Skip to comments.Plasmonic Field Enhancement at Oxide/Metal Interfaces for Condensed Matter Nuclear Fusion
Posted on 07/29/2021 4:45:29 PM PDT by Kevmo
Plasmonic Field Enhancement at Oxide/Metal Interfaces for Condensed Matter Nuclear Fusion
Department of Chemical Engineering, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan
The enhancement of electromagnetic field energy density around planar metal/oxide interfaces and metal nanoparticles in oxide matrices has been quantitatively investigated, to analyze the experiments reported so far, as well as to provide a design guide for future experimental systems.
We have found that a certain degree of enhancement is available for commonly used material combinations in the field of condensed-matter nuclear fusion, and use of Ag, Al, Au, and Cu would particularly provide significantly larger enhancement.
This electromagnetic boosting effect may have unknowingly benefited the experiments reported so far, particularly for the electrolysis-type ones, and its active utilization by proper material and structure choices can improve condensed-matter fusion systems further.
Keywords: Electrolysis, Electromagnetic field, Interface, Laser, Metal, Nanoparticles, Nanophotonics, Plasmonics, Power/energy density
The power density supplied to deuterium–metal systems may be one of the key factors to activate the condensed-matter nuclear fusion reaction. Free electrons in metals, particularly around metallic surfaces or interfaces with dielectric media, exhibit strong interaction with electromagnetic fields or light in a form of collective oscillation, named surface plasmons [1–6].
We previously proposed and analyzed the electromagnetic energy focusing effect around metal nanoparticles and nanoshells  and planar metal surfaces  to significantly increase the reaction probability. However, a number of experimental studies of condensed-matter fusion have also been conducted with oxide materials, not only with metals [9–18].
Such oxides have also been experimentally adopted mainly as mechanical supporting media for micro/nano metal particulate aggregates [14,18], as proton/deuteron-diffusion-barrier layers [15,17], or as proton/deuteron-conducting electrolytes [9–13,16]. The first and second categories consist of heterostructures of deuterium-absorbing metals, such as Pd, Ni, and Ti, and oxides, such as CaO [15,17] and ZrO2 [14,18].
The third category comprises oxide electrolytes, such as β-alumina , BaCeO3 [10,16], LaAlO3 , and SrCeO3 [10–12], and deuterium-absorbing metals or metal electrodes attached to the electrolytes.
It is therefore important to analyze the field enhancement effects not only at metal/gas (D2, H2, or vacuum) and metal / liquid (D2O or H2O) interfaces as we previously investigated [7,8], but also at metal/oxide interfaces.
In the present work, we calculated the plasmonic field enhancement at planar metal/oxide interfaces and around metal nanoparticles embedded in oxides.
Results and Discussion
Figure 1 shows the calculated spectra of field enhancement factors at planar metal/oxide interfaces. For the reader’s benefit in comparison, the same series of calculation results are organized by oxide in Appendix B.
Local energy enhancement of a certain degree is seen in the spectra. The metal surfaces can this way concentrate optical or electromagnetic energy in their vicinity. Basically, oxides with smaller dielectric constants exhibit larger field enhancement, as understood with Eq. (9).
Among all metal elements, Al and the noble metals Ag, Au, and Cu are known to exhibit distinctively higher field enhancement factors than other metals, due to their high conductivity [19,29]. A certain level of field enhancement, however, is still attainable even for the metals of Pd [9,10,13–15,17,30–32], Ni [18,33,34], and Ti [31,32,35], which have been conventionally used for deuterium-containing fuel materials in the field of condensedmatter nuclear fusion, as seen in Figs. 1
(a)–(c). Figure 1 (a) includes the material combinations corresponding to the experimental systems of [9,10,13]. Figure 1 (d) has the cases of [10–13,16]. Previous experimental studies with oxide electrolytes used sandwich-like double heterostructures of (Pd or Pt)/oxide/(Pd or Pt) [9–13,16].
Therefore, a certain number of the electrolysis-type condensed-matter nuclear fusion experiments reported so far may actually have unknowingly benefited from this plasmonic local energy enhancement effect. Such a plasmonic enhancement effect may be one of the multiple factors not yet understood for the energy supplied to overcome the gigantic Coulomb barrier to produce the fusion reaction observed with visible rates, as we discussed in [7,8].
Figure 2 shows the calculated spectra of field enhancement factors around metal nanoparticles in oxide matrices. For a comparison, the same series of calculation results are organized by oxide in Appendix C.
The peaks seen in these spectra are associated with the resonance or surface mode, characterized by internal electric fields with no radial nodes . Local energy enhancement over 10 times is seen for a wide range of optical frequencies, through visible to near infrared and beyond. These nanoparticles thus concentrate optical or electromagnetic energy in their vicinity like antennae.
Similar to the case of planar metal/oxide interfaces above, Ag, Al, Au, and Cu exhibit distinctively higher field enhancement factors than other metals due to their high conductivities [19,29]. Particularly Ag has the highest electrical conductivity among the whole metal elements and therefore exhibits the highest field enhancement both for its planar interfaces and nanoparticles [19,29].
We can therefore take advantage of this high energy concentration, for instance by simply coating the conventional Pd-based fuel materials with noble metal nanoparticles.
It is incidentally counterintuitive that for Ag, Au, and Cu nanoparticles the oxide electrolytes such as BaCeO3, SrCeO3, and ZrO2 exhibit significantly higher peak enhancement factors rather than the representative low-index oxide SiO2 and Al2O3. This is due to matching in dispersion, as seen in Figs. 2 (e), (g), and (h), and it is unlikely to be the case with the planar metal/oxide interfaces shown in Fig. 1.
For Fig. 2 (f), Al is known to have plasmon resonance particularly in the shorter wavelength region , and therefore we unfortunately cannot produce the resonance for BaCeO3 and CaO, whose dielectric-constant data in such a short-wavelength region was not acquired in this work, but their plots are buried in the long-wavelength region.
However, it is thought that these oxides in fact also have sharp plasmon-resonance peaks in the short-wavelength region as other oxides do. A certain degree of field enhancement is still attainable even for the common metals used for condensed-matter fusion, as seen in Figs. 2 (a)–(c).
Figure 2 (a) includes the material combination corresponding to the experimental system of metal nanoparticles embedded in oxide for . Figure 2 (b) has the case of , for example. Again, a certain number of the condensed-matter fusion experiments reported so far may have unknowingly benefited from this plasmonic local energy enhancement effect.
As mentioned in , the field-enhancement-factor spectra (peak positions, intensities) are independent of particle size under the quasistatic limit but are valid for particle diameters of 10–100 nm in this calculation .
Metal particles both smaller and larger than these limits exhibit broader plasmon resonances and smaller field enhancements due to surface scattering losses and radiative losses or electrodynamic damping, respectively [36,37].
A potential picture of the condensed-matter fusion phenomena supported by the plasmonic field enhancement effect is as follows. Once an initial nuclear fusion reaction occurs in the energetic highly concentrated “hot spot”
In this work, we have quantitatively investigated the enhancement of electromagnetic field energy density around planar metal/oxide interfaces and metal nanoparticles in oxide matrices. We have shown that the metals of Pd, Ni, and Ti commonly used in the community of condensed-matter fusion intrinsically exhibit a certain degree of field enhancement in the metal-oxide systems. We have also found that use of Ag, Al, Au, and Cu would particularly provide further enhancement. Our results indicate that this electromagnetic boosting effect may have been unknowingly produced in the experiments reported so far, particularly for the electrolysis-type ones, as one of the multiple factors not yet understood for the energy supplied to overcome the gigantic Coulomb barrier to produce the fusion reaction at macroscopic rates. Importantly, this plasmonic enhancement occurs in the case of an optical-power incidence as well as an electric-bias application. It is therefore desirable to design and optimize the experimental systems, including the choice of materials, structures, and operating conditions, while accounting for the plasmonic energy enhancement effect around the metal/oxide interfaces.
for the cold fusion ping list
The Cold Fusion/LENR Ping List
Keywords: ColdFusion; LENR; lanr; CMNS
Best book to get started on this subject:
Why Cold Fusion Research Prevailed by Charles Beaudette
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I have just enough knowledge of the definitions of words used in these articles to understand why the only science I was ever good at was Library Science!
Neither the Dewey Decimal System, or the Library of Congress, The BKK, or even Ranganathan’s Universal Colon Classification System (Library Classification systems I have used) require advanced math.
I still find these articles interesting. It really looks like they are figuring cold fusion out.
I saw the Plasmonics in Dayton in ‘78.They were great!
Hope they’re better with fusion than their nuclear reactors
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