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Keyword: stringtheory

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  • Diophantus of Alexandria

    11/18/2003 11:42:36 AM PST · by .cnI redruM · 30 replies · 1,356+ views
    St. Andrews University ^ | 18 Nov 03 | J J O'Connor and E F Robertson
    Diophantus of Alexandria -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Born: about 200 Died: about 284 Previous (Chronologically) Next Biographies Index Previous (Alphabetically) Next Main index -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Diophantus, often known as the 'father of algebra', is best known for his Arithmetica, a work on the solution of algebraic equations and on the theory of numbers. However, essentially nothing is known of his life and there has been much debate regarding the date at which he lived. There are a few limits which can be put on the dates of Diophantus's life. On the one hand Diophantus quotes the definition of a polygonal number from the work...
  • One of the most abstract fields in math finds application in the 'real' world

    05/23/2013 11:23:14 AM PDT · by neverdem · 14 replies
    Science News ^ | May 20, 2013 | Julie Rehmeyer
    Every pure mathematician has experienced that awkward moment when asked, “So what’s your research good for?” There are standard responses: a proud “Nothing!”; an explanation that mathematical research is an art form like, say, Olympic gymnastics (with a much smaller audience); or a stammered response that so much of pure math has ended up finding application that maybe, perhaps, someday, it will turn out to be useful. That last possibility is now proving itself to be dramatically true in the case of category theory, perhaps the most abstract area in all of mathematics. Where math is an abstraction of the...
  • Rare Galaxy Found Furiously Burning Fuel for Stars

    04/25/2013 8:47:20 PM PDT · by SunkenCiv · 19 replies
    Scientific Computing ^ | Tuesday, April 23, 2013 | McGill University
    Astronomers have found a galaxy turning gas into stars with almost 100 percent efficiency, a rare phase of galaxy evolution that is the most extreme yet observed. The findings come from the IRAM Plateau de Bure interferometer in the French Alps, NASA's Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer and NASA's Hubble Space Telescope. "Galaxies burn gas like a car engine burns fuel. Most galaxies have fairly inefficient engines, meaning they form stars from their stellar fuel tanks far below the maximum theoretical rate," said Jim Geach of McGill University, lead author of a new study appearing in the Astrophysical Journal Letters... The...
  • Kilogram 'losing weight'

    09/13/2007 9:51:22 PM PDT · by Westlander · 37 replies · 695+ views ^ | Thursday 13th September 2007 | Ananova
    The original prototype for the kilogram, stored under lock and key near Paris, appears to be losing weight. The cylinder, which dates back from 1889, seems to have lost 50 micrograms, compared with the average of dozens of copies of the original. Richard Davis, of the International Bureau of Weights and Measures in Sevres, said: "The mystery is that they were all made of the same material, and many were made at the same time and kept under the same conditions, and yet the masses among them are slowly drifting apart." The one in Sevres is the original that the...
  • Shrinking kilogram bewilders physicists

    09/12/2007 2:47:48 PM PDT · by decimon · 107 replies · 2,162+ views
    Associated Press | Sep. 12, 2007 | JAMEY KEATEN
    By JAMEY KEATEN, Associated Press Writer 6 minutes ago PARIS - A kilogram just isn't what it used to be. The 118-year-old cylinder that is the international prototype for the metric mass, kept tightly under lock and key outside Paris, is mysteriously losing weight — if ever so slightly. Physicist Richard Davis of the International Bureau of Weights and Measures in Sevres, southwest of Paris, says the reference kilo appears to have lost 50 micrograms compared with the average of dozens of copies. "The mystery is that they were all made of the same material, and many were made at...
  • Mysteriously Shrinking Proton Continues to Puzzle Physicists

    04/15/2013 11:09:10 AM PDT · by BenLurkin · 40 replies
    LiveScience ^ | 13 April 2013 Time: 02:35 PM ET | Stephanie Pappas, Senior Writer
    DENVER — The size of a proton, long thought to be well-understood, may remain a mystery for a while longer, according to physicists. Speaking today (April 13) at the April meeting of the American Physical Society, researchers said they need more data to understand why new measurements of proton size don't match old ones. "The discrepancy is rather severe," said Randolf Pohl, a scientist at the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics. The question, Pohl and his colleagues said, is whether the explanation is a boring one — someone messed up the measurements — or something that will generate new...
  • A Second Higgs Boson? Physicists Debate New Particle

    04/14/2013 4:33:52 PM PDT · by BenLurkin · 10 replies
    LiveScience ^ | 13 April 2013 Time: 11:51 AM ET | Stephanie Pappas,
    The discovery of the Higgs boson is real. But physicists are cagey about whether the new particle they've found will fit their predictions or not. So far, the data suggest that the Higgs, the particle thought to explain how other particles get their mass, is not presenting any surprises, physicists said here today (April 13) at the April meeting of the American Physical Society. But that doesn't mean that it won't in the future — or that there might not be other Higgs bosons lurking out there. "There's a large number of theoretical models that predict, actually, that this Higgs...
  • Second Higgs boson? Physicists debate new particle

    04/13/2013 4:04:48 PM PDT · by John W · 18 replies ^ | April 13, 2013 | Stephanie Pappas
    DENVER — The discovery of the Higgs boson is real. But physicists are cagey about whether the new particle they've found will fit their predictions or not. So far, the data suggest that the Higgs, the particle thought to explain how other particles get their mass, is not presenting any surprises, physicists said here Saturday at the April meeting of the American Physical Society. But that doesn't mean that it won't in the future — or that there might not be other Higgs bosons lurking out there. "There's a large number of theoretical models that predict, actually, that this Higgs...
  • Prof Peter Higgs: Boson is not ‘God’ particle (offended by name because he’s atheist)

    04/09/2013 1:30:00 AM PDT · by Olog-hai · 42 replies
    The Scotsman ^ | Monday 8 April 2013 00:00 | Clare McKim
    Scots scientist Professor Peter Higgs has urged the public to stop calling the Higgs boson the “God particle”—because he is an atheist. The scientist came up with the theory of a sub-atomic particle, since dubbed the Higgs boson, which would explain the mystery of how things have mass. But he wants people to stop referring to it as the “God particle” because he does not believe the particle holding the physical fabric of the universe together is the work of an almighty creator. …
  • Physicists propose test for loop quantum gravity

    04/07/2013 12:16:44 PM PDT · by SunkenCiv · 16 replies
    PhysOrg ^ | January 3, 2012 | Lisa Zyga
    As a quantum theory of gravity, loop quantum gravity could potentially solve one of the biggest problems in physics: reconciling general relativity and quantum mechanics. But like all tentative theories of quantum gravity, loop quantum gravity has never been experimentally tested. Now in a new study, scientists have found that, when black holes evaporate, the radiation they emit could potentially reveal “footprints” of loop quantum gravity, distinct from the usual Hawking radiation that black holes are expected to emit. In this way, evaporating black holes could enable the first ever experimental test for any theory of quantum gravity. However, the...
  • 17-year-old Rutvik Oza Solves Unsolved Problem in Maths

    02/17/2013 8:47:48 AM PST · by Pratap Singh · 41 replies
    Yahoo! ^ | 17/02/2013 | Pratap Singh
    An Indian teen has recently proposed a solution to an unsolved problem in mathematics. The 17-year-old young achiever, Rutvik Oza, a student of The H. B. Kapadia New High School, from Ahmedabad, Gujarat has now put a full stop to another open problem in the field of maths by providing a closed formula for the problem called Reve's Puzzle (also popularly known as the 4-peg Tower of Hanoi Problem). When asked about how was he feeling, "Thrilled! I really didn't realize at first that the problem that I had solved was an open problem in mathematics. It was only later...
  • 'Young' black hole is nearby, NASA says; doorway to a new universe?

    02/16/2013 1:48:31 PM PST · by skinkinthegrass · 22 replies ^ | Feb. 13, 2013 | 2:30 p.m. | Amy Hubbard
    ‘Young’ black hole is nearby, NASA says; doorway to a new universe? Feb. 13, 2013 | 2:30 p.m. A supernova remnant may contain the most recent black hole formed in the Milky Way galaxy, according to NASA. (X-ray: NASA/CXC/MIT/L.Lopez et al; Infrared: Palomar; Radio: NSF/NRAO/VLA ) A supernova remnant may contain the most recent black hole formed in the Milky Way galaxy, according to NASA. (X-ray: NASA/CXC/MIT/L.Lopez et al; Infrared: Palomar; Radio: NSF/NRAO/VLA )Asteroid 2012 DA14 is bearing down on Earth, rattling nerves and making sci-fi fans’ eyes light up. But the cool science news doesn’t stop there. Researchers believe...
  • Modern Science Writers Leave Science Behind

    12/29/2012 2:12:28 PM PST · by neverdem · 42 replies
    Pacific Standard ^ | December 28, 2012 | Alex B. Berezow
    The co-author of a book on partisan science recently examined by Pacific Standard argues that our reviewer was a little too partisan himself. Any book that touches upon politics almost automatically angers half of the American public, regardless of what is written inside of it. It takes a special person—an objective, open-minded and self-critical one—to read and learn from a science book that criticizes people with whom the reader likes and agrees with politically.Recently, Pacific Standard published a review (“Red Science, Blue Science,” January/February 2013) by Wray Herbert, a pop psychology writer,of political writer Chris Mooney’s book The Republican Brain...
  • Astrophysics: Fire in the hole! (Black hole firewalls, relativity vs. quantum mechanics)

    04/05/2013 5:46:23 PM PDT · by LibWhacker · 24 replies
    Nature ^ | 4/3/13 | Zeeya Merali
    n March 2012, Joseph Polchinski began to contemplate suicide — at least in mathematical form. A string theorist at the Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics in Santa Barbara, California, Polchinski was pondering what would happen to an astronaut who dived into a black hole. Obviously, he would die. But how? According to the then-accepted account, he wouldn’t feel anything special at first, even when his fall took him through the black hole’s event horizon: the invisible boundary beyond which nothing can escape. But eventually — after hours, days or even weeks if the black hole was big enough — he...
  • Potential Dark Matter Discovery a Win for Space Station Science

    04/04/2013 12:52:30 PM PDT · by LibWhacker · 21 replies
    AccuWeather ^ | 4/4/13
    Potential Dark Matter Discovery a Win for Space Station Science April 04, 2013; 7:56 AM If nature is kind, the first detection of dark matter might be credited to the International Space Station soon. The Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer experiment hangs on the side of the International Space Station, July 12, 2011. CREDIT: NASAToday (April 3), researchers announced the first science results from the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS), a $2 billion cosmic-ray particle detector mounted on the exterior of the football-field-size International Space Station. The instrument has observed a striking pattern of antimatter particles called positrons that may turn out to...
  • Study Provides New Insights into Origin of Spiral Arms in Disk Galaxies

    04/03/2013 6:41:23 PM PDT · by SunkenCiv · 10 replies
    Sci-News ^ | April 3, 2013 | unattributed
    U.S. astrophysicists report computer simulations that seem to resolve long-standing questions about the origin and life history of spiral arms in disk galaxies. The origin and fate of the spiral arms in disk galaxies have been debated by astrophysicists for decades, with two theories predominating. One holds that the arms come and go over time. A second and widely held theory is that the material that makes up the arms – stars, gas and dust – is affected by differences in gravity and jams up, like cars at rush hour, sustaining the arms for long periods. The new findings, accepted...
  • LHC upgrade to open up 'new realm of particle physics'

    04/03/2013 4:43:42 PM PDT · by BenLurkin · 11 replies
    bbc ^ | 2 April 2013 Last updated at 08:19 ET | Pallab Ghosh
    Engineers have begun a major upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). Their work should double the energy of what's already the most powerful particle accelerator in the world. This will enable researchers here to move on to their ultimate goal: to find evidence of "new physics", which they believe will lead to a new, more compete theory of sub-atomic physics. The discovery of the Higgs last year was the end of a successful chapter of late 20th Century physics. This was the development of the current theory in the 1960s and 70s called the "Standard Model". This theory says...
  • AAS Decries Impact of Federal Travel Restrictions on Science

    03/27/2013 4:23:24 PM PDT · by mdittmar · 10 replies
    The American Astronomical Society ^ | March 27 2013 | The American Astronomical Society
    The American Astronomical Society (AAS) today expressed deep concern about the U.S. government’s new restrictions on travel and conference attendance for federally funded scientists. Enacted in response to the budget sequestration that went into effect on March 1st, the policies severely limit the ability of many researchers to meet with collaborators and to present their latest results at professional meetings. The leadership of the AAS is especially worried about the restrictions’ deleterious effects on scientific productivity and on scientists’ and students’ careers.The Office of Management and Budget (OMB) issued a memo on February 27th offering guidance to federal agencies on...
  • Astronomers discover new kind of supernova

    03/26/2013 3:17:46 PM PDT · by LibWhacker · 22 replies
    PhysOrg ^ | 3/26/13
    Astronomers discover new kind of supernova March 26, 2013 EnlargeThis artist's conception shows the suspected progenitor of a new kind of supernova called Type Iax. Material from a hot, blue helium star at right is funneling toward a carbon/oxygen white dwarf star at left, which is embedded in an accretion disk. In many cases the white dwarf survives the subsequent explosion. Credit: Christine Pulliam (CfA) ( —Supernovae were always thought to occur in two main varieties. But a team of astronomers including Carnegie's Wendy Freedman, Mark Phillips and Eric Persson is reporting the discovery of a new type of supernova...
  • New Research Shows the Speed of Light is Variable in Real Space

    03/25/2013 11:27:40 AM PDT · by Olog-hai · 20 replies
    Cleveland Leader ^ | March 25, 2013 1:33pm | Julie Kent
    Two new studies to be published in the European Physical Journal D demonstrate that the speed of light is variable in real space. Textbook explanations of the speed of light assume that light travels in a vacuum, but space is not a vacuum. … It is not expected that the small variation in the speed of light which has been found will affect the universally accepted theories of particle physics and quantum mechanics to a large extent. However, the studies are proof that the speed of light may be variable, and shows that the mathematical treatments that have long been...
  • Best Image of Big Bang Afterglow Ever Confirms Standard Cosmology

    03/23/2013 10:44:05 PM PDT · by neverdem · 57 replies
    ScienceNOW ^ | 21 March 2013 | Adrian Cho
    Enlarge Image No big surprise. Planck has mapped the cosmic microwave background to great precision, but found nothing clearly incompatible with the standard cosmology. Credit: ESA If the universe were ice cream, it would be vanilla. That's the take-home message from researchers working with the European Space Agency's orbiting Planck observatory, who today released the most precise measurements yet of the afterglow of the big bang—the so-called cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation. The new data from Planck confirm cosmologists' standard model of how the universe sprang into existence and what it's made of. That may disappoint scientists who were...
  • Top Quark Measurements Give ‘God Particle’ New Lease on Life

    06/10/2004 4:00:48 PM PDT · by PatrickHenry · 23 replies · 382+ views
    University of Rochester ^ | 09 June 2004 | Staff
    Researchers from the University of Rochester have helped measure the elusive top quark with unparalleled precision, and the surprising results affect everything from the Higgs boson, nicknamed the “God particle,” to the makeup of the dark matter that comprises 90 percent of the universe. The scientists developed a new method to analyze data from particle accelerator collisions at Fermilab National Accelerator Laboratory, which is far more accurate than previous methods and has the potential to change the dynamics of the Standard Model of particle physics. Details of the research are in today’s issue of the journal Nature. “This is a...
  • Hopes fade of Higgs particle opening door to new realms soon

    03/20/2013 1:47:56 AM PDT · by Olog-hai · 8 replies
    Reuters ^ | Fri Mar 8, 2013 12:28pm EST | Robert Evans
    Scientists’ hopes that last summer’s triumphant trapping of the particle that shaped the post-Big Bang universe would quickly open the way into exotic new realms of physics like string theory and new dimensions have faded this past week. Five days of presentations on the particle, the Higgs boson, at a scientific conference high in the Italian Alps point to it being the last missing piece in a 30-year-old cosmic blueprint and nothing more, physicists following the event say. “The chances are getting slimmer and slimmer that we are going to see something else exciting anytime soon,” said physicist Pauline Gagnon...
  • Voyager 1 has entered a new region of space, sudden changes in cosmic rays indicate

    03/20/2013 2:57:50 PM PDT · by LibWhacker · 75 replies
    AGU ^ | 3/20/13
    WASHINGTON – Thirty-five years after its launch, Voyager 1 appears to have travelled beyond the influence of the Sun and exited the heliosphere, according to a new study appearing online today. The heliosphere is a region of space dominated by the Sun and its wind of energetic particles, and which is thought to be enclosed, bubble-like, in the surrounding interstellar medium of gas and dust that pervades the Milky Way galaxy. On August 25, 2012, NASA's Voyager 1 spacecraft measured drastic changes in radiation levels, more than 11 billion miles from the Sun. Anomalous cosmic rays, which are cosmic rays...
  • Physicist Walks Out of Gender-Segregated Debate At London University [Hosted by Islamic Group!]

    03/18/2013 7:17:16 PM PDT · by Steelfish · 33 replies
    YahooNews ^ | March 18, 2013
    Physicist Walks Out of Gender-Segregated Debate At London University A renowned American physicist created a row at University College London last weekend when he stormed out of a debate hosted by an Islamic group because men, women and couples in the audience were segregated. The physicist, Lawrence Krauss, is a professor at Arizona State University. Krauss is a noted atheist who served on President Barack Obama’s science policy committee during the 2008 presidential campaign. The debate, sponsored by the Islamic Education and Research Academy, was entitled: “Islam or Atheism: Which Makes More Sense?” A YouTube clip posted by Stand for...
  • Physicists Discover a Whopping 13 New Solutions to Three-Body Problem

    03/09/2013 9:25:20 PM PST · by LibWhacker · 35 replies
    Science Now ^ | 3/8/13 | Jon Cartwright
    It's the sort of abstract puzzle that keeps a scientist awake at night: Can you predict how three objects will orbit each other in a repeating pattern? In the 300 years since this "three-body problem" was first recognized, just three families of solutions have been found. Now, two physicists have discovered 13 new families. It's quite a feat in mathematical physics, and it could conceivably help astrophysicists understand new planetary systems. The trove of new solutions has researchers jazzed. "I love these things," says Robert Vanderbei a mathematician at Princeton University who was not involved in the work. He says...
  • Herschel gets to the bottom of black-hole jets

    03/15/2013 9:41:44 AM PDT · by Ernest_at_the_Beach · 13 replies
    European Space Agency. ^ | 12 Mar 2013 | Stéphane Corbel & Göran Pilbratt
    Astronomers using ESA's Herschel space observatory have detected emission from the base of black-hole jets for the first time. While studying the black-hole binary system GX 339-4 in a multi-wavelength observation campaign, they noticed changes in the source's X-ray and radio emissions signalling the onset of powerful jets being released from the black hole's vicinity. This prompted the astronomers to observe the source at far-infrared wavelengths with Herschel. As the first observation of emission from jets in a black-hole binary system at these wavelengths, the data have allowed the astronomers to probe the jets down to their base, where the...
  • In praise of … Higgs boson

    03/15/2013 1:00:02 PM PDT · by Ernest_at_the_Beach · 24 replies
    Guardian (UK) ^ | Thursday 14 March 2013 | Editorial
    The vanishingly small speck whose spin has been confirmed as being Higgs-like ought to be regarded with aweImage removed,...see article website Traces of proton collisions at Cern during the search for the Higgs boson. Photograph: Fabrice Coffrini/AFP/Getty ImagesIt is a subatomic point where hard science meets myth and mystery, so much about the Higgs boson gets mangled in the telling. It is not, as is sometimes claimed, the sole source of matter's heft – Einstein taught us that mass and energy are two sides of the same coin, so there is (ahem) no such massive hole for a tiny particle...
  • On Pi Day [March 14, 2013], finding strength in numbers

    03/14/2013 5:11:50 AM PDT · by Daffynition · 43 replies
    CNN ^ | March 14, 2013 | Elizabeth Landau,
    In Daniel Tammet's mind, three is a dotted green crescent moon shape, one is a sort of white sunburst and four is a blue boomerang. Every number has a distinct color and shape, making the number pi, which begins with 3.14, unfold like a beautiful poem. For math enthusiasts around the world, March 14 (3-14) is Pi Day, honoring the number pi, which is the ratio of circumference to diameter of a circle. On Thursday, Tammet is promoting France's first Pi Day celebration at the Palace of Discovery science museum in Paris. Tammet's relationship to this number is special: At...
  • Astronomy Picture of the Day -- Spin up of a Supermassive Black Hole

    03/12/2013 7:07:02 PM PDT · by SunkenCiv · 24 replies
    NASA ^ | March 12, 2013 | (see photo credit)
    Explanation: How fast can a black hole spin? If any object made of regular matter spins too fast -- it breaks apart. But a black hole might not be able to break apart -- and its maximum spin rate is really unknown. Theorists usually model rapidly rotating black holes with the Kerr solution to Einstein's General Theory of Relativity, which predicts several amazing and unusual things. Perhaps its most easily testable prediction, though, is that matter entering a maximally rotating black hole should be last seen orbiting at near the speed of light, as seen from far away. This prediction...
  • The ALMA telescope has just made its first major discovery

    03/13/2013 3:31:48 PM PDT · by BenLurkin · 16 replies
    IO9 ^ | Today 2:07pm | George Dvorsky
    Today is inauguration day for ALMA, the massive telescopic array that’s still under construction in Chile’s Atacama Desert. But just because it’s not finished doesn’t mean astronomers haven’t been using it. The $1.5 billion telescope has just peered into the deepest realms of the universe, revealing some of the most distant star-spawning galaxies ever discovered....
  • Chinese Physicists Measure Speed of “Spooky Action At a Distance”

    03/07/2013 11:41:49 PM PST · by Bobalu · 48 replies
    Physics arXiv Blog ^ | March 7, 2013 | Physics arXiv Blog
    Einstein railed against the possibility of spooky action at a distance because it violates relativity. Now Chinese physicists have clocked it traveling more than four orders of magnitude faster than light
  • Quantum theory is wrong.

    03/07/2013 5:44:05 AM PST · by ABrit · 62 replies
    A word in your ear ^ | March 7th 2013 | Mark
    Particles do not retain "information", don't have "knowledge". It is not that the act of observation that alters reality. In fact the physical nature of the "observation" small though it may be is sufficient to alter the metrics of sub atomic particles.
  • Magnifying the Universe: Move From Atoms to Galaxies in HD

    03/08/2013 11:24:27 AM PST · by Dysart · 22 replies
    Open Culture (via Number Sleuth) ^ | 3-8-13 | Number Sleuth
    Before you do anything else, click on the image above and then move little slider (along the bottom of the image) from left to right. Now watch the universe fly by, going from macro to micro. Pretty cool, no? Now read on: This dynamic infographic comes to us via Number Sleuth, who describes their wonderful creation as follows: This interactive infographic accurately illustrates the scale of over 100 items within the observable universe ranging from galaxies to insects, nebulae and stars to molecules and atoms. Numerous hot points along the zoom slider allow for direct access to planets, animals, the...
  • Ex nihilo: Dynamical Casimir effect in metamaterial converts vacuum fluctuations into real photons

    03/08/2013 2:41:26 PM PST · by Kevmo · 24 replies
    Phys.Org ^ | March 8 2013 | Stuart Mason Dambrot
    Ex nihilo: Dynamical Casimir effect in metamaterial converts vacuum fluctuations into real photons March 8, 2013 by Stuart Mason Dambrot Copyright © PNAS, doi:10.1073/pnas.1212705110 ( —In the strange world of quantum mechanics, the vacuum state (sometimes referred to as the quantum vacuum, simply as the vacuum) is a quantum system's lowest possible energy state. While not containing physical particles, neither is it an empty void: Rather, the quantum vacuum contains fluctuating electromagnetic waves and so-called virtual particles, the latter being known to transition into and out of existence. In addition, the vacuum state has zero-point energy – the lowest quantized...
  • Century-old problem: ... professor finds out what causes low-frequency electronic 1/f noise

    03/07/2013 8:42:43 AM PST · by Red Badger · 37 replies
    Phys.Org ^ | 03-07-2013 | Provided by University of California - Riverside
    FULL TITLE: Solving nearly century-old problem: Using graphene, professor finds out what causes low-frequency electronic 1/f noise =========================================================== A University of California, Riverside Bourns College of Engineering professor and a team of researchers published a paper today that show how they solved an almost century-old problem that could further help downscale the size of electronic devices. The work, led by Alexander A. Balandin, a professor of electrical engineering at UC Riverside, focused on the low-frequency electronic 1/f noise, also known as pink noise and flicker noise. It is a signal or process with a power spectral density inversely proportional to...
  • NASA Discovers New Radiation Belt Around Earth

    03/02/2013 11:49:50 AM PST · by Olog-hai · 21 replies ^ | 28 February 2013 | 02:01 PM ET | Charles Q. Choi
    A ring of radiation previously unknown to science fleetingly surrounded Earth last year before being virtually annihilated by a powerful interplanetary shock wave, scientists say. NASA’s twin Van Allen space probes, which are studying the Earth’s radiation belts, made the cosmic find. The surprising discovery—a new, albeit temporary, radiation belt around Earth—reveals how much remains unknown about outer space, even those regions closest to the planet, researchers added. …
  • Earth's mantle helps hunt for fifth force of nature

    02/24/2013 4:51:43 PM PST · by BenLurkin · 10 replies ^ | 19:00 21 February 2013 by | Jacob Aron
    Try using the entire Earth to hunt for a new fundamental force of nature. So say Larry Hunter of Amherst College in Massachusetts, and colleagues. They have created a map of the spins of electrons deep within the Earth's mantle, which could be used to reveal the as-yet-unseen force as well as the strange particles – known as "unparticles" – that might carry it. We currently know of four fundamental forces: gravity, electromagnetism and the strong and weak nuclear forces. The hypothetical fifth force can be thought of as a version of magnetism that does not weaken as quickly with...
  • Source of High-Energy Cosmic Rays Nailed at Last

    02/14/2013 5:06:17 PM PST · by neverdem · 10 replies
    ScienceNOW ^ | 14 February 2013 | Daniel Clery
    Enlarge Image Ray maker. The "Jellyfish nebula" (IC 443) and another supernova remnant gave researchers firm evidence that cosmic rays come from exploding stars. Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/UCLA For the past century, physicists have puzzled over cosmic rays, particles (mostly protons) that hurtle through space at high speed and seem to come from all directions equally. What's the source of these galactic projectiles? And how do they come to be traveling so fast? Today, an international team announced a major step toward answering those questions: conclusive evidence that at least some of the cosmic rays come from supernova remnants—expanding shells of...
  • Developer seeks to preserve Westinghouse’s first-generation atom smasher

    02/07/2013 6:01:44 PM PST · by Ditto · 6 replies
    Pittsburgh Tribune Review ^ | February 6, 2013 | Jason Cato
    Smack in the middle of where a D.C. developer hopes to build apartments on the Forest Hills-Chalfant border stands a small brick building adorned with a towering steel orb. The four-story weathered object, which resembles a giant light bulb, is the genesis of the Westinghouse Electric Corp.'s foray into nuclear power — a 1937 van de Graaff particle accelerator, the world's first industrial atom smasher. “Westinghouse was really in the vanguard of nuclear power,” said Cynthia Kelly, president of the Washington-based Atomic Heritage Foundation. “It's great that they kept (the accelerator.) It's a great piece of history.” Gary Silversmith thinks...
  • Magnetic Sun Produces Hot Hot Heat

    02/02/2013 10:17:37 PM PST · by neverdem · 24 replies
    ScienceNOW ^ | 23 January 2013 | Sid Perkins
    Enlarge Image A picture of heat. A high-resolution image of the solar atmosphere at extreme ultraviolet wavelengths (right) reveals details of magnetic processes (middle and lower left; bright features denote intense energy release) likely providing much of the energy that heats the corona to temperatures ranging from 2 million°C to 4 million°C. The upper-left image denotes a region seen in close-up at right. Credit: Amy Winebarger/MSFC/NASA If you thought the exterior of the sun was hot, check out its corona. Although our star's visible surface is less than 6000°C, its atmosphere blazes at up to 4 million°C. Now, thanks...
  • "Simulated Pickett N4-ES Slide Rule". (For all you egg heads.)

    01/26/2013 9:50:45 AM PST · by Islander7 · 58 replies
    AntiQuark ^ | Feb 6, 2005 | Derek
    Following up on my original post, I've scanned and virtualized my Pickett N4-ES Vector Type LOG LOG DUAL BASE SPEED RULE. That's the most complicated rule that Picket produced. It has 34 scales, which is good, because in the world of slide rule collecting, bigger is better. ().
  • Dwarf planet Eris may reveal quantum gravity

    01/25/2013 12:55:54 PM PST · by BenLurkin · 48 replies ^ | 24 January 2013 | by Ker Than
    Many galaxies appear to have stronger gravity - and thus more mass - than can be explained by their visible matter alone. Overly massive galaxies are most often attributed to dark matter, an invisible substance that interacts with matter through gravity. To date, though, no one has directly detected dark matter particles. But a well-established notion in physics could hold another explanation for their size. This says that empty space is really a frothy, turbulent sea full of virtual particles - matter and antimatter that spring in and out of existence so fast that we can't see them. Though they...
  • Silenced watchdog highlights power behind rampant science fraud

    01/17/2013 5:39:55 PM PST · by Tolerance Sucks Rocks · 12 replies
    Forbes ^ | January 9, 2013 | Bill Frezza
    Those of us concerned about the decaying credibility of Big Science were dismayed to learn that the whistleblower site Science Fraud has been shut down due to a barrage of legal threats against its operator. With billions of dollars in federal science funding hinging on the integrity of academic researchers, and billions more in health care dollars riding on the truthfulness of pharmaceutical research claims, the industry needs more websites like this, not fewer. Regular readers of Retraction Watch, a watchdog site run by two medical reporters, got the news along with a story about the blog’s anonymous editor, who...
  • New approach using nanoparticle alloys allows heat to be focused or reflected

    01/11/2013 10:55:49 AM PST · by Red Badger · 12 replies ^ | Jan 11,2013 | by David Chandler
    FULL TITLE: New approach using nanoparticle alloys allows heat to be focused or reflected just like electromagnetic waves An MIT researcher has developed a technique that provides a new way of manipulating heat, allowing it to be controlled much as light waves can be manipulated by lenses and mirrors. The approach relies on engineered materials consisting of nanostructured semiconductor alloy crystals. Heat is a vibration of matter—technically, a vibration of the atomic lattice of a material—just as sound is. Such vibrations can also be thought of as a stream of phonons—a kind of "virtual particle" that is analogous to the...
  • The First Public Data Release from BOSS, the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey

    01/07/2013 11:52:41 AM PST · by Berlin_Freeper · 6 replies
    BOSS ^ | August 08, 2012 | Paul Preuss
    The Third Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS-III) has issued Data Release 9 (DR9), the first public release of data from the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS). In this release BOSS, the largest of SDSS-III’s four surveys, provides spectra for 535,995 newly observed galaxies, 102,100 quasars, and 116,474 stars, plus new information about objects in previous Sloan surveys (SDSS-I and II). “This is just the first of three data releases from BOSS,” says David Schlegel of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab), an astrophysicist in the Lab’s Physics Division and BOSS’s principal investigator. “By the time...
  • Data Saved In Quartz Glass Might Last 300 Million Years

    01/06/2013 9:04:59 PM PST · by LibWhacker · 66 replies
    Scientific American ^ | 1/6/13 | Timothy Hornyak
    Most cultural institutions and research laboratories still rely on magnetic tape to archive their collections. Hitachi recently announced that it has developed a medium that can outlast not only this old-school format but also CDs, DVDs, hard drives and MP3s. The electronics giant partnered with Kyoto University's Kiyotaka Miura to develop “semiperpetual” slivers of quartz glass that Hitachi says can preserve information for hundreds of millions of years with virtually no degradation. The prototype is made of a square of quartz two centimeters wide and two millimeters thick. It houses four layers of dots that are created with a femtosecond...
  • Thirteen little galaxies all in a row: Configuration deviates from the expected...

    01/06/2013 8:06:50 PM PST · by LibWhacker · 36 replies
    Vancouver Sun ^ | 1/6/13 | Randy Shore
    A string of 13 dwarf galaxies are in orbit around the galaxy Andromeda. The galaxies are spread across a flat plane more than one million light years wide and 30,000 light years thick, moving in synchonicity with each other. The phenomenon is unlike behaviour of other observed galaxies and suggests a hole in our knowledge of galaxy formation. A string of 13 dwarf galaxies in orbit around the massive galaxy Andromeda are not behaving as they should. The galaxies are spread across a flat plane more than one million light years wide and only 30,000 light years thick, moving...
  • Quantum gas goes below absolute zero - Ultracold atoms pave way for negative-Kelvin materials.

    01/03/2013 11:44:46 PM PST · by neverdem · 36 replies
    Nature News ^ | 03 January 2013 | Zeeya Merali
    It may sound less likely than hell freezing over, but physicists have created an atomic gas with a sub-absolute-zero temperature for the first time1. Their technique opens the door to generating negative-Kelvin materials and new quantum devices, and it could even help to solve a cosmological mystery. Lord Kelvin defined the absolute temperature scale in the mid-1800s in such a way that nothing could be colder than absolute zero. Physicists later realized that the absolute temperature of a gas is related to the average energy of its particles. Absolute zero corresponds to the theoretical state in which particles have no...
  • The boy who played with fusion

    12/27/2012 4:59:49 PM PST · by virgil283 · 22 replies
    POPSCI ^ | Posted 02.14.2012 at 12:52 pm | Tom Clynes
    "Propulsion,” the nine-year-old says as he leads his dad through the gates of the U.S. Space and Rocket Center in Huntsville, Alabama. “I just want to see the propulsion stuff.”........This is before Taylor would transform the family’s garage into a mysterious, glow-in-the-dark cache of rocks and metals and liquids with unimaginable powers......But when his parents brought him to a toy store, [for a toy crane] the boy saw it as an act of provocation. “No,” he yelled, stomping his foot. “I want a real one. This is about the time any other father might have put his own foot down....