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  • Diophantus of Alexandria

    11/18/2003 11:42:36 AM PST · by .cnI redruM · 30 replies · 1,356+ views
    St. Andrews University ^ | 18 Nov 03 | J J O'Connor and E F Robertson
    Diophantus of Alexandria -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Born: about 200 Died: about 284 Previous (Chronologically) Next Biographies Index Previous (Alphabetically) Next Main index -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Diophantus, often known as the 'father of algebra', is best known for his Arithmetica, a work on the solution of algebraic equations and on the theory of numbers. However, essentially nothing is known of his life and there has been much debate regarding the date at which he lived. There are a few limits which can be put on the dates of Diophantus's life. On the one hand Diophantus quotes the definition of a polygonal number from the work...
  • One of the most abstract fields in math finds application in the 'real' world

    05/23/2013 11:23:14 AM PDT · by neverdem · 14 replies
    Science News ^ | May 20, 2013 | Julie Rehmeyer
    Every pure mathematician has experienced that awkward moment when asked, “So what’s your research good for?” There are standard responses: a proud “Nothing!”; an explanation that mathematical research is an art form like, say, Olympic gymnastics (with a much smaller audience); or a stammered response that so much of pure math has ended up finding application that maybe, perhaps, someday, it will turn out to be useful. That last possibility is now proving itself to be dramatically true in the case of category theory, perhaps the most abstract area in all of mathematics. Where math is an abstraction of the...
  • Rare Galaxy Found Furiously Burning Fuel for Stars

    04/25/2013 8:47:20 PM PDT · by SunkenCiv · 19 replies
    Scientific Computing ^ | Tuesday, April 23, 2013 | McGill University
    Astronomers have found a galaxy turning gas into stars with almost 100 percent efficiency, a rare phase of galaxy evolution that is the most extreme yet observed. The findings come from the IRAM Plateau de Bure interferometer in the French Alps, NASA's Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer and NASA's Hubble Space Telescope. "Galaxies burn gas like a car engine burns fuel. Most galaxies have fairly inefficient engines, meaning they form stars from their stellar fuel tanks far below the maximum theoretical rate," said Jim Geach of McGill University, lead author of a new study appearing in the Astrophysical Journal Letters... The...
  • Kilogram 'losing weight'

    09/13/2007 9:51:22 PM PDT · by Westlander · 37 replies · 695+ views
    www.ananova.com ^ | Thursday 13th September 2007 | Ananova
    The original prototype for the kilogram, stored under lock and key near Paris, appears to be losing weight. The cylinder, which dates back from 1889, seems to have lost 50 micrograms, compared with the average of dozens of copies of the original. Richard Davis, of the International Bureau of Weights and Measures in Sevres, said: "The mystery is that they were all made of the same material, and many were made at the same time and kept under the same conditions, and yet the masses among them are slowly drifting apart." The one in Sevres is the original that the...
  • Shrinking kilogram bewilders physicists

    09/12/2007 2:47:48 PM PDT · by decimon · 107 replies · 2,162+ views
    Associated Press | Sep. 12, 2007 | JAMEY KEATEN
    By JAMEY KEATEN, Associated Press Writer 6 minutes ago PARIS - A kilogram just isn't what it used to be. The 118-year-old cylinder that is the international prototype for the metric mass, kept tightly under lock and key outside Paris, is mysteriously losing weight — if ever so slightly. Physicist Richard Davis of the International Bureau of Weights and Measures in Sevres, southwest of Paris, says the reference kilo appears to have lost 50 micrograms compared with the average of dozens of copies. "The mystery is that they were all made of the same material, and many were made at...
  • Mysteriously Shrinking Proton Continues to Puzzle Physicists

    04/15/2013 11:09:10 AM PDT · by BenLurkin · 40 replies
    LiveScience ^ | 13 April 2013 Time: 02:35 PM ET | Stephanie Pappas, Senior Writer
    DENVER — The size of a proton, long thought to be well-understood, may remain a mystery for a while longer, according to physicists. Speaking today (April 13) at the April meeting of the American Physical Society, researchers said they need more data to understand why new measurements of proton size don't match old ones. "The discrepancy is rather severe," said Randolf Pohl, a scientist at the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics. The question, Pohl and his colleagues said, is whether the explanation is a boring one — someone messed up the measurements — or something that will generate new...
  • A Second Higgs Boson? Physicists Debate New Particle

    04/14/2013 4:33:52 PM PDT · by BenLurkin · 10 replies
    LiveScience ^ | 13 April 2013 Time: 11:51 AM ET | Stephanie Pappas,
    The discovery of the Higgs boson is real. But physicists are cagey about whether the new particle they've found will fit their predictions or not. So far, the data suggest that the Higgs, the particle thought to explain how other particles get their mass, is not presenting any surprises, physicists said here today (April 13) at the April meeting of the American Physical Society. But that doesn't mean that it won't in the future — or that there might not be other Higgs bosons lurking out there. "There's a large number of theoretical models that predict, actually, that this Higgs...
  • Second Higgs boson? Physicists debate new particle

    04/13/2013 4:04:48 PM PDT · by John W · 18 replies
    nbcnews.com ^ | April 13, 2013 | Stephanie Pappas
    DENVER — The discovery of the Higgs boson is real. But physicists are cagey about whether the new particle they've found will fit their predictions or not. So far, the data suggest that the Higgs, the particle thought to explain how other particles get their mass, is not presenting any surprises, physicists said here Saturday at the April meeting of the American Physical Society. But that doesn't mean that it won't in the future — or that there might not be other Higgs bosons lurking out there. "There's a large number of theoretical models that predict, actually, that this Higgs...
  • Prof Peter Higgs: Boson is not ‘God’ particle (offended by name because he’s atheist)

    04/09/2013 1:30:00 AM PDT · by Olog-hai · 42 replies
    The Scotsman ^ | Monday 8 April 2013 00:00 | Clare McKim
    Scots scientist Professor Peter Higgs has urged the public to stop calling the Higgs boson the “God particle”—because he is an atheist. The scientist came up with the theory of a sub-atomic particle, since dubbed the Higgs boson, which would explain the mystery of how things have mass. But he wants people to stop referring to it as the “God particle” because he does not believe the particle holding the physical fabric of the universe together is the work of an almighty creator. …
  • Physicists propose test for loop quantum gravity

    04/07/2013 12:16:44 PM PDT · by SunkenCiv · 16 replies
    PhysOrg ^ | January 3, 2012 | Lisa Zyga
    As a quantum theory of gravity, loop quantum gravity could potentially solve one of the biggest problems in physics: reconciling general relativity and quantum mechanics. But like all tentative theories of quantum gravity, loop quantum gravity has never been experimentally tested. Now in a new study, scientists have found that, when black holes evaporate, the radiation they emit could potentially reveal “footprints” of loop quantum gravity, distinct from the usual Hawking radiation that black holes are expected to emit. In this way, evaporating black holes could enable the first ever experimental test for any theory of quantum gravity. However, the...
  • 17-year-old Rutvik Oza Solves Unsolved Problem in Maths

    02/17/2013 8:47:48 AM PST · by Pratap Singh · 41 replies
    Yahoo! ^ | 17/02/2013 | Pratap Singh
    An Indian teen has recently proposed a solution to an unsolved problem in mathematics. The 17-year-old young achiever, Rutvik Oza, a student of The H. B. Kapadia New High School, from Ahmedabad, Gujarat has now put a full stop to another open problem in the field of maths by providing a closed formula for the problem called Reve's Puzzle (also popularly known as the 4-peg Tower of Hanoi Problem). When asked about how was he feeling, "Thrilled! I really didn't realize at first that the problem that I had solved was an open problem in mathematics. It was only later...
  • 'Young' black hole is nearby, NASA says; doorway to a new universe?

    02/16/2013 1:48:31 PM PST · by skinkinthegrass · 22 replies
    herocomplex.latimes.com ^ | Feb. 13, 2013 | 2:30 p.m. | Amy Hubbard
    ‘Young’ black hole is nearby, NASA says; doorway to a new universe? Feb. 13, 2013 | 2:30 p.m. A supernova remnant may contain the most recent black hole formed in the Milky Way galaxy, according to NASA. (X-ray: NASA/CXC/MIT/L.Lopez et al; Infrared: Palomar; Radio: NSF/NRAO/VLA ) A supernova remnant may contain the most recent black hole formed in the Milky Way galaxy, according to NASA. (X-ray: NASA/CXC/MIT/L.Lopez et al; Infrared: Palomar; Radio: NSF/NRAO/VLA )Asteroid 2012 DA14 is bearing down on Earth, rattling nerves and making sci-fi fans’ eyes light up. But the cool science news doesn’t stop there. Researchers believe...
  • Modern Science Writers Leave Science Behind

    12/29/2012 2:12:28 PM PST · by neverdem · 42 replies
    Pacific Standard ^ | December 28, 2012 | Alex B. Berezow
    The co-author of a book on partisan science recently examined by Pacific Standard argues that our reviewer was a little too partisan himself. Any book that touches upon politics almost automatically angers half of the American public, regardless of what is written inside of it. It takes a special person—an objective, open-minded and self-critical one—to read and learn from a science book that criticizes people with whom the reader likes and agrees with politically.Recently, Pacific Standard published a review (“Red Science, Blue Science,” January/February 2013) by Wray Herbert, a pop psychology writer,of political writer Chris Mooney’s book The Republican Brain...
  • Astrophysics: Fire in the hole! (Black hole firewalls, relativity vs. quantum mechanics)

    04/05/2013 5:46:23 PM PDT · by LibWhacker · 24 replies
    Nature ^ | 4/3/13 | Zeeya Merali
    n March 2012, Joseph Polchinski began to contemplate suicide — at least in mathematical form. A string theorist at the Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics in Santa Barbara, California, Polchinski was pondering what would happen to an astronaut who dived into a black hole. Obviously, he would die. But how? According to the then-accepted account, he wouldn’t feel anything special at first, even when his fall took him through the black hole’s event horizon: the invisible boundary beyond which nothing can escape. But eventually — after hours, days or even weeks if the black hole was big enough — he...
  • Potential Dark Matter Discovery a Win for Space Station Science

    04/04/2013 12:52:30 PM PDT · by LibWhacker · 21 replies
    AccuWeather ^ | 4/4/13
    Potential Dark Matter Discovery a Win for Space Station Science April 04, 2013; 7:56 AM If nature is kind, the first detection of dark matter might be credited to the International Space Station soon. The Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer experiment hangs on the side of the International Space Station, July 12, 2011. CREDIT: NASAToday (April 3), researchers announced the first science results from the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS), a $2 billion cosmic-ray particle detector mounted on the exterior of the football-field-size International Space Station. The instrument has observed a striking pattern of antimatter particles called positrons that may turn out to...
  • Study Provides New Insights into Origin of Spiral Arms in Disk Galaxies

    04/03/2013 6:41:23 PM PDT · by SunkenCiv · 10 replies
    Sci-News ^ | April 3, 2013 | unattributed
    U.S. astrophysicists report computer simulations that seem to resolve long-standing questions about the origin and life history of spiral arms in disk galaxies. The origin and fate of the spiral arms in disk galaxies have been debated by astrophysicists for decades, with two theories predominating. One holds that the arms come and go over time. A second and widely held theory is that the material that makes up the arms – stars, gas and dust – is affected by differences in gravity and jams up, like cars at rush hour, sustaining the arms for long periods. The new findings, accepted...
  • LHC upgrade to open up 'new realm of particle physics'

    04/03/2013 4:43:42 PM PDT · by BenLurkin · 11 replies
    bbc ^ | 2 April 2013 Last updated at 08:19 ET | Pallab Ghosh
    Engineers have begun a major upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). Their work should double the energy of what's already the most powerful particle accelerator in the world. This will enable researchers here to move on to their ultimate goal: to find evidence of "new physics", which they believe will lead to a new, more compete theory of sub-atomic physics. The discovery of the Higgs last year was the end of a successful chapter of late 20th Century physics. This was the development of the current theory in the 1960s and 70s called the "Standard Model". This theory says...
  • AAS Decries Impact of Federal Travel Restrictions on Science

    03/27/2013 4:23:24 PM PDT · by mdittmar · 10 replies
    The American Astronomical Society ^ | March 27 2013 | The American Astronomical Society
    The American Astronomical Society (AAS) today expressed deep concern about the U.S. government’s new restrictions on travel and conference attendance for federally funded scientists. Enacted in response to the budget sequestration that went into effect on March 1st, the policies severely limit the ability of many researchers to meet with collaborators and to present their latest results at professional meetings. The leadership of the AAS is especially worried about the restrictions’ deleterious effects on scientific productivity and on scientists’ and students’ careers.The Office of Management and Budget (OMB) issued a memo on February 27th offering guidance to federal agencies on...
  • Astronomers discover new kind of supernova

    03/26/2013 3:17:46 PM PDT · by LibWhacker · 22 replies
    PhysOrg ^ | 3/26/13
    Astronomers discover new kind of supernova March 26, 2013 EnlargeThis artist's conception shows the suspected progenitor of a new kind of supernova called Type Iax. Material from a hot, blue helium star at right is funneling toward a carbon/oxygen white dwarf star at left, which is embedded in an accretion disk. In many cases the white dwarf survives the subsequent explosion. Credit: Christine Pulliam (CfA) (Phys.org) —Supernovae were always thought to occur in two main varieties. But a team of astronomers including Carnegie's Wendy Freedman, Mark Phillips and Eric Persson is reporting the discovery of a new type of supernova...
  • New Research Shows the Speed of Light is Variable in Real Space

    03/25/2013 11:27:40 AM PDT · by Olog-hai · 20 replies
    Cleveland Leader ^ | March 25, 2013 1:33pm | Julie Kent
    Two new studies to be published in the European Physical Journal D demonstrate that the speed of light is variable in real space. Textbook explanations of the speed of light assume that light travels in a vacuum, but space is not a vacuum. … It is not expected that the small variation in the speed of light which has been found will affect the universally accepted theories of particle physics and quantum mechanics to a large extent. However, the studies are proof that the speed of light may be variable, and shows that the mathematical treatments that have long been...