to global warming.

18 posted on 11/11/2010 4:55:07 AM PST by Gamecock ( Christianity is not the movement from vice to virtue, but from virtue to Grace.)
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To: Gamecock

Just by reading the Bible it is easy to see that it was not the Jews who Killed Christ but the power of the Jewish religious leaders.

It is also easy to see that the persecution of the Jews was not done by the Christians, but by the power of the Christian religious leaders.

That does not hold the other Jews and the other Christians blameless but we do need to see that it all came from religion and secularism, power and authority.

When people start accusing the Jews of Killing Jesus they should remember that the Jews were the first Christians, if not for the Jews we would have no Gospel, wasn,t Jesus a Jew? we have the Gospel, but it is mixed with religion that is contrary to the Gospel.

The very same thing that Jesus came to set us free from.

The Roman army destroyed Jerusalem, and then the early roman church changed or tried to change the Gospel, changing the Sabbath, collecting tithes that they have no authority to do.

In my opinion the Jews have no reason to trust the Roman church and not all of the churches that has branched off from her.

The Jews should remember that it was one of their own brethren who brought the Gospel to them and the rest of us
and they need to also see that people who love Christ could not possibly hate Jews.

The gospel was first preached to the Jews and it was preached by Jews, (Jews just being a nick name) Jews should not let the Christian hierarchy of the past hold them back from excepting Jesus and the Gospel.

19 posted on 11/11/2010 7:25:34 AM PST by ravenwolf (Just a bit of the long list of proofs)
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To: Gamecock; Campion; RnMomof7; Dr. Eckleburg; Quix
Gee, from reading Catholic posts here on FR, it seems the Catholics blame Prods for everything from Roman Catholic priests raping children to global warming.

Of course they do.

They are taught very early on their church is the means of their salvation. It's so ingrained in them that defense of their church is the same as defending their faith. If error is pointed out you will be immediately attacked because you have attacked their faith.

In the end it's why you can never have a serious theological discussion with them because their perception is entirely different than ours. I think it's also why you get so much double speak. They will do anything to put their church in a good light.

If we were to get into the historic animus between Jews and Christians we would need to examine eschatological views as well as covenant theology. How in the world are you going to do that with RC's. They either don't know the position of their church in these issues, or will misrepresent them so as to not put their church in a bad light. It's much easier for Dispensationalists to discuss these issues with the Reformed and even then it gets pretty heated.

IOW, it's a waste of time to try and get into these things with the RC's.

20 posted on 11/11/2010 7:43:33 AM PST by wmfights (If you want change support
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