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Keyword: stringtheory

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  • Kajita becomes Nobel physics prize co-winner

    10/06/2015 5:20:48 AM PDT · by chajin · 9 replies
    NHK (Japan Broadcasting Company) ^ | October 6, 2015 | NHK
    A Japanese scientist has won this year's Nobel Prize in Physics. Takaaki Kajita proved that neutrinos have mass. The neutrino is an elementary particle consisting of matter. Kajita observed neutrinos at a facility deep underground. He was part of a team that detected that some of the particles change to different types of neutrino. That proved neutrinos have mass. The discoveries were revealed at an international conference in 1998. His work surprised researchers all around the world because it disproved the established theory that neutrinos do not have mass. Kajita is the 24th Nobel Prize winner born in Japan. And...
  • Goodbye Big Bang, Hello Black Hole? A New Theory Of The Universe’s Creation

    09/30/2015 7:10:11 PM PDT · by lbryce · 40 replies
    Universe Today ^ | September 18, 2015 | ELIZABETH HOWELL on SEPTEMBER 18, 2013
    Could the famed “Big Bang” theory need a revision? A group of theoretical physicists suppose the birth of the universe could have happened after a four-dimensional star collapsed into a black hole and ejected debris. Before getting into their findings, let’s just preface this by saying nobody knows anything for sure. Humans obviously weren’t around at the time the universe began. The standard theory is that the universe grew from an infinitely dense point or singularity, but who knows what was there before? “For all physicists know, dragons could have come flying out of the singularity,” stated Niayesh Afshordi, an...
  • Scientists think they know how to test the parallel universes theory - for real

    09/30/2015 9:03:31 AM PDT · by SeekAndFind · 58 replies
    Science Alert ^ | 09/30/2015 | EUGENE LIM, Published by The Conversation.
    The existence of parallel universes may seem like something cooked up by science fiction writers, with little relevance to modern theoretical physics. But the idea that we live in a 'multiverse' made up of an infinite number of parallel universes has long been considered a scientific possibility - although it is still a matter of vigorous debate among physicists. The race is now on to find a way to test the theory, including searching the sky for signs of collisions with other universes. It is important to keep in mind that the multiverse view is not actually a theory, it...
  • Light dawns

    09/20/2015 1:35:08 PM PDT · by SunkenCiv · 22 replies
    Aeon ^ | September 18, 2015 | Sidney Perkowitz
    If you visit the Paris Observatory on the left bank of the Seine, you'll see a plaque on its wall announcing that the speed of light was first measured there in 1676. The odd thing is, this result came about unintentionally. Ole Romer, a Dane who was working as an assistant to the Italian astronomer Giovanni Domenico Cassini, was trying to account for certain discrepancies in eclipses of one of the moons of Jupiter. Romer and Cassini discussed the possibility that light has a finite speed (it had typically been thought to move instantaneously). Eventually, following some rough calculations, Romer...
  • The theory of parallel universes is not just maths – it is science that can be tested

    09/11/2015 11:12:05 AM PDT · by SeekAndFind · 92 replies
    The Conversation ^ | 09/02/2015
    The existence of parallel universes may seem like something cooked up by science fiction writers, with little relevance to modern theoretical physics. But the idea that we live in a “multiverse” made up of an infinite number of parallel universes has long been considered a scientific possibility – although it is still a matter of vigorous debate among physicists. The race is now on to find a way to test the theory, including searching the sky for signs of collisions with other universes. It is important to keep in mind that the multiverse view is not actually a theory,...
  • Are We Living In A Black Hole?

    09/05/2015 2:41:01 PM PDT · by LibWhacker · 39 replies
    One Universe at a Time ^ | 9/4/15 | Brian Koberlein
    Are We Living In A Black Hole? // / Here’s an idea, what if the universe and everything we see around us is actually inside a black hole?Whenever I’m asked this question, what folks typically have in mind is that the universe began as an infinitely dense point, just like the singularity of a black hole, and because of cosmic expansion there’s a limit to how far we can observe, so maybe that’s like the event horizon. While it’s an interesting idea, things aren’t quite so simple.To begin with, the universe did not begin with an explosion from a...
  • Meltdown-Proof Nuclear Reactors Get a Safety Check in Europe

    09/05/2015 11:07:08 AM PDT · by SeekAndFind · 12 replies
    MIT Technology Review ^ | 09/05/2015 | By Richard Martin
    For years nuclear scientists have talked about a revival of molten salt reactors, which are powered by a liquid fuel rather than solid fuel rods, that will help spark the long-awaited “nuclear renaissance.” Recent developments indicate that this alternative nuclear power technology is finally making progress toward commercialization. A consortium of research institutes and universities working under the aegis of the European Commission, including the Technology University of Delft (TU Delft), in the Netherlands, France’s National Center for Scientific Research, and the Commission’s Joint Research Center, in Brussels, in August embarked on a four-year research program designed to demonstrate the...
  • Particle Collider Spits Out Tiny Drops of Primordial Goo

    09/03/2015 6:10:19 PM PDT · by BenLurkin · 32 replies
    Discovery ^ | Ian O'Neill
    The matter, known as a quark-gluon plasma (or QGP), is predicted to exist when temperatures and densities are so extreme that regular matter cannot exist. Instead, a “perfect liquid” exists for a short time before it cools and condenses into the regular stuff that forms the building blocks of matter. Although physicists have announced the detection of this exotic state of matter before, new results from the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) at the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Brookhaven National Laboratory, in Upton, New York, appear to show the tiniest droplets of quark-gluon plasma appear, in a specific pattern,...
  • ATLAS and CMS experiments shed light on Higgs properties (CERN)

    09/01/2015 10:59:51 PM PDT · by Sir Gawain · 12 replies
    ATLAS and CMS experiments shed light on Higgs properties 01 Sep 2015 Results of the analyses by individual experiments (coloured) and both experiments together (black), showing the improvement in precision resulting from the combination of results. Geneva/Saint Petersburg, 1st September 2015. Three years after the announcement of the discovery of a new particle, the so-called Higgs boson, the ATLAS and CMS Collaborations present for the first time combined measurements of many of its properties, at the third annual Large Hadron Collider Physics Conference (LHCP 2015). By combining their analyses of the data collected in 2011 and 2012, ATLAS and CMS...
  • Quantum computer that 'computes without running' sets efficiency record

    09/01/2015 10:33:43 PM PDT · by LibWhacker · 29 replies
    PhysOrg ^ | 8/31/15 | Lisa Zyga
    (—Due to quantum effects, it's possible to build a quantum computer that computes without running—or as the scientists explain, "the result of a computation may be learned without actually running the computer." So far, however, the efficiency of this process, which is called counterfactual computation (CFC), has had an upper limit of 50%, limiting its practical applications. Now in a new paper, scientists have experimentally demonstrated a slightly different version called a "generalized CFC" that has an efficiency of 85% with the potential to reach 100%. This improvement opens the doors to realizing a much greater variety of applications, such...
  • Scientists Confirm the Existence of Cosmic Neutrinos

    08/22/2015 5:57:13 PM PDT · by 2ndDivisionVet · 13 replies
    Gizmodo ^ | August 20, 2015 | Maddie Stone and The Guardian
    A team of Antarctic scientists has just verified the existence of cosmic neutrinos — tiny, energetic particles that might hail from far reaches of the Milky Way and beyond. And these ghostly little flecks of matter could hold the key to some of the deepest mysteries of the cosmos. High-energy cosmic neutrinos are thought to be produced by some of the universe’s most violent agents, including black holes, supernovae, and the energetic cores of galaxies. Unchanged as they zip across space and time, these particles may represent something of an intergalactic breadcrumb trail, pointing us in the direction of any...
  • Magnetic Wormhole Created in Lab

    08/22/2015 12:14:30 AM PDT · by 2ndDivisionVet · 27 replies
    Scientific American ^ | August 21, 2015 | Tia Ghose and LiveScience
    Device acts like a wormhole, as if the magnetic field was transferred through an “extra special dimension”Ripped from the pages of a sci-fi novel, physicists have crafted a wormhole that tunnels a magnetic field through space. "This device can transmit the magnetic field from one point in space to another point, through a path that is magnetically invisible," said study co-author Jordi Prat-Camps, a doctoral candidate in physics at the Autonomous University of Barcelona in Spain. "From a magnetic point of view, this device acts like a wormhole, as if the magnetic field was transferred through an extra special dimension."...
  • The Case for Complex Dark Matter

    08/20/2015 7:50:41 PM PDT · by LibWhacker · 30 replies
    Quanta Magazine ^ | 8/20/15 | Liz Kruesi
    The Case for Complex Dark Matter The physicist James Bullock explains how a complicated “dark sector” of interacting particles may illuminate some puzzling observations of the centers of galaxies. Jonathan Alcorn for Quanta MagazineJames Bullock, a physicist at the University of California, Irvine, imagines what the universe would look like if dark matter interacted with itself. By: Liz KruesiAugust 20, 2015 Dark matter — the unseen 80 percent of the universe’s mass — doesn’t emit, absorb or reflect light. Astronomers know it exists only because it interacts with our slice of the ordinary universe through gravity. Hence the hunt for this...
  • Gnostic Physicists: The World is a Computer Simulation in Minds of Robotic Overlords

    08/19/2015 11:05:23 AM PDT · by spirited irish · 49 replies
    Renew America ^ | August 18, 2015 | Linda Kimball
    Is the world we live in a computer simulation in the minds of Robotic Overlords who are using humanity as playthings? This is the "scientific" theory put forward by a number of physicists and Oxford University philosopher Nick Bostrom.(1) Bostrom is one of the founders of the World Transhumanist Association. Transhumanism is a blend of revitalized Gnostic pagan and Eastern occult pantheist elements and magic science undergirded by a strong Darwinian impulse. Thus it subscribes to the modern myth of a coming Superman that is actually a counterfeit of the Christian vision of a new and perfected human race spiritually...
  • Mystery Deepens: Matter and Antimatter Are Mirror Images

    08/14/2015 9:14:59 AM PDT · by BenLurkin · 37 replies
    Live Science ^ | Charles Q. Choi
    Matter and antimatter appear to be perfect mirror images of each other as far as anyone can see, scientists have discovered with unprecedented precision, foiling hope of solving the mystery as to why there is far more matter than antimatter in the universe. Everyday matter is made up of protons, neutrons or electrons. These particles have counterparts known as antiparticles — antiprotons, antineutrons and positrons, respectively — that have the same mass but the opposite electric charge. (Although neutrons and antineutrons are both neutrally charged, they are each made of particles known as quarks that possess fractional electrical charges, and...
  • Study Shows That Universe Is Dying [We Are All Doomed]

    08/11/2015 2:00:06 PM PDT · by Purdue77 · 69 replies
    LA Times ^ | 8/10/2015 | Amina Khan
    The Los Angeles Times (8/10, Khan) reports that an international study led by Simon Driver of the University of Western Australia and presented at the International Astronomical Union meeting on Monday found that the amount of light the 200,000 galaxies are outputting is half of what they did two billion years ago, meaning “the universe is dying.” The article notes that seven telescopes were used in the study, including NASA’s Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer spacecraft. Driver said that the conclusion is consistent with each of the three indicators measured. However, the universe should continue to exist “far into the foreseeable...
  • New design could finally help to bring fusion power closer to reality

    08/10/2015 1:53:25 PM PDT · by Red Badger · 17 replies ^ | August 10, 2015 | by David L. Chandler & Provided by: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
    A cutaway view of the proposed ARC reactor. Thanks to powerful new magnet technology, the much smaller, less-expensive ARC reactor would deliver the same power output as a much larger reactor. Credit: the MIT ARC team ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- It's an old joke that many fusion scientists have grown tired of hearing: Practical nuclear fusion power plants are just 30 years away—and always will be. But now, finally, the joke may no longer be true: Advances in magnet technology have enabled researchers at MIT to propose a new design for a practical compact tokamak fusion reactor—and it's one that might be realized...
  • Fermilab is 'ecstatic' over first NOvA neutrino results

    08/07/2015 11:20:05 AM PDT · by BenLurkin · 9 replies ^ | August 7, 2015 | Joseph McClain |
    Neutrinos are unimaginably numerous, but their infrequent interaction with matter make the particles a challenge to study. Neutrinos exist in three “flavors:” muon, electron and tau. The NOvA experiment aims to investigate one of the peculiar properties of neutrinos — their tendency to change flavors, or oscillate. NOvA is what the physicists call a long-baseline experiment, as the neutrinos travel more than 500 miles underground. “We make a beam of muon-type neutrinos at Fermilab, and then we detect those at Ash River, Minnesota,” Vahle explained. “We are looking for muon-type neutrinos to change into electron-type neutrinos. We also look for...
  • Is our universe FAKE? Physicists claim we could all be the playthings of an advanced civilisation

    08/04/2015 6:57:14 PM PDT · by dennisw · 116 replies
    dailymail ^ | 4 August 2015 | Ellie Zolfagharifard
    Physicists say there is a possibility that our world is merely a simulation They claim there may be evidence of this if only we know where to look For instance, some of the laws of physics may not quite add up, they say The year is 2050 and super-intelligent robots have taken over the planet. Except you have no idea, because you're living in a computer simulation, depicting what life was like in 2015. Everything you see and touch right now has been created by robotic overlords who are using humanity as playthings in their virtual game. That's the radical...
  • The First White Laser

    07/29/2015 3:54:30 PM PDT · by Talisker · 49 replies
    IEEE Spectrum ^ | 27 Jul 2015 | Charles Q. Choi
    Scientists and engineers at Arizona State University, in Tempe, have created the first lasers that can shine light over the full spectrum of visible colors. The device’s inventors suggest the laser could find use in video displays, solid-state lighting, and a laser-based version of Wi-Fi. Although previous research has created red, blue, green and other lasers, each of these lasers usually only emitted one color of light. Creating a monolithic structure capable of emitting red, green, and blue all at once has proven difficult because it requires combining very different semiconductors. Growing such mismatched crystals right next to each other...
  • Scientists Confirm 'Impossible' EM Drive Propulsion

    07/27/2015 4:32:51 PM PDT · by 2ndDivisionVet · 53 replies
    Hacked Magazine ^ | July 27, 2015 | Giulio Prisco
    Later today, July 27, German scientists will present new experimental results on the controversial, "impossible" EM Drive, at the American Institute for Aeronautics and Astronautics' Propulsion and Energy Forum in Orlando. The presentation is titled "Direct Thrust Measurements of an EmDrive and Evaluation of Possible Side-Effects." Presenter Martin Tajmar is a professor and chair for Space Systems at the Dresden University of Technology, interested in space propulsion systems and breakthrough propulsion physics. A Revolutionary Development for Space Travel The EM Drive (Electro Magnetic Drive) uses electromagnetic microwave cavities to directly convert electrical energy to thrust without the need to expel...
  • Scientists have discovered a new state of matter, called 'Jahn-Teller metals'

    07/25/2015 6:00:39 PM PDT · by 2ndDivisionVet · 26 replies
    Science Alert ^ | May 12, 2015 | Bec Crew
    And it could be the key to understanding one of the biggest mysteries in physics today - high-temperature superconductors.An international team of scientists has announced the discovery of a new state of matter in a material that appears to be an insulator, superconductor, metal and magnet all rolled into one, saying that it could lead to the development of more effective high-temperature superconductors. Why is this so exciting? Well, if these properties are confirmed, this new state of matter will allow scientists to better understand why some materials have the potential to achieve superconductivity at a relativity high critical temperature...
  • The 2011 Cold Fusion/Lattice-Assisted Nuclear Reactions Colloquium at MIT — Part 2

    09/27/2011 11:42:18 PM PDT · by Kevmo · 11 replies
    The 2011 Cold Fusion/Lattice-Assisted Nuclear Reactions Colloquium at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology — Part 2 (Report prepared by staff of JET Energy, Inc.) INFINITE ENERGY • ISSUE 99 • SEPTEMBER/OCTOBER 2011 The 2011 Lattice-Assisted Nuclear Reactions/Cold Fusion Colloquium at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (Cambridge, Massachusetts) was held on Saturday, June 11 and Sunday, June 12, 2011. The meeting focused on the science and technology of cold fusion (CF) and lattice-assisted nuclear reactions (LANR). In 1989, the initial failures of cold fusion resulted from bad experiments, bad paradigm, materials issues, poor loadings and a poor appreciation of the...
  • MIT and Cold Fusion: A Special Report

    09/10/2011 8:55:10 AM PDT · by Kevmo · 25 replies
    Infinite Energy Magazine, Issue 24 ^ | 2003 | Eugene F. Mallove, Sc.D.
    MIT and Cold Fusion: A Special Report Compiled and written by Eugene F. Mallove, Sc.D. MIT Class of 1969, S.B. Aero/Astro Eng., 1970 S.M. Aero/Astro Eng. Editor-in-Chief, Infinite Energy Magazine President, New Energy Foundation, Inc. Introduction When on March 23, 1989 Drs. Martin Fleischmann and Stanley Pons announced that they had measured nuclear-scale excess energy from a palladium-heavy water electrochemical cell, and that they had also detected some preliminary evidence of nuclear signatures from their exotic energy-producing reactions, the world was in awe. Their famous afternoon press conference at the University of Utah, coming less than twelve hours before the...
  • One-atom-thick materials promise a 'new industrial revolution'

    07/24/2005 10:53:00 PM PDT · by LibWhacker · 20 replies · 1,584+ views
    Scientists at The University of Manchester have discovered a new class of materials which have previously only existed in science fiction films and books. A team of British and Russian scientists led by Professor Geim have discovered a whole family of previously unknown materials, which are one atom thick and exhibit properties which scientists had never thought possible. Not only are they ultra-thin, but depending on circumstances they can also be ultra-strong, highly-insulating or highly-conductive, offering a wide range of unique properties for space-age engineers and designers to choose from. Professor Andre Geim said: "This discovery opens up practically infinite...
  • Scientists have finally discovered massless particles, and they could revolutionise electronics

    07/25/2015 5:31:56 PM PDT · by 2ndDivisionVet · 75 replies
    Science Alert ^ | July 23, 2015 | Fiona MacDonald
    They can theoretically carry charge 1,000 times faster than ordinary electrons. After 85 years of searching, researchers have confirmed the existence of a massless particle called the Weyl fermion for the first time ever. With the unique ability to behave as both matter and anti-matter inside a crystal, this strange particle can create electrons that have no mass. The discovery is huge, not just because we finally have proof that these elusive particles exist, but because it paves the way for far more efficient electronics, and new types of quantum computing. "Weyl fermions could be used to solve the traffic...
  • Young scientist discovers magnetic material unnecessary to create spin current

    07/24/2015 10:52:34 AM PDT · by Red Badger · 18 replies ^ | July 24, 2015 | by Carla Reiter & Provided by: Argonne National Laboratory
    Typically when referring to electrical current, an image of electrons moving through a metallic wire is conjured. Using the spin Seebeck effect (SSE), it is possible to create a current of pure spin (a quantum property of electrons related to its magnetic moment) in magnetic insulators. However, this work demonstrates that the SSE is not limited to magnetic insulators but also occurs in a class of materials known as paramagnets. Since magnetic moments within paramagnets do not interact with each other like in conventional ferromagnets, and thus do not hold their magnetization when an external magnetic field is removed, this...
  • Researchers identify zebra-like stripes of plasma in a patch of space

    07/14/2015 10:12:34 AM PDT · by Red Badger · 29 replies
    PHYS.ORG ^ | 07-14-2015 | by Jennifer Chu & Provided by: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
    European Space Agency Cluster II satellites observe equatorial noise waves inside the Earth's magnetosphere. Credit: ESA/Yuri Shprits ********************************************************************************************************************************************************** Since the early 1970s, orbiting satellites have picked up on noise-like plasma waves very close to the Earth's magnetic field equator. This "equatorial noise," as it was then named, seemed to be an unruly mess of electric and magnetic fields oscillating at different frequencies in the form of plasma waves. Now a team from MIT, the University of California at Los Angeles, the University of Sheffield, and elsewhere has detected a remarkably orderly pattern amid the noise. In a region of space...
  • More precise estimate of Avogadro's number to help redefine kilogram

    07/14/2015 12:08:59 PM PDT · by Red Badger · 31 replies
    Phys.Org ^ | July 14, 2015 | Provided by: American Institute of Physics
    The number of atoms in this silicon sphere is known given or taken 20 atoms each 10^9. The atom distance was measured by the X-ray interferometer on the left. Credit: Enrico Massa and Carlo Sasso ================================================================================================ An ongoing international effort to redefine the kilogram by 2018 has been helped by recent efforts from a team researchers from Italy, Japan and Germany to correlate two of the most precise measurements of Avogadro's number and obtain one averaged value that can be used for future calculations. Their results are published this week in the Journal of Physical and Chemical Reference Data. Avogadro's...
  • Forsaken pentaquark particle spotted at CERN

    07/14/2015 1:55:01 PM PDT · by LibWhacker · 11 replies
    Nature ^ | 7/14/15 | Matthew Chalmers
    An exotic particle made up of five quarks has been discovered a decade after experiments seemed to rule out its existence. The short-lived ‘pentaquark’ was spotted by researchers analysing data on the decay of unstable particles in the LHCb experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN, Europe’s particle-physics laboratory near Geneva. The finding, says LHCb spokesperson Guy Wilkinson, opens a new era in physicists’ understanding of the strong nuclear force that holds atomic nuclei together. “The pentaquark is not just any new particle — it represents a way to aggregate quarks, namely the fundamental constituents of ordinary protons...
  • What does a pentaquark mean for you?

    07/18/2015 3:40:12 PM PDT · by BenLurkin · 37 replies ^ | Jon Butterworth
    Because perturbation theory doesn’t work, it is very hard to predict the consequences of the strong force. One thing we do know is that the binding energy of the strong force which holds the quarks together inside them is responsible for almost all of the mass of protons and neutrons, and hence almost all of the mass of you. Calculations on supercomputers (such as the DiRAC facility in the UK) use “lattice” methods to make calculations when perturbation theory doesn’t work. These involve approximating the space-time continuum by a lattice of discrete points and events; they are now able to...
  • Here's what would happen to you if you encountered a small black hole

    07/18/2015 1:39:54 AM PDT · by Swordmaker · 46 replies
    C-Net ^ | July 16, 2015 12:26 PM PDT | by Anthony Domanico
    Video—What if there was a black hole in your pocket? Could you survive being close to a black hole the size of a nickel? Seriously though, how grisly would your death be and what would such a phenomena mean for the future of the Earth? A new video from the folks at Kurz Gesagt posted July 16 tries to answer those questions with some helpful animations. The video explores a few different assumptions, as the impact of the black hole would depend on whether its size was based on the mass or width of a nickel. Either way, if a...
  • CERN’s at it Again: New Subatomic Particle Discovered at the LHC

    07/14/2015 6:01:45 PM PDT · by lbryce · 18 replies
    From Quarks to Quasars ^ | July 14, 2015 | Chace Mclees
    Ten days after the three-year anniversary of CERN’s discovery of the Higgs boson, researchers on the LHCb experiment at CERN have announced that another discovery has been made: They have found a new exotic class of particles. The team has submitted their findings to the journal Physical Review Letters for reviewal. These particles are called “pentaquarks,” and they offer some interesting insights regarding the nature of, well, nature. Typically, we find that composite particles consist of three quarks. The proton, for example, is composed of three valence quarks: Two up quarks and a down quark. But in 1964, American physicist...
  • Small cosmic 'fish' points to big haul for SKA Pathfinder

    07/06/2015 8:58:49 AM PDT · by Red Badger · 20 replies
    Phys.Org ^ | 07-06-2015 | Provided by Royal Astronomical Society
    CSIRO's Australian SKA Pathfinder telescope. Credit: CSIRO A wisp of cosmic radio waves, emitted before our solar system was born, shows that a new radio telescope will be able to detect galaxies other telescopes can't. The work, led by Dr James Allison of the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) in Australia, was announced today (6 July) at the National Astronomy Meeting in Llandudno, north Wales. The finding was one of the first made with CSIRO's Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder (ASKAP), a new radio telescope 300 kilometres inland from the Western Australian town of Geraldton. The discovery...
  • Not with a bang, but with a Big Rip: how the world will end

    07/02/2015 10:42:08 AM PDT · by Citizen Zed · 48 replies
    Guardian ^ | 7-2-2015 | Hannah Devlin
    Everything we know, and everything else besides, burst into existence at the Big Bang. Now scientists have concluded that we could be heading for an equally dramatic cosmic finale: the Big Rip. A new theoretical model suggests that as the universe expands, everything, from galaxies, planets and atomic particles to space-time itself, will eventually be torn apart before vanishing from view. There’s no need for immediate alarm, however: the extreme sequence of events is predicted for around 22 billion years from now.
  • Rice University installs powerful electron microscope with sub-nanoscale resolution

    07/01/2015 5:12:17 AM PDT · by RoosterRedux · 16 replies
    Rice University has installed the Titan Themis scanning/transmission electron microscope, which will enable scientists from Rice as well as academic and industrial partners to view and analyze materials at angstrom-scale (one-tenth of a nanometer) resolution, about the size of a single hydrogen atom. Images will be captured with a variety of detectors, including X-ray, optical and multiple electron detectors and a 4K-resolution camera (will create 4K ultra HD images). The microscope gives researchers the ability to create three-dimensional structural reconstructions and carry out electric field mapping of subnanoscale materials. Electron microscopes use beams of electrons rather than light to illuminate...
  • Why Time Will Stop For a Leap Second

    06/28/2015 11:19:44 AM PDT · by Lonesome in Massachussets · 16 replies
    National Geographic ^ | June 26, 2015 UTC | Jane J. Lee
    Just as leap years keep our calendars lined up with Earth's revolution around the sun, leap seconds adjust for Earth's rotation. This kind of fine-tuning wasn't much of an issue before the invention of atomic clocks, whose ticks are defined by the cycling of atoms. Cesium-based clocks, one kind of atomic clock, measure the passage of time much more precisely than those based on the rotation of our planet, so adding a leap second allows astronomical time to catch up to atomic time. Most of us won't notice the addition, which happens at 23:59:59 coordinated universal time (UTC), or 7:59...
  • Einstein vs Bergson, Science vs Philosophy and the Meaning of Time

    06/28/2015 3:47:07 AM PDT · by lbryce · 34 replies ^ | June 24, 2015 | Joe Gelonsi
    When Henri met Albert the stars didn’t quite align; nor did their clocks. Jimena Canales, historian of science, tells Joe Gelonesi about her discovery of an explosive 20th century debate that changed our view of time and destroyed a reputation.Physicists and philosophers have a curious relationship. They both need each other for the cosmic dance, but one partner sometimes refuses to join in. Star physicist Stephen Hawking even declared the end of philosophy in 2011. In some ways the pronouncement was to be expected; physics triumphalism dictates that at some point philosophy will exhaust itself and be unable to solve...
  • Cosmic Inflation’s Five Great Predictions

    06/22/2015 1:20:00 PM PDT · by LibWhacker · 15 replies ^ | 6/17/15 | Ethan Siegel
    Cosmic Inflation’s Five Great Predictions A “speculative” theory no more; it’s had four of them confirmed. Image credit: Max Tegmark / Scientific American, by Alfred T. Kamajian. “Scientific ideas should be simple, explanatory, predictive. The inflationary multiverse as currently understood appears to have none of those properties.” -Paul Steinhardt, 2014 When we think about the Big Bang, we typically think about the origin of the Universe: the hot, dense, expanding state where everything came from. By noticing and measuring the fact that the Universe is expanding today — that the galaxies are getting farther apart from one another in all directions — we...
  • Einstein saves the quantum cat

    06/19/2015 7:37:01 AM PDT · by Red Badger · 30 replies
    Phys.Org ^ | 063-16-2015 | Provided by University of Vienna
    Einstein's theory of time and space will celebrate its 100th anniversary this year. Even today it captures the imagination of scientists. In an international collaboration, researchers from the universities of Vienna, Harvard and Queensland have now discovered that this world-famous theory can explain yet another puzzling phenomenon: the transition from quantum behavior to our classical, everyday world. Their results are published in the journal Nature Physics. In 1915 Albert Einstein formulated the theory of general relativity which fundamentally changed our understanding of gravity. He explained gravity as the manifestation of the curvature of space and time. Einstein's theory predicts that...
  • What are Gravitational Waves?

    06/08/2015 12:09:44 PM PDT · by BenLurkin · 33 replies ^ | on June 8, 2015 | Fraser Cain
    The idea is when mass moves or changes, Einstein said that there should be gravitational ripples produced in spacetime. Our problem is that the size and effect of gravitational waves is incredibly small. We need to find the most catastrophic events in the Universe if we hope even detect them. A supernova detonating asymmetrically, or two supermassive black holes orbiting each other, or a Galactus family reunion; are the magnitude of events we’re looking for. The most serious attempt to detect gravitational waves is the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory, or LIGO detector, in the United States. It has two facilities...
  • Mathematics: The Beautiful Language of the Universe

    06/06/2015 7:25:14 PM PDT · by BenLurkin · 68 replies ^ | Joshua Carroll
    Sir Isaac Newton...came to the realization that the math that had been used thus far to describe physical motion of massive bodies, simply would not suffice... Newton developed the Calculus in which this way of approaching moving bodies, he was able to accurately model the motion of not only Halley’s comet, but also any other heavenly body that moved across the sky. ... Newton recognized that Kepler’s mathematical equation for planetary motion, Kepler’s 3rd Law ( P2=A3 ), was purely based on empirical observation, and was only meant to measure what we observed within our solar system. Newton’s mathematical brilliance...
  • Experiment confirms quantum theory weirdness

    05/28/2015 6:02:31 PM PDT · by LibWhacker · 50 replies
    PhysOrg ^ | 5/27/15
    The bizarre nature of reality as laid out by quantum theory has survived another test, with scientists performing a famous experiment and proving that reality does not exist until it is measured. Physicists at The Australian National University (ANU) have conducted John Wheeler's delayed-choice thought experiment, which involves a moving object that is given the choice to act like a particle or a wave. Wheeler's experiment then asks - at which point does the object decide? Common sense says the object is either wave-like or particle-like, independent of how we measure it. But quantum physics predicts that whether you observe...
  • ‘Beautiful Mind’ Mathematician John Nash Replaced Einstein’s Theory Of Relativity Days Before Death

    06/01/2015 12:19:56 AM PDT · by 2ndDivisionVet · 104 replies
    The Inquisitr News ^ | May 30, 2015 | Tara West
    John Forbes Nash Jr. was a mathematical genius who had his life chronicled in the movie A Beautiful Mind. One of Nash’s colleagues says that just days before he died in a New York taxi cab accident, he had discussed his latest and possibly most brilliant discovery to date. Mathematician Cédric Villan says that Nash told him that he had replaced Einstein’s Theory of Relativity and that the new equation would further explain quantum gravity. The Daily Mail reports that on May 20, 2015, just three days before the tax cab accident that would take his life, Nash spoke to...
  • Feature: The new shape of fusion

    05/24/2015 10:15:25 PM PDT · by 2ndDivisionVet · 15 replies
    Science ^ | May 21, 2015 | Daniel Clery
    ITER, the international fusion reactor being built in France, will stand 10 stories tall, weigh three times as much as the Eiffel Tower, and cost its seven international partners $18 billion or more. The result of decades of planning, ITER will not produce fusion energy until 2027 at the earliest. And it will be decades before an ITER-like plant pumps electricity into the grid. Surely there is a quicker and cheaper route to fusion energy. Fusion enthusiasts have a slew of schemes for achieving the starlike temperatures or crushing pressures needed to get hydrogen nuclei to come together in an...
  • Circumnavigate Time,Space, Quantum Mechanics, Einsteins Theories With Game Based on "Interstellar"

    05/22/2015 6:49:46 AM PDT · by lbryce · 5 replies
    Interstellar Movie Game ^ | May 22, 2015 | Chrome Experiments
    Interstellar:Can You Do It?Circumnavigate the Many dimensions of Time, Space,Having Left Twenty Years Ago, Be Home For Dinner Tonight?
  • Two giant black holes might crash into each other in 21 years

    05/28/2015 6:23:02 PM PDT · by LibWhacker · 57 replies ^ | 5/23/15 | Ryan Whitwam
    In the center of most galaxies (ours included) there is a supermassive black hole that holds everything together. However, one galaxy 10.5 billion light years away looks like it might have two black holes, and just like in Highlander, there can be only one. Scientists believe the pair are going to crash into each other in just 21 years. This could provide an unprecedented opportunity to observe the mind-boggling physics of such an event. The galaxy in question doesn’t have a snazzy name — it’s known only as PSO J334.2028+01.4075. It’s what is known as a quasar, or an “active...
  • New, expanding magnet turns around 175-year-old principle of magnetism

    05/28/2015 9:06:45 PM PDT · by 2ndDivisionVet · 9 replies
    The International Business Times UK ^ | May 23, 2015 | Jayalakshmi K
    A new class of magnets discovered that swell in volume and generate little heat when placed in a magnetic field could be used to harvest or convert energy efficiently. Applications range from sensors and actuators for automobiles to biomedical devices, besides defence applications. Discovered by scientists at the University of Maryland (UMD) and Temple University, the new magnets made from abundant metal alloys could replace the expensive, rare-earth magnets which exhibit poor mechanical properties. Maryland professor of materials science and engineering Manfred Wuttig, and Harsh Deep Chopra, professor and chair of mechanical engineering at Temple heated certain iron-based alloys (iron-gallium,...
  • Snapshot of the Oldest Light in the Universe --"Reveals Clues to Its Origin"

    05/29/2015 3:11:48 PM PDT · by lbryce · 24 replies
    Daily Galaxy ^ | May 29, 2015 | Staff
    Astrophysicists have developed a new method for calculating the effect of Rayleigh scattering on photons, potentially allowing researchers to better understand the formation of the Universe. The CMB is the oldest light in the universe, which originated when electrons combined with protons to form the first atoms. These primordial atoms were also the first to Rayleigh scatter light. UBC theoretical cosmology graduate student Elham Alipour, UBC physicist Kris Sigurdson and Ohio State University astrophysicist Christopher Hirata probed the effect of Rayleigh scattering -- the process that makes the sky appear blue when the Sun's photons are scattered by molecules...
  • Is the Big Bang Cycling Through Hidden Time?

    05/29/2015 2:32:28 PM PDT · by lbryce · 99 replies
    Science ^ | Edward Belbruno
    Who hasn't looked up at the star-studded night sky and wondered, "Where did everything come from?" There are many ways to address this question. It was Edwin Hubble whose telescopic observations of galaxies in 1929 led to the major discovery that the universe is expanding, and that the rate of expansion is proportional to how far the galaxies are from one another. The farther apart they are, they faster they are going. This result implies there was a time about 13.75 billion years ago when the universe began in an event we now call the Big Bang. The evidence suggests...