Skip to comments.Catholic Causus: Daily Mass Readings 3-28-2021, Palm Sunday
Posted on 03/28/2021 5:22:19 AM PDT by annalex
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|English: Douay-Rheims||Latin: Vulgata Clementina||Greek NT: Byzantine/Majority Text (2000)|
|1.||And when they were drawing near to Jerusalem and to Bethania at the mount of Olives, he sendeth two of his disciples,||et cum adpropinquarent Hierosolymae et Bethaniae ad montem Olivarum mittit duos ex discipulis suis||και οτε εγγιζουσιν εις ιερουσαλημ εις βηθφαγη και βηθανιαν προς το ορος των ελαιων αποστελλει δυο των μαθητων αυτου|
|2.||And saith to them: Go into the village that is over against you, and immediately at your coming in thither, you shall find a colt tied, upon which no man yet hath sat: loose him, and bring him.||et ait illis ite in castellum quod est contra vos et statim introeuntes illuc invenietis pullum ligatum super quem nemo adhuc hominum sedit solvite illum et adducite||και λεγει αυτοις υπαγετε εις την κωμην την κατεναντι υμων και ευθεως εισπορευομενοι εις αυτην ευρησετε πωλον δεδεμενον εφ ον ουδεις ανθρωπων κεκαθικεν λυσαντες αυτον αγαγετε|
|3.||And if any man shall say to you, What are you doing? say ye that the Lord hath need of him: and immediately he will let him come hither.||et si quis vobis dixerit quid facitis dicite quia Domino necessarius est et continuo illum dimittet huc||και εαν τις υμιν ειπη τι ποιειτε τουτο ειπατε οτι ο κυριος αυτου χρειαν εχει και ευθεως αυτον αποστελει ωδε|
|4.||And going their way, they found the colt tied before the gate without, in the meeting of two ways: and they loose him.||et abeuntes invenerunt pullum ligatum ante ianuam foris in bivio et solvunt eum||απηλθον δε και ευρον τον πωλον δεδεμενον προς την θυραν εξω επι του αμφοδου και λυουσιν αυτον|
|5.||And some of them that stood there, said to them: What do you loosing the colt?||et quidam de illic stantibus dicebant illis quid facitis solventes pullum||και τινες των εκει εστηκοτων ελεγον αυτοις τι ποιειτε λυοντες τον πωλον|
|6.||Who said to them as Jesus had commanded them; and they let him go with them.||qui dixerunt eis sicut praeceperat illis Iesus et dimiserunt eis||οι δε ειπον αυτοις καθως ενετειλατο ο ιησους και αφηκαν αυτους|
|7.||And they brought the colt to Jesus; and they lay their garments on him, and he sat upon him.||et duxerunt pullum ad Iesum et inponunt illi vestimenta sua et sedit super eo||και ηγαγον τον πωλον προς τον ιησουν και επεβαλον αυτω τα ιματια αυτων και εκαθισεν επ αυτω|
|8.||And many spread their garments in the way: and others cut down boughs from the trees, and strewed them in the way.||multi autem vestimenta sua straverunt in via alii autem frondes caedebant de arboribus et sternebant in via||πολλοι δε τα ιματια αυτων εστρωσαν εις την οδον αλλοι δε στοιβαδας εκοπτον εκ των δενδρων και εστρωννυον εις την οδον|
|9.||And they that went before and they that followed, cried, saying: Hosanna, blessed is he that cometh in the name of the Lord.||et qui praeibant et qui sequebantur clamabant dicentes osanna benedictus qui venit in nomine Domini||και οι προαγοντες και οι ακολουθουντες εκραζον λεγοντες ωσαννα ευλογημενος ο ερχομενος εν ονοματι κυριου|
|10.||Blessed be the kingdom of our father David that cometh: Hosanna in the highest.||benedictum quod venit regnum patris nostri David osanna in excelsis||ευλογημενη η ερχομενη βασιλεια εν ονοματι κυριου του πατρος ημων δαβιδ ωσαννα εν τοις υψιστοις|
|English: Douay-Rheims||Latin: Vulgata Clementina||Greek NT: Byzantine/Majority Text (2000)|
|12.||And on the next day, a great multitude that was to come to the festival day, when they had heard that Jesus was coming to Jerusalem,||in crastinum autem turba multa quae venerat ad diem festum cum audissent quia venit Iesus Hierosolyma||τη επαυριον οχλος πολυς ο ελθων εις την εορτην ακουσαντες οτι ερχεται ο ιησους εις ιεροσολυμα|
|13.||Took branches of palm trees, and went forth to meet him, and cried: Hosanna, blessed is he that cometh in the name of the Lord, the king of Israel.||acceperunt ramos palmarum et processerunt obviam ei et clamabant osanna benedictus qui venit in nomine Domini rex Israhel||ελαβον τα βαια των φοινικων και εξηλθον εις υπαντησιν αυτω και εκραζον ωσαννα ευλογημενος ο ερχομενος εν ονοματι κυριου ο βασιλευς του ισραηλ|
|14.||And Jesus found a young ass, and sat upon it, as it is written:||et invenit Iesus asellum et sedit super eum sicut scriptum est||ευρων δε ο ιησους οναριον εκαθισεν επ αυτο καθως εστιν γεγραμμενον|
|15.||Fear not, daughter of Sion: behold, thy king cometh, sitting on an ass's colt.||noli timere filia Sion ecce rex tuus venit sedens super pullum asinae||μη φοβου θυγατερ σιων ιδου ο βασιλευς σου ερχεται καθημενος επι πωλον ονου|
|16.||These things his disciples did not know at the first; but when Jesus was glorified, then they remembered that these things were written of him, and that they had done these things to him.||haec non cognoverunt discipuli eius primum sed quando glorificatus est Iesus tunc recordati sunt quia haec erant scripta de eo et haec fecerunt ei||ταυτα δε ουκ εγνωσαν οι μαθηται αυτου το πρωτον αλλ οτε εδοξασθη ο ιησους τοτε εμνησθησαν οτι ταυτα ην επ αυτω γεγραμμενα και ταυτα εποιησαν αυτω|
|English: Douay-Rheims||Latin: Vulgata Clementina||Greek NT: Byzantine/Majority Text (2000)|
|1.||Now the feast of the pasch, and of the Azymes was after two days; and the chief priests and the scribes sought how they might by some wile lay hold on him, and kill him.||erat autem pascha et azyma post biduum et quaerebant summi sacerdotes et scribae quomodo eum dolo tenerent et occiderent||ην δε το πασχα και τα αζυμα μετα δυο ημερας και εζητουν οι αρχιερεις και οι γραμματεις πως αυτον εν δολω κρατησαντες αποκτεινωσιν|
|2.||But they said: Not on the festival day, lest there should be a tumult among the people.||dicebant enim non in die festo ne forte tumultus fieret populi||ελεγον δε μη εν τη εορτη μηποτε θορυβος εσται του λαου|
|3.||And when he was in Bethania, in the house of Simon the leper, and was at meat, there came a woman having an alabaster box of ointment of precious spikenard: and breaking the alabaster box, she poured it out upon his head.||et cum esset Bethaniae in domo Simonis leprosi et recumberet venit mulier habens alabastrum unguenti nardi spicati pretiosi et fracto alabastro effudit super caput eius||και οντος αυτου εν βηθανια εν τη οικια σιμωνος του λεπρου κατακειμενου αυτου ηλθεν γυνη εχουσα αλαβαστρον μυρου ναρδου πιστικης πολυτελους και συντριψασα το αλαβαστρον κατεχεεν αυτου κατα της κεφαλης|
|4.||Now there were some that had indignation within themselves, and said: Why was this waste of the ointment made?||erant autem quidam indigne ferentes intra semet ipsos et dicentes ut quid perditio ista unguenti facta est||ησαν δε τινες αγανακτουντες προς εαυτους και λεγοντες εις τι η απωλεια αυτη του μυρου γεγονεν|
|5.||For this ointment might have been sold for more than three hundred pence, and given to the poor. And they murmured against her.||poterat enim unguentum istud veniri plus quam trecentis denariis et dari pauperibus et fremebant in eam||ηδυνατο γαρ τουτο πραθηναι επανω τριακοσιων δηναριων και δοθηναι τοις πτωχοις και ενεβριμωντο αυτη|
|6.||But Jesus said: Let her alone, why do you molest her? She hath wrought a good work upon me.||Iesus autem dixit sinite eam quid illi molesti estis bonum opus operata est in me||ο δε ιησους ειπεν αφετε αυτην τι αυτη κοπους παρεχετε καλον εργον ειργασατο εις εμε|
|7.||For the poor you have always with you: and whensoever you will, you may do them good: but me you have not always.||semper enim pauperes habetis vobiscum et cum volueritis potestis illis benefacere me autem non semper habetis||παντοτε γαρ τους πτωχους εχετε μεθ εαυτων και οταν θελητε δυνασθε αυτους ευ ποιησαι εμε δε ου παντοτε εχετε|
|8.||She hath done what she could: she is come beforehand to anoint my body for burial.||quod habuit haec fecit praevenit unguere corpus meum in sepulturam||ο ειχεν αυτη εποιησεν προελαβεν μυρισαι μου το σωμα εις τον ενταφιασμον|
|9.||Amen, I say to you, wheresoever this gospel shall be preached in the whole world, that also which she hath done, shall be told for a memorial of her.||amen dico vobis ubicumque praedicatum fuerit evangelium istud in universum mundum et quod fecit haec narrabitur in memoriam eius||αμην λεγω υμιν οπου αν κηρυχθη το ευαγγελιον τουτο εις ολον τον κοσμον και ο εποιησεν αυτη λαληθησεται εις μνημοσυνον αυτης|
|10.||And Judas Iscariot, one of the twelve, went to the chief priests, to betray him to them.||et Iudas Scariotis unus de duodecim abiit ad summos sacerdotes ut proderet eum illis||και ο ιουδας ο ισκαριωτης εις των δωδεκα απηλθεν προς τους αρχιερεις ινα παραδω αυτον αυτοις|
|11.||Who hearing it were glad; and they promised him they would give him money. And he sought how he might conveniently betray him.||qui audientes gavisi sunt et promiserunt ei pecuniam se daturos et quaerebat quomodo illum oportune traderet||οι δε ακουσαντες εχαρησαν και επηγγειλαντο αυτω αργυριον δουναι και εζητει πως ευκαιρως αυτον παραδω|
|12.||Now on the first day of the unleavened bread, when they sacrificed the pasch, the disciples say to him: Whither wilt thou that we go, and prepare for thee to eat the pasch?||et primo die azymorum quando pascha immolabant dicunt ei discipuli quo vis eamus et paremus tibi ut manduces pascha||και τη πρωτη ημερα των αζυμων οτε το πασχα εθυον λεγουσιν αυτω οι μαθηται αυτου που θελεις απελθοντες ετοιμασωμεν ινα φαγης το πασχα|
|13.||And he sendeth two of his disciples, and saith to them: Go ye into the city; and there shall meet you a man carrying a pitcher of water, follow him;||et mittit duos ex discipulis suis et dicit eis ite in civitatem et occurret vobis homo laguenam aquae baiulans sequimini eum||και αποστελλει δυο των μαθητων αυτου και λεγει αυτοις υπαγετε εις την πολιν και απαντησει υμιν ανθρωπος κεραμιον υδατος βασταζων ακολουθησατε αυτω|
|14.||And whithersoever he shall go in, say to the master of the house, The master saith, Where is my refectory, where I may eat the pasch with my disciples?||et quocumque introierit dicite domino domus quia magister dicit ubi est refectio mea ubi pascha cum discipulis meis manducem||και οπου εαν εισελθη ειπατε τω οικοδεσποτη οτι ο διδασκαλος λεγει που εστιν το καταλυμα οπου το πασχα μετα των μαθητων μου φαγω|
|15.||And he will shew you a large dining room furnished; and there prepare ye for us.||et ipse vobis demonstrabit cenaculum grande stratum et illic parate nobis||και αυτος υμιν δειξει ανωγεον μεγα εστρωμενον ετοιμον εκει ετοιμασατε ημιν|
|16.||And his disciples went their way, and came into the city; and they found as he had told them, and they prepared the pasch.||et abierunt discipuli eius et venerunt in civitatem et invenerunt sicut dixerat illis et praeparaverunt pascha||και εξηλθον οι μαθηται αυτου και ηλθον εις την πολιν και ευρον καθως ειπεν αυτοις και ητοιμασαν το πασχα|
|17.||And when evening was come, he cometh with the twelve.||vespere autem facto venit cum duodecim||και οψιας γενομενης ερχεται μετα των δωδεκα|
|18.||And when they were at table and eating, Jesus saith: Amen I say to you, one of you that eateth with me shall betray me.||et discumbentibus eis et manducantibus ait Iesus amen dico vobis quia unus ex vobis me tradet qui manducat mecum||και ανακειμενων αυτων και εσθιοντων ειπεν ο ιησους αμην λεγω υμιν οτι εις εξ υμων παραδωσει με ο εσθιων μετ εμου|
|19.||But they began to be sorrowful, and to say to him one by one: Is it I?||at illi coeperunt contristari et dicere ei singillatim numquid ego||οι δε ηρξαντο λυπεισθαι και λεγειν αυτω εις καθ εις μητι εγω και αλλος μητι εγω|
|20.||Who saith to them: One of the twelve, who dippeth with me his hand in the dish.||qui ait illis unus ex duodecim qui intinguit mecum in catino||ο δε αποκριθεις ειπεν αυτοις εις εκ των δωδεκα ο εμβαπτομενος μετ εμου εις το τρυβλιον|
|21.||And the Son of man indeed goeth, as it is written of him: but woe to that man by whom the Son of man shall be betrayed. It were better for him, if that man had not been born.||et Filius quidem hominis vadit sicut scriptum est de eo vae autem homini illi per quem Filius hominis traditur bonum ei si non esset natus homo ille||ο μεν υιος του ανθρωπου υπαγει καθως γεγραπται περι αυτου ουαι δε τω ανθρωπω εκεινω δι ου ο υιος του ανθρωπου παραδιδοται καλον ην αυτω ει ουκ εγεννηθη ο ανθρωπος εκεινος|
|22.||And whilst they were eating, Jesus took bread; and blessing, broke, and gave to them, and said: Take ye. This is my body.||et manducantibus illis accepit Iesus panem et benedicens fregit et dedit eis et ait sumite hoc est corpus meum||και εσθιοντων αυτων λαβων ο ιησους αρτον ευλογησας εκλασεν και εδωκεν αυτοις και ειπεν λαβετε φαγετε τουτο εστιν το σωμα μου|
|23.||And having taken the chalice, giving thanks, he gave it to them. And they all drank of it.||et accepto calice gratias agens dedit eis et biberunt ex illo omnes||και λαβων το ποτηριον ευχαριστησας εδωκεν αυτοις και επιον εξ αυτου παντες|
|24.||And he said to them: This is my blood of the new testament, which shall be shed for many.||et ait illis hic est sanguis meus novi testamenti qui pro multis effunditur||και ειπεν αυτοις τουτο εστιν το αιμα μου το της καινης διαθηκης το περι πολλων εκχυνομενον|
|25.||Amen I say to you, that I will drink no more of the fruit of the vine, until that day when I shall drink it new in the kingdom of God.||amen dico vobis quod iam non bibam de genimine vitis usque in diem illum cum illud bibam novum in regno Dei||αμην λεγω υμιν οτι ουκετι ου μη πιω εκ του γεννηματος της αμπελου εως της ημερας εκεινης οταν αυτο πινω καινον εν τη βασιλεια του θεου|
|26.||And when they had said an hymn, they went forth to the mount of Olives.||et hymno dicto exierunt in montem Olivarum||και υμνησαντες εξηλθον εις το ορος των ελαιων|
|27.||And Jesus saith to them: You will all be scandalized in my regard this night; for it is written, I will strike the shepherd, and the sheep shall be dispersed.||et ait eis Iesus omnes scandalizabimini in nocte ista quia scriptum est percutiam pastorem et dispergentur oves||και λεγει αυτοις ο ιησους οτι παντες σκανδαλισθησεσθε εν εμοι εν τη νυκτι ταυτη οτι γεγραπται παταξω τον ποιμενα και διασκορπισθησεται τα προβατα|
|28.||But after I shall be risen again, I will go before you into Galilee.||sed posteaquam resurrexero praecedam vos in Galilaeam||αλλα μετα το εγερθηναι με προαξω υμας εις την γαλιλαιαν|
|29.||But Peter saith to him: Although all shall be scandalized in thee, yet not I.||Petrus autem ait ei et si omnes scandalizati fuerint sed non ego||ο δε πετρος εφη αυτω και ει παντες σκανδαλισθησονται αλλ ουκ εγω|
|30.||And Jesus saith to him: Amen I say to thee, today, even in this night, before the cock crow twice, thou shall deny me thrice.||et ait illi Iesus amen dico tibi quia tu hodie in nocte hac priusquam bis gallus vocem dederit ter me es negaturus||και λεγει αυτω ο ιησους αμην λεγω σοι οτι σημερον εν τη νυκτι ταυτη πριν η δις αλεκτορα φωνησαι τρις απαρνηση με|
|31.||But he spoke the more vehemently: Although I should die together with thee, I will not deny thee. And in like manner also said they all.||at ille amplius loquebatur et si oportuerit me simul conmori tibi non te negabo similiter autem et omnes dicebant||ο δε εκ περισσου ελεγεν μαλλον εαν με δεη συναποθανειν σοι ου μη σε απαρνησομαι ωσαυτως δε και παντες ελεγον|
|32.||And they came to a farm called Gethsemani. And he saith to his disciples: Sit you here, while I pray.||et veniunt in praedium cui nomen Gethsemani et ait discipulis suis sedete hic donec orem||και ερχονται εις χωριον ου το ονομα γεθσημανη και λεγει τοις μαθηταις αυτου καθισατε ωδε εως προσευξωμαι|
|33.||And he taketh Peter and James and John with him; and he began to fear and to be heavy.||et adsumit Petrum et Iacobum et Iohannem secum et coepit pavere et taedere||και παραλαμβανει τον πετρον και τον ιακωβον και ιωαννην μεθ εαυτου και ηρξατο εκθαμβεισθαι και αδημονειν|
|34.||And he saith to them: My soul is sorrowful even unto death; stay you here, and watch.||et ait illis tristis est anima mea usque ad mortem sustinete hic et vigilate||και λεγει αυτοις περιλυπος εστιν η ψυχη μου εως θανατου μεινατε ωδε και γρηγορειτε|
|35.||And when he was gone forward a little, he fell flat on the ground; and he prayed, that if it might be, the hour might pass from him.||et cum processisset paululum procidit super terram et orabat ut si fieri posset transiret ab eo hora||και προελθων μικρον επεσεν επι της γης και προσηυχετο ινα ει δυνατον εστιν παρελθη απ αυτου η ωρα|
|36.||And he saith: Abba, Father, all things are possible to thee: remove this chalice from me; but not what I will, but what thou wilt.||et dixit Abba Pater omnia possibilia tibi sunt transfer calicem hunc a me sed non quod ego volo sed quod tu||και ελεγεν αββα ο πατηρ παντα δυνατα σοι παρενεγκε το ποτηριον απ εμου τουτο αλλ ου τι εγω θελω αλλα τι συ|
|37.||And he cometh, and findeth them sleeping. And he saith to Peter: Simon, sleepest thou? couldst thou not watch one hour?||et venit et invenit eos dormientes et ait Petro Simon dormis non potuisti una hora vigilare||και ερχεται και ευρισκει αυτους καθευδοντας και λεγει τω πετρω σιμων καθευδεις ουκ ισχυσας μιαν ωραν γρηγορησαι|
|38.||Watch ye, and pray that you enter not into temptation. The spirit indeed is willing, but the flesh is weak.||vigilate et orate ut non intretis in temptationem spiritus quidem promptus caro vero infirma||γρηγορειτε και προσευχεσθε ινα μη εισελθητε εις πειρασμον το μεν πνευμα προθυμον η δε σαρξ ασθενης|
|39.||And going away again, he prayed, saying the same words.||et iterum abiens oravit eundem sermonem dicens||και παλιν απελθων προσηυξατο τον αυτον λογον ειπων|
|40.||And when he returned, he found them again asleep, (for their eyes were heavy,) and they knew not what to answer him.||et reversus denuo invenit eos dormientes erant enim oculi illorum ingravati et ignorabant quid responderent ei||και υποστρεψας ευρεν αυτους παλιν καθευδοντας ησαν γαρ οι οφθαλμοι αυτων βεβαρημενοι και ουκ ηδεισαν τι αυτω αποκριθωσιν|
|41.||And he cometh the third time, and saith to them: Sleep ye now, and take your rest. It is enough: the hour is come: behold the Son of man shall be betrayed into the hands of sinners.||et venit tertio et ait illis dormite iam et requiescite sufficit venit hora ecce traditur Filius hominis in manus peccatorum||και ερχεται το τριτον και λεγει αυτοις καθευδετε το λοιπον και αναπαυεσθε απεχει ηλθεν η ωρα ιδου παραδιδοται ο υιος του ανθρωπου εις τας χειρας των αμαρτωλων|
|42.||Rise up, let us go. Behold, he that will betray me is at hand.||surgite eamus ecce qui me tradit prope est||εγειρεσθε αγωμεν ιδου ο παραδιδους με ηγγικεν|
|43.||And while he was yet speaking, cometh Judas Iscariot, one of the twelve: and with him a great multitude with swords and staves, from the chief priests and the scribes and the ancients.||et adhuc eo loquente venit Iudas Scarioth unus ex duodecim et cum illo turba cum gladiis et lignis a summis sacerdotibus et a scribis et a senioribus||και ευθεως ετι αυτου λαλουντος παραγινεται ιουδας εις ων των δωδεκα και μετ αυτου οχλος πολυς μετα μαχαιρων και ξυλων παρα των αρχιερεων και των γραμματεων και των πρεσβυτερων|
|44.||And he that betrayed him, had given them a sign, saying: Whomsoever I shall kiss, that is he; lay hold on him, and lead him away carefully.||dederat autem traditor eius signum eis dicens quemcumque osculatus fuero ipse est tenete eum et ducite||δεδωκει δε ο παραδιδους αυτον συσσημον αυτοις λεγων ον αν φιλησω αυτος εστιν κρατησατε αυτον και απαγαγετε ασφαλως|
|45.||And when he was come, immediately going up to him, he saith: Hail, Rabbi; and he kissed him.||et cum venisset statim accedens ad eum ait rabbi et osculatus est eum||και ελθων ευθεως προσελθων αυτω λεγει ραββι ραββι και κατεφιλησεν αυτον|
|46.||But they laid hands on him, and held him.||at illi manus iniecerunt in eum et tenuerunt eum||οι δε επεβαλον επ αυτον τας χειρας αυτων και εκρατησαν αυτον|
|47.||And one of them that stood by, drawing a sword, struck a servant of the chief priest, and cut off his ear.||unus autem quidam de circumstantibus educens gladium percussit servum summi sacerdotis et amputavit illi auriculam||εις δε τις των παρεστηκοτων σπασαμενος την μαχαιραν επαισεν τον δουλον του αρχιερεως και αφειλεν αυτου το ωτιον|
|48.||And Jesus answering, said to them: Are you come out as to a robber, with swords and staves to apprehend me?||et respondens Iesus ait illis tamquam ad latronem existis cum gladiis et lignis conprehendere me||και αποκριθεις ο ιησους ειπεν αυτοις ως επι ληστην εξηλθετε μετα μαχαιρων και ξυλων συλλαβειν με|
|49.||I was daily with you in the temple teaching, and you did not lay hands on me. But that the scriptures may be fulfilled.||cotidie eram apud vos in templo docens et non me tenuistis sed ut adimpleantur scripturae||καθ ημεραν ημην προς υμας εν τω ιερω διδασκων και ουκ εκρατησατε με αλλ ινα πληρωθωσιν αι γραφαι|
|50.||Then his disciples leaving him, all fled away.||tunc discipuli eius relinquentes eum omnes fugerunt||και αφεντες αυτον παντες εφυγον|
|51.||And a certain young man followed him, having a linen cloth cast about his naked body; and they laid hold on him.||adulescens autem quidam sequebatur illum amictus sindone super nudo et tenuerunt eum||και εις τις νεανισκος ηκολουθει αυτω περιβεβλημενος σινδονα επι γυμνου και κρατουσιν αυτον οι νεανισκοι|
|52.||But he, casting off the linen cloth, fled from them naked.||at ille reiecta sindone nudus profugit ab eis||ο δε καταλιπων την σινδονα γυμνος εφυγεν απ αυτων|
|53.||And they brought Jesus to the high priest; and all the priests and the scribes and the ancients assembled together.||et adduxerunt Iesum ad summum sacerdotem et conveniunt omnes sacerdotes et scribae et seniores||και απηγαγον τον ιησουν προς τον αρχιερεα και συνερχονται αυτω παντες οι αρχιερεις και οι πρεσβυτεροι και οι γραμματεις|
|54.||And Peter followed him from afar off, even into the court of the high priest; and he sat with the servants at the fire, and warmed himself.||Petrus autem a longe secutus est eum usque intro in atrium summi sacerdotis et sedebat cum ministris et calefaciebat se ad ignem||και ο πετρος απο μακροθεν ηκολουθησεν αυτω εως εσω εις την αυλην του αρχιερεως και ην συγκαθημενος μετα των υπηρετων και θερμαινομενος προς το φως|
|55.||And the chief priests and all the council sought for evidence against Jesus, that they might put him to death, and found none.||summi vero sacerdotes et omne concilium quaerebant adversum Iesum testimonium ut eum morti traderent nec inveniebant||οι δε αρχιερεις και ολον το συνεδριον εζητουν κατα του ιησου μαρτυριαν εις το θανατωσαι αυτον και ουχ ευρισκον|
|56.||For many bore false witness against him, and their evidences were not agreeing.||multi enim testimonium falsum dicebant adversus eum et convenientia testimonia non erant||πολλοι γαρ εψευδομαρτυρουν κατ αυτου και ισαι αι μαρτυριαι ουκ ησαν|
|57.||And some rising up, bore false witness against him, saying:||et quidam surgentes falsum testimonium ferebant adversus eum dicentes||και τινες ανασταντες εψευδομαρτυρουν κατ αυτου λεγοντες|
|58.||We heard him say, I will destroy this temple made with hands, and within three days I will build another not made with hands.||quoniam nos audivimus eum dicentem ego dissolvam templum hoc manufactum et per triduum aliud non manufactum aedificabo||οτι ημεις ηκουσαμεν αυτου λεγοντος οτι εγω καταλυσω τον ναον τουτον τον χειροποιητον και δια τριων ημερων αλλον αχειροποιητον οικοδομησω|
|59.||And their witness did not agree.||et non erat conveniens testimonium illorum||και ουδε ουτως ιση ην η μαρτυρια αυτων|
|60.||And the high priest rising up in the midst, asked Jesus, saying: Answerest thou nothing to the things that are laid to thy charge by these men?||et exsurgens summus sacerdos in medium interrogavit Iesum dicens non respondes quicquam ad ea quae tibi obiciuntur ab his||και αναστας ο αρχιερευς εις το μεσον επηρωτησεν τον ιησουν λεγων ουκ αποκρινη ουδεν τι ουτοι σου καταμαρτυρουσιν|
|61.||But he held his peace, and answered nothing. Again the high priest asked him, and said to him: Art thou the Christ the Son of the blessed God?||ille autem tacebat et nihil respondit rursum summus sacerdos interrogabat eum et dicit ei tu es Christus Filius Benedicti||ο δε εσιωπα και ουδεν απεκρινατο παλιν ο αρχιερευς επηρωτα αυτον και λεγει αυτω συ ει ο χριστος ο υιος του ευλογητου|
|62.||And Jesus said to him: I am. And you shall see the Son of man sitting on the right hand of the power of God, and coming with the clouds of heaven.||Iesus autem dixit illi ego sum et videbitis Filium hominis a dextris sedentem Virtutis et venientem cum nubibus caeli||ο δε ιησους ειπεν εγω ειμι και οψεσθε τον υιον του ανθρωπου καθημενον εκ δεξιων της δυναμεως και ερχομενον μετα των νεφελων του ουρανου|
|63.||Then the high priest rending his garments, saith: What need we any further witnesses?||summus autem sacerdos scindens vestimenta sua ait quid adhuc desideramus testes||ο δε αρχιερευς διαρρηξας τους χιτωνας αυτου λεγει τι ετι χρειαν εχομεν μαρτυρων|
|64.||You have heard the blasphemy. What think you? Who all condemned him to be guilty of death.||audistis blasphemiam quid vobis videtur qui omnes condemnaverunt eum esse reum mortis||ηκουσατε της βλασφημιας τι υμιν φαινεται οι δε παντες κατεκριναν αυτον ειναι ενοχον θανατου|
|65.||And some began to spit on him, and to cover his face, and to buffet him, and to say unto him: Prophesy: and the servants struck him with the palms of their hands.||et coeperunt quidam conspuere eum et velare faciem eius et colaphis eum caedere et dicere ei prophetiza et ministri alapis eum caedebant||και ηρξαντο τινες εμπτυειν αυτω και περικαλυπτειν το προσωπον αυτου και κολαφιζειν αυτον και λεγειν αυτω προφητευσον και οι υπηρεται ραπισμασιν αυτον εβαλλον|
|66.||Now when Peter was in the court below, there cometh one of the maidservants of the high priest.||et cum esset Petrus in atrio deorsum venit una ex ancillis summi sacerdotis||και οντος του πετρου εν τη αυλη κατω ερχεται μια των παιδισκων του αρχιερεως|
|67.||And when she had seen Peter warming himself, looking on him she saith: Thou also wast with Jesus of Nazareth.||et cum vidisset Petrum calefacientem se aspiciens illum ait et tu cum Iesu Nazareno eras||και ιδουσα τον πετρον θερμαινομενον εμβλεψασα αυτω λεγει και συ μετα του ναζαρηνου ιησου ησθα|
|68.||But he denied, saying: I neither know nor understand what thou sayest. And he went forth before the court; and the cock crew.||at ille negavit dicens neque scio neque novi quid dicas et exiit foras ante atrium et gallus cantavit||ο δε ηρνησατο λεγων ουκ οιδα ουδε επισταμαι τι συ λεγεις και εξηλθεν εξω εις το προαυλιον και αλεκτωρ εφωνησεν|
|69.||And again a maidservant seeing him, began to say to the standers by: This is one of them.||rursus autem cum vidisset illum ancilla coepit dicere circumstantibus quia hic ex illis est||και η παιδισκη ιδουσα αυτον παλιν ηρξατο λεγειν τοις παρεστηκοσιν οτι ουτος εξ αυτων εστιν|
|70.||But he denied again. And after a while they that stood by said again to Peter: Surely thou art one of them; for thou art also a Galilean.||at ille iterum negavit et post pusillum rursus qui adstabant dicebant Petro vere ex illis es nam et Galilaeus es||ο δε παλιν ηρνειτο και μετα μικρον παλιν οι παρεστωτες ελεγον τω πετρω αληθως εξ αυτων ει και γαρ γαλιλαιος ει και η λαλια σου ομοιαζει|
|71.||But he began to curse and to swear, saying; I know not this man of whom you speak.||ille autem coepit anathematizare et iurare quia nescio hominem istum quem dicitis||ο δε ηρξατο αναθεματιζειν και ομνυειν οτι ουκ οιδα τον ανθρωπον τουτον ον λεγετε|
|72.||And immediately the cock crew again. And Peter remembered the word that Jesus had said unto him: Before the cock crow twice, thou shalt thrice deny me. And he began to weep.||et statim iterum gallus cantavit et recordatus est Petrus verbi quod dixerat ei Iesus priusquam gallus cantet bis ter me negabis et coepit flere||και εκ δευτερου αλεκτωρ εφωνησεν και ανεμνησθη ο πετρος του ρηματος ου ειπεν αυτω ο ιησους οτι πριν αλεκτορα φωνησαι δις απαρνηση με τρις και επιβαλων εκλαιεν|
1. After two days was the feast of the Passover, and of unleavened bread: and the Chief Priests and the Scribes sought how they might take him by craft, and put him to death.
2. But they said, Not on the feast day, lest there be an uproar of the people.
PSEUDO-JEROME. Let us now sprinkle our book, and our thresholds with blood, and put the scarlet thread around the house of our prayers, and bind scarlet on our hand, as was done to Zarah, (Gen. 38:30) that we may be able to say that the red heifer is slain in the valley. (Num. 19:2, Deut. 21:4) For the Evangelist, being about to speak of the slaying of Christ, premises, After two days was the feast of the Passover, and of unleavened bread.
BEDE. (in Marc. iv. 43) Pascha which in Hebrew is phase, is not called from Passion, as many think, but from passing over, because the destroyer, seeing the blood on the doors of the Israelites, passed by them, and did not smite them; or the Lord Himself, bringing aid unto His people, walked above them.
PSEUDO-JEROME. Or else phase is interpreted a passing over, but Pascha means sacrifice. In the sacrifice of the lamb, and the passing of the people through the sea, or through Egypt, the Passion of Christ is prefigured, and the redemption of the people from hell, when He visits us after two days, that is, when the moon is most full, and the age of Christ is perfect, that when no part at all of it is dark, we may eat the flesh of the Lamb without spot, who taketh away the sins of the world, in one house, that is, in the Catholic Church, shod with charity, and armed with virtue.
BEDE. (ubi sup.) The difference according to the Old Testament between the Passover and the feast of unleavened bread was, that the day alone on which the lamb was slain in the evening, that is, the fourteenth moon of the first month, was called Passover. But on the fifteenth moon, when they came out of Egypt, the feast of unleavened bread came on, which solemn time was appointed for seven days, that is, up to the twenty-first day of the same month in the evening. But the Evangelists indifferently use the day of unleavened bread for the Passover, and the Passover for the days of unleavened bread. Wherefore Mark also here says, After two days was the feast of the Passover, and of unleavened bread, because the day of the Passover was also ordered to be celebrated on the days of unleavened bread, and we also, as it were, keeping a continual passover, ought always to be passing out of this world.
PSEUDO-JEROME. But iniquity came forth in Babylon from the princes, who ought to have purified the temple and the vessels, and themselves according to the law, in order to eat the lamb. Wherefore there follows: And the Chief Priests and the Scribes sought how they might take him by craft, and put him to death. Now when the head is slain, the whole body is rendered powerless, wherefore these wretched men slay the Head. But they avoid the feast day, which indeed befits them, for what feasting can there be for them, who have lost life and mercy? Wherefore it goes on: But they said, Not on the feast day, lest there be an uproar of the people.
BEDE. (ubi sup.) Not indeed, as the words seem to imply, that they feared the uproar, but they were afraid lest He should be taken out of their hands by the aid of the people.
THEOPHYLACT. Nevertheless, Christ Himself had determined for Himself the day of His Passion; for He wished to be crucified on the Passover, because He was the true Passover.
3. And being in Bethany in the house of Simon the leper, as he sat at meat, there came a woman having an alabaster box of ointment of spikenard very precious; and she brake the box, and poured it on his head.
4. And there were some that had indignation within themselves, and said, Why was this waste of the ointment made?
5. For it might have been sold for more than three hundred pence, and have been given to the poor. And they murmured against her.
6. And Jesus said, Let her alone; why trouble ye her? she hath wrought a good work on me.
7. For ye have the poor with you always, and whensoever ye will ye may do them good: but me ye have not always.
8. She hath done what she could: she is come aforehand to anoint my body to the burying.
9. Verily I say unto, Wheresoever this Gospel shall be preached throughout the whole world, this also that she hath done shall be spoken of for a memorial of her.
BEDE. (ubi sup.) The Lord when about to suffer for the whole world, and to redeem all nations with His blood, dwells in Bethany, that is, in the house of obedience; wherefore it is said, And being in Bethany in the house of Simon the leper, as he sat at meat, there came a woman.
PSEUDO-JEROME. For the fawn amongst the stags ever comes back to his couch, that is, the Son, obedient to the Father even unto death, seeks for obedience from us.
BEDE. (ubi sup.) He says of Simon the leper, not because he remained still a leper at that time, but because having once been such, he was healed by our Saviour; his former name is left, that the virtue of the Healer may be made manifest.
THEOPHYLACT. But although the four Evangelists record the anointing by a woman, there were two women and not one; one described by John, the sister of Lazarus; it was she who six days before the Passover anointed the feet of Jesus; another described by the other three Evangelists. Nay, if you examine, you will find three; for one is described by John, another by Luke, a third by the other two. For that one described by Luke is said to be a sinner and to have come to Jesus during the time of His preaching; but this other described by Matthew and Mark is said to have come at the time of the Passion, nor did she confess that she had been a sinner.
AUGUSTINE. (de Con. Evan. ii. 79) I however think that nothing else can be meant, but that the sinner who then came to the feet of Jesus was no other than the same Mary who did this twice; once, as Luke relates it, when coming for the first time with humility and tears she merited the remission of her sins. For John also relates this, when he began to speak of the raising of Lazarus before He came to Bethany, saying, It was that Mary which anointed the Lord with ointment, and wiped his feet with her hair, whose brother Lazarus was sick. (John 11:2) But what she again did at Bethany is another act, unrecorded by Luke, but mentioned in the same way by the other three Evangelists. In that therefore Matthew and Mark say that the head of the Lord was anointed by the woman, whilst John says the feet, we must understand that both the head and the feet were anointed by the woman. Unless because Mark has said that she broke the box in order to anoint His head, any one is so fond of cavilling as to deny that, because the box was broken, any could remain to anoint the feet of the Lord. But a man of a more pious spirit will contend that it was not broken so as to pour out the whole, or else that the feet were anointed before it was broken, so that there remained in the unbroken box enough to anoint the head.
BEDE. (ubi sup.) Alabaster is a sort of white marble, veined with various colours which is often hollowed out for boxes of ointment, because it keeps things of that nature most uncorrupt. Nard is an aromatic shrub of a large and thick root, but short, black, and brittle; though unctuous, it smells like cypress, and has a sharp taste, and small and dense leaves. Its tops spread themselves out like ears of corn, therefore, its gift being double, perfumers make much of the spikes and the leaves of the nard. And this is what is meant by Mark, when he says spikenard very precious, that is, the ointment which Mary brought for the Lord was not made of the root of nard, but even, what made it more precious, by the addition of the spikes and the leaves, the gratefulness of its smell and virtue was augmented.
THEOPHYLACT. Or as is said in Greek, of pistic nard, that is, faithful, because the ointment of the nard was made faithfully and without counterfeit. (Matt. 26:2)
AUGUSTINE. (de Con. Evan. ii. 78) It may appear to be a contradiction, that Matthew and Mark after mentioning two days and the Passover, (John 12:1) add afterwards that Jesus was in Bethany, where that precious ointment is mentioned; whilst John, just before he speaks of the anointing, says, that Jesus came into Bethany six days before the feast. But those persons who are troubled by this, are not aware that Matthew and Mark do not place that anointing in Bethany immediately after that two days of which he foretold, but by way of recapitulation at the time when there were yet six days to the Passover.
PSEUDO-JEROME. Again in a mystic sense, Simon the leper means the world, first infidel, and afterwards converted, and the woman with the alabaster box, means the faith of the Church, who says, My spikenard sendeth forth its smell. It is called pistic nard, that is, faithful, and precious. (Cant. 1:12). The house filled with the smell of it is heaven and earth; the broken alabaster box is carnal desire, which is broken at the Head, from which the whole body is framed together, whilst He was reclining, that is, humbling Himself, that the faith of the sinner might be able to reach Him, for she went up from the feet to the head, and down from the head to the feet by faith, that is, to Christ and to His members. It goes on: And there were some that had indignation within themselves, and said, Why was this loss of the ointment? By the figure synecdoche, one is put for many, and many for one; for it is the lost Judas who finds loss in salvation; thus in the fruitful vine rises the snare of death. Under the cover of his avarice, however, the mystery of faith speaks; for our faith is bought for three hundred pence, in our ten senses, that is, (denarii i. e. ten asses.) our inward and outward senses which are again trebled by our body, soul, and spirit.
BEDE. (ubi sup.) And in that he says, And they murmured against her, we must not understand this to be spoken of the faithful Apostles, but rather of Judas mentioned in the plural.
THEOPHYLACT. Or else, it appears to be aptly implied that many disciples murmured against the woman, because they had often heard our Lord talking of alms. Judas, however, was indignant, but not with the same feeling, but on account of his love of money, and filthy gain; wherefore John also records him alone, as accusing the woman with a fraudulent intent. But he says, They murmured against her, meaning that they troubled her with reproaches, and hard words. Then our Lord reproves His disciples, for throwing obstacles against the wish of the woman. Wherefore it goes on: And Jesus said, Let her alone, why trouble ye her? For after she had brought her gift, they wished to prevent her purpose by their reproaches.
ORIGEN. (in Matt. 35.) For they were grieved at the waste of the ointment, which might be sold for a large sum and given to the poor. This however ought not to have been, for it was right that it should be poured over the head of Christ, with a holy and fitting stream; wherefore it goes on, She hath wrought a good work on me. And so effectual is the praise of this good work, that it ought to excite all of us to fill the head of the Lord with sweet smelling and rich offerings, that of us it may be said that we have done a good work over the head of the Lord. For we always have with us, as long as we remain in this life, the poor who have need of the care of those who have made progress in the word, and are enriched in the wisdom of God; they are not however able always day and night to have with them the Son of God, that is, the Word and Wisdom of God. For it goes on: For ye have the poor always with you, and whensoever ye will ye may do them good; but me ye have not always.
BEDE. (ubi sup.) To me, indeed, He seems to speak of His bodily presence, that He should by no means be with them after His resurrection, as He then was living with them in all familiarity.
PSEUDO-JEROME. He says also, She hath wrought a good work on me, for whosoever believes on the Lord, it is counted unto Him for righteousness. For it is one thing to believe Him, and to believe on Him, that is, to cast ourselves entirely upon Him. It goes on: She hath done what she could, she is come aforehand to anoint my body to the burying.
BEDE. (ubi sup.) As if the Lord said, What ye think is a waste of ointment is the service of my burial.
THEOPHYLACT. For she is come aforehand as though led by God to anoint my body, as a sign of my approaching burial; by which He confounds the traitor, as if He said, With what conscience canst thou confound the woman, who anoints my body to the burial, and dost not confound thyself, who wilt deliver me to death? But the Lord makes a double prophecy; one that the Gospel shall be preached over the whole world, another that the deed of the woman shall be praised. Wherefore it goes on: Verily I say unto you, Wheresoever this gospel shall be preached throughout the whole world, this also that she hath done shall be spoken of for a memorial of her.
BEDE. (ubi sup.) Observe also, that as Mary won glory throughout the whole world for the service which she rendered to the Lord, so, on the contrary, he who was bold enough to reprove her service, is held in infamy far and wide; but the Lord in rewarding the good with due praise has passed over in silence the future shame of the impious.
10. And Judas Iscariot, one of the twelve, went unto the Chief Priests, to betray him unto them.
11. And when they heard it, they were glad, and promised to give him money. And he sought how he might conveniently betray him.
BEDE. (ubi sup.) The unhappy Judas wishes to compensate with the price of his Master for the loss which he thought he had made by the pouring out of the ointment; wherefore it is said, And Judas Iscariot, one of the twelve, went unto the Chief Priests to betray him unto them.
CHRYSOSTOM. (de Prod. Jud. Hom. 1) Why dost thou tell me of his country? would that I could also have been ignorant of his existence. But there was another disciple called Judas the zealot, the brother of James, and lest by calling him by this name there should arise a confusion between the two, he separates the one from the other. But he says not Judas the traitor, that he may teach us to be guiltless of detraction, and to avoid accusing others. In that however he says, one of the twelve, he enhanced the detestable guilt of the traitor; for there were seventy other disciples, these however were not so intimate with Him, nor admitted to such familiar intercourse. But these twelve were approved by Him, these were the regal band, out of which the wicked traitor came forth.
PSEUDO-JEROME. (ὁ περὶ τὸν βασιλέα χορὸς ap. Chrys.) But he was one of the twelve in number, not in merit, one in body, not in soul. But he went to the Chief Priests after he went out and Satan entered into him. Every living thing unites with what is like itself.
BEDE. But by the words, he went out, it is shewn that he was not invited by the Chief Priests, nor bound by any necessity, but entered upon this design from the spontaneous wickedness of his own mind.
THEOPHYLACT. It is said, to betray him unto them, that is, to announce to them when He should be alone. But they feared to rush upon Him when He was teaching, for fear of the people.
PSEUDO-JEROME. And he promises to betray Him, as his master the devil said before, All this power I will give thee. (Luke 4:6) It goes on, And when they heard it they were glad, and promised to give him money. They promise him money, and they lose their life, which he also loses on receiving the money.
CHRYSOSTOM. (ubi sup.) Oh! the madness, yea, the avarice of the traitor, for his covetousness brought forth all the evil. For covetousness retains the souls which it has taken, and confines them in every way when it has bound them, and makes them forget all things, maddening their minds. Judas, taken captive by this madness of avarice, forgets the conversation, the table of Christ, his own discipleship, Christ’s warnings and persuasion. For there follows, And he sought how he might conveniently betray him.
PSEUDO-JEROME. No opportunity for treachery can be found, such that it can escape vengeance here or there.
BEDE. (ubi sup.) Many in this day shudder at the crime of Judas in selling his Master, his Lord and his God, for money, as monstrous and horrible wickedness; they however do not take heed, for when for the sake of gain they trample on the rights of charity and truth, they are traitors to God, who is Charity and Truth.
12. And the first day of unleavened bread, when they killed the Passover, his disciples said unto him, Where wilt thou that we go and prepare that thou mayest eat the Passover?
13. And he sendeth forth two of his disciples, and saith unto them, Go ye into the city, and there shall meet you a man bearing a pitcher of water: follow him.
14. And wheresoever he shall go in, say ye to the goodman of the house, The Master saith, Where is the guestchamber, where I shall eat the Passover with my disciples?
15. And he will shew you a large upper room furnished and prepared: there make ready for us.
16. And his disciples went forth, and came into the city, and found as he had said unto them: and they made ready the Passover.
CHRYSOSTOM. (ubi sup.) Whilst Judas was plotting how to betray Him, the rest of the disciples were taking care of the preparation of the Passover: wherefore it is said, And the first day of unleavened bread, when they killed the Passover, his disciples said unto him, Where wilt thou that we go and prepare where thou mayest eat the Passover.
BEDE. (ubi sup.) He means by the first day of the Passover the fourteenth day of the first month, when they threw aside leaven, and were wont to sacrifice, that is, to kill the lamb at even. The Apostle explaining this says, Christ our Passover is sacrificed for us. (1 Cor. 5:7) For although He was crucified on the next day, that is, on the fifteenth moon, yet on the night when the lamb was offered up, He committed to His disciples the mysteries of His Body and Blood, which they were to celebrate, and was seized upon and bound by the Jews; thus He consecrated the beginning of His sacrifice, that is, of His Passion.
PSEUDO-JEROME. But the unleavened bread which was eaten with bitterness, that is with bitter herbs, is our redemption, and the bitterness is the Passion of our Lord.
THEOPHYLACT. From the words of the disciples, Where wilt thou that we go? it seems evident that Christ had no dwelling-place, and that the disciples had no houses of their own; for if so, they would have taken Him thither.
PSEUDO-JEROME. For they say, Where wilt thou that we go? to shew us that we should direct our steps according to the will of God. But the Lord points out with whom He would eat the Passover, and after His custom He sends two disciples, which we have explained above; wherefore it goes on, And he sendelh forth two of his disciples, and he saith unto them, Go ye into the city.
THEOPHYLACT. He sends two of His disciples, that is, Peter and John, as Luke says, to a man unknown to Him, implying by this that He might, if He had pleased, have avoided His Passion. For what could not He work in other men, who influenced the mind of a person unknown to Him, so that he received them? He also gives them a sign how they were to know the house, when He adds, And there shall meet you a man bearing a pitcher of water.
AUGUSTINE. (de Con. Evan. ii. 80) Mark says a pitcher, Luke a two-handled vessel; one points out the kind of vessel, the other the mode of carrying it; both however mean the same truth.
BEDE. (ubi sup.) And it is a proof of the presence of His divinity, that in speaking with His disciples, He knows what is to take place elsewhere; wherefore it follows, And his disciples went forth, and came into the city, and found as he had said unto them; and they made ready the Passover.
CHRYSOSTOM. (ubi sup.) Not our Passover, but in the meanwhile that of the Jews; but He did not only appoint ours, but Himself became our Passover. Why too did He eat it? Because He was made under the Law, to redeem them that were under the Law, (Gal. 4:4) and Himself give rest to the Law. And lest any one should say that He did away with it, because He could not fulfil its hard and difficult obedience, He first Himself fulfilled it, and then set it to rest.
PSEUDO-JEROME. And in a mystical sense the city is the Church, surrounded by the wall of faith, the man who meets them is the primitive people, the pitcher of water is the law of the letter.
BEDE. (ubi sup.) Or else, the water is the laver of grace, the pitcher points out the weakness of those who were to shew that grace to the world.
THEOPHYLACT. He who is baptized carries the pitcher of water, and he who bears baptism upon him comes to his rest, if he lives according to his reason; and he obtains rest, as being in the house. Wherefore it is added, Follow him.
PSEUDO-JEROME. That is, him who leads to the lofty place, where is the refreshment prepared by Christ. (John 21:15) The lord of the house is the Apostle Peter, to whom the Lord has entrusted His house, that there may be one faith under one Shepherd. The large upper-room is the wide-spread Church, in which the name of the Lord is spoken of, prepared by a variety of powers and tongues.
BEDE. (ubi sup.) Or else, the large upper-room is spiritually the Law, which comes forth from the narrowness of the letter, and in a lofty place, that is, in the lofty chamber of the soul, receives the Saviour. But it is designedly that the names both of the bearer of the water, and of the lord of the house, are omitted, to imply that power is given to all who wish to celebrate the true Passover, that is, to be embued with the sacraments of Christ, and to receive Him in the dwelling-place of their mind.
THEOPHYLACT. Or else, the lord of the house is the intellect, which points out the large upper room, that is, the loftiness of intelligences, and which, though it be high, yet has nothing of vain glory, or of pride, but is prepared and made level by humility. But there, that is, in such a mind Christ’s Passover is prepared by Peter and John, that is by action and contemplation.
17. And in the evening he cometh with the twelve.
18. And as they sat and did eat, Jesus said, Verily I say unto you, One of you which eateth with me shall betray me.
19. And they began to be sorrowful, and to say unto him one by one, Is it I? and another said, Is it I?
20. And he answered and said unto them, It is one of the twelve, that dippeth with me in the dish.
21. The Son of man indeed goeth, as it is written of him: but woe to that man by whom the Son of man is betrayed! good were it for that man if he had never been born.
BEDE. (ubi sup.) The Lord who had foretold His Passion, prophesied also of the traitor, in order to give him room for repentance, that understanding that his thoughts were known, he might repent. Wherefore it is said, And in the evening he cometh with the twelve. And as they sat and did eat, Jesus said, Verily I say unto you, One of you which eateth with me shall betray me.
CHRYSOSTOM. (ubi sup.) Where it is evident that He did not proclaim him openly to all, lest He should make him the more shameless; at the same time He did not altogether keep it silent, lest thinking that he was not discovered, he should boldly hasten to betray Him.
THEOPHYLACT. But how could they eat reclining, when the law ordered that standing and upright they should eat the Passover? It is probable that they had first fulfilled the legal Passover, and had reclined, when He began to give them His own Passover.
PSEUDO-JEROME. The evening of the day points out the evening of the world; for the last, who are the first to receive the penny of eternal life, come about the eleventh hour. All the disciples then are touched by the Lord; so that there is amongst them the harmony of the harp, all the well attuned strings answer with accordant tone; for it goes on: And they began to be sorrowful, and to say unto him one by one, Is it I? One of them however, unstrung, and steeped in the love of money, said, Is it I, Lord? as Matthew testifies.
THEOPHYLACT. But the other disciples began to be saddened on account of the word of the Lord; for although they were free from this passion, yet they trust Him who knows all hearts, rather than themselves. It goes on: And he answered and said unto them, It is one of the twelve, that dippeth with me in the dish.
BEDE. (ubi sup.) That is, Judas, who when the others were sad and held back their hands, puts forth his hand with his Master into the dish. And because He had before said, One of you shall betray me, and yet the traitor perseveres in his evil, He accuses him more openly, without however pointing out his name.
PSEUDO-JEROME. Again, He says, One out of the twelve, as it were separate from them, for the wolf carries away from the flock the sheep which he has taken, and the sheep which quits the fold lies open to the bite of the wolf. But Judas does not withdraw his foot from his traitorous design though once and again pointed at, wherefore his punishment is foretold, that the death denounced upon him might correct him, whom shame could not overcome; wherefore it goes on: The Son of man indeed goeth, as it is written of him.
THEOPHYLACT. The word here used, goeth, shews that the death of Christ was not forced but voluntary.
PSEUDO-JEROME. But because many do good, in the way that Judas did, without its profiting them, there follows: Woe to that man by whom the Son of man is betrayed! good were it for that man if he had never been born.
BEDE. (ubi sup.) Woe too to that man, to-day and for ever, who comes to the Lord’s table with an evil intent. For he, after the example of Judas, betrays the Lord, not indeed to Jewish sinners, but to his own sinning members. It goes on: Good were it for that man if he had never been born.
PSEUDO-JEROME. That is, hidden in his mother’s inmost womb, for it is better for a man not to exist than to exist for torments.
THEOPHYLACT. For as respects the end for which he was designed, it would have been better for him to have been born, if he had not been the betrayer, for God created him for good works; but after he had fallen into such dreadful wickedness, it would have been better for him never to have been born.
22. And as they did eat, Jesus took bread, and blessed, and brake it, and gave to them, and said, Take, eat: this is my body.
23. And he took the cup, and when he had given thanks, he gave it to them: and they all drank of it.
24. And he said unto them, This is my blood of the new testament, which is shed for many.
25. Verily I say unto you, I will drink no more of the fruit of the vine, until that day that I drink it new in the kingdom of God.
BEDE. (ubi sup.) When the rites of the old Passover were finished, He passed to the new, in order, that is, to substitute the Sacrament of His own Body and Blood, for the flesh and blood of the lamb. Wherefore there follows: And as they did eat, Jesus took bread; that is, in order to shew that He Himself is that person to whom the Lord swore, Thou art a Priest for ever after the order of Melchizedec. (Ps. 110:4) There follows: And blessed, and brake it.
THEOPHYLACT. That is, giving thanks, He brake it, which we also do, with the addition of some prayers.
BEDE. (ubi sup.) He Himself also breaks the bread, which He gives to His disciples, to shew that the breaking of His Body was to take place, not against His will, nor without His intervention; He also blessed it, because He with the Father and the Holy Spirit filled His human nature, which He took upon Him in order to suffer, with the grace of Divine power. He blessed bread and brake it, because He deigned to subject to death His manhood, which He had taken upon Him, in such a way as to shew that there was within it the power of Divine immortality, and to teach them that therefore He would the more quickly raise it from the dead. There follows: And gave to them, and said, Take, eat: this is my body.
THEOPHYLACT. That, namely, which I now give and which ye take. But the bread is not a mere figure of the Body of Christ, but is changed into the very Body of Christ. For the Lord said, The bread which I give you is my flesh. But the flesh of Christ is veiled from our eyes on account of our weakness, for bread and wine are things to which we are accustomed, if however we saw flesh and blood we could not bear to take them. For this reason the Lord bending Himself to our weakness keeps the forms of bread and wine, but changes the bread and wine into the reality of His Body and Blood.
CHRYSOSTOM. (ubi sup.) Even now also that Christ is close to us; He who prepared that table, Himself also consecrates it. For it is not man who makes the offerings to be the Body and Blood of Christ, but Christ who was crucified for us. The words are spoken by the mouth of the Priest, and are consecrated by the power and the grace of God. By this word which He spoke, This is my body, the offerings are consecrated; and as that word which says, Increase and multiply, and fill the earth, (Gen. 1:28) was sent forth but once, yet has its effect throughout all time, when nature does the work of generation; so also that voice was spoken once, yet gives confirmation to the sacrifice through all the tables of the Church even to this day, even to His advent.
PSEUDO-JEROME. But in a mystical sense, the Lord transfigures into bread His body, which is the present Church, which is received in faith, is blessed in its number, is broken in its sufferings, is given in its examples, is taken in its doctrines; and He forms His Blood (formans sanguinem suum ap. Pseudo-Hier.) in the chalice of water and wine mingled together, that by one we may be purged from our sins, by the other redeemed from their punishment. For by the blood of the lamb our houses are preserved from the smiting of the Angel, and our enemies perish in the waters of the Red sea, which are the sacraments of the Church of Christ. Wherefore it goes on: And he took the cup, and when he had given thanks, he gave it to them. For we are saved by the grace of the Lord, not by our own deserts.
GREGORY. (Mor. ii. 37) When His Passion was approaching, He is said to have taken bread and given thanks. He therefore gave thanks, who took upon Him the stripes of other men’s wickedness; He who did nothing worthy of smiting, humbly gives a blessing in His Passion, to shew us, what each should do when beaten for his own sins, since He Himself bore calmly the stripes due to the sin of others; furthermore to shew us, what we who are the subjects of the Father should do under correction, when He who is His equal gave thanks under the lash.
BEDE. (ubi sup.) The wine of the Lord’s cup is mixed with water, because we should remain in Christ and Christ in us. For on the testimony of John, the waters are the people, and it is not lawful for any one to offer either wine alone, or water alone, lest such an oblation should mean that the head may be severed from the members, and either that Christ could suffer without love for our redemption, and that we can be saved or be offered to the Father without His Passion. (Apoc. 17:15) It goes on: And they all drank of it.
PSEUDO-JEROME. Happy intoxication, saving fulness, which the more we drink gives the greater sobriety of mind!
THEOPHYLACT. Some say that Judas did not partake in these mysteries, but that he went out before the Lord gave the Sacrament. Some again say that He gave him also of that Sacrament.
CHRYSOSTOM. (ubi sup.) For Christ offered His blood to him who betrayed Him, that he might have remission of his sins, if he had chosen to cease to be wicked.
PSEUDO-JEROME. Judas therefore drinks and is not satisfied, nor can he quench the thirst of the everlasting fire, because he unworthily partakes of the mysteries of Christ. There are some in the Church whom the sacrifice does not cleanse, but their foolish thought draws them on to sin, for they have plunged themselves in the stinking slough of cruelty.
CHRYSOSTOM. (ubi sup.) Let there not be therefore a Judas at the table of the Lord; this sacrifice is spiritual food, for as bodily food, working on a belly filled with humours which are opposed to it, is hurtful, so this spiritual food if taken by one polluted with wickedness, rather brings him to perdition, not by its own nature, but through the fault of the recipient. Let therefore our mind be pure in all things, and our thought pure, for that sacrifice is pure. There follows: And he said unto them, This is my blood of the New Testament, which is shed for many.
BEDE. (ubi sup.) This refers to the different circumstances of the Old Testament, which was consecrated by the blood of calves and of goats; and the lawgiver said in sprinkling it, This is the blood of the Testament which God hath injoined unto you. (Heb. 9:20. vide Ex. 24:8) It goes on: Which is shed for many.
PSEUDO-JEROME. For it does not cleanse all. It goes on: Verily I say unto you, I will drink no more of the fruit of the vine, until that day that I drink it new in the kingdom of God.
THEOPHYLACT. As if He had said, I will not drink wine until the resurrection; for He calls His resurrection the kingdom, as He then reigned over death. But after His resurrection He ate and drank with His disciples, shewing that it was He Himself who had suffered. But He drank it new, that is, in a new and strange manner, for He had not a body subject to suffering, and requiring food, but immortal and incorruptible. We may also understand it in this way. The vine is the Lord Himself, by the offspring1 of the vine is meant mysteries, and the secret understanding, which He Himself begets2, who teaches man knowledge. But in the kingdom of God, that is, in the world to come, He will drink with His disciples mysteries and knowledge, teaching us new things, and revealing what He now hides.
BEDE. (ubi sup.) Or else, Isaiah testifies that the synagogue is called the vine or the vineyard of the Lord, saying, The vineyard of the Lord of hosts is the house of Israel. (Is. 5:7) The Lord therefore when about to go to His Passion, says, I will drink no more of the fruit of the vine, as if He had said openly, I will no longer delight in the carnal rites of the synagogue, in which also these rites of the Paschal Lamb have held the chief place. For the time of my resurrection shall come, that day shall come, when in the kingdom of heaven, that is, raised on high with the glory of immortal life, I will be filled with a new joy, together with you, for the salvation of the same people born again of the fountain of spiritual grace.
PSEUDO-JEROME. But we must consider that here the Lord changes the sacrifice without changing the time; so that we never celebrate the Cæna Domini before the fourteenth moon. He who celebrates the resurrection on the fourteenth moon, will celebrate the Cæna Domini on the eleventh moon, which was never done in either Old or New Testament.
26. And when they had sung an hymn, they went out into the mount of Olives.
27. And Jesus saith unto them, All ye shall be offended because of me this night: for it is written, I will smite the shepherd, and the sheep shall be scattered.
28. But after that I am risen, I will go before you into Galilee.
29. But Peter said unto him, Although all shall be offended, yet will not I.
30. And Jesus saith unto him, Verily I say unto thee, That this day, even in this night, before the cock crow twice, thou shalt deny me thrice.
31. But he spake the more vehemently, If I should die with thee, I will not deny thee in any wise. Likewise also said they all.
THEOPHYLACT. As they returned thanks, before they drank, so they return thanks after drinking; wherefore it is said, And when they had sung an hymn, they went out into the mount of Olives, to teach us to return thanks both before and after our food.
PSEUDO-JEROME. For by a hymn he means the praise of the Lord, as is said in the Psalms, The poor shall eat and be satisfied; they that seek after the Lord shall praise him. (Ps. 22:26, 29) And again, All such as be fat upon earth have eaten and worshipped.
THEOPHYLACT. He also shews by this that He was glad to die for us, because when about to be betrayed, He deigned to praise God. He also teaches us when we fall into troubles for the sake of the salvation of many, not to be sad, but to give thanks to God, who through our distress works the salvation of many.
BEDE. (ubi sup.) That hymn in the Gospel of John (John 17.) may also be meant, which the Lord sang, returning thanks to the Father, in which also He prayed, raising His eyes to heaven, for Himself and His disciples, and those who were to believe, through their word.
THEOPHYLACT. Again, He went out into a mountain, that they might come to Him in a lonely place, and take Him without tumult. For if they had come to Him, whilst He was abiding in the city, the multitude of the people would have been in an uproar, and then His enemies, who took occasion against Him, should seem to have slain Him justly, because He stirred up the people.
BEDE. (ubi sup.) Beautifully also does the Lord lead out His disciples, when they had tasted His Sacraments, into the mount of Olives, to shew typically that we ought through the reception of the Sacraments to rise up to higher gifts of virtue, and graces of the Holy Ghost, that we may be anointed in heart.
PSEUDO-JEROME. Jesus also is held captive on the mount of Olives, whence He ascended to heaven, that we may know, that we ascend into heaven from that place in which we watch and pray; there we are bound and do not tend back again to earth.
BEDE. (ubi sup.) But the Lord foretells to His disciples what is about to happen to them, that when they have gone through it, they may not despair of salvation, but work out their repentance, and be freed; wherefore there follows: And Jesus saith unto them, All ye shall be offended because of me this night.
PSEUDO-JEROME. All indeed fall, but all do not remain fallen. (Ps. 40:9. Vulg.) For shall not he who sleeps also rise up again? It is a carnal thing to fall, but devilish to remain lying when fallen.
THEOPHYLACT. The Lord allowed them to fall that they might not trust in themselves, and lest He should seem to have prophesied, what He had said, as an open accusation (κατηγορία ap. Theoph.) of them, He brings forward the witness of Zechariah the Prophet; wherefore it goes on: For it is written, I will smite the shepherd, and the sheep shall be scattered.
BEDE. (ubi sup.) This is written in different words in Zecharias, and in the person of the Prophet it is said to the Lord; Smite the shepherd, and the sheep shall be scattered. (Zech. 13:7)
PSEUDO-JEROME. For the Prophet prays for the Passion of the Lord, and the Father answers, I will smite the shepherd according to the prayers of those below. The Son is sent and smitten by the Father, that is, He is made incarnate and suffers.
THEOPHYLACT. But the Father says, I will smite the shepherd, because He permitted him to be smitten. He calls the disciples sheep, as being innocent and without guile. At last He consoles them, by saying, But after that I am risen I will go before you into Galilee.
PSEUDO-JEROME. In which the true resurrection is promised, that their hope may not be extinguished. There follows: But Peter said unto him, Although all shall be offended, yet will not I. Lo, a bird unfledged strives to raise itself on high; but the body weighs down the soul, so that the fear of the Lord is overcome by the fear of human death.
BEDE. (ubi sup.) Peter then promised in the ardour of his faith, and the Saviour as God knew what was to happen. Wherefore it goes on: And Jesus said unto him, Verily I say unto thee, that this day, even in this night, before the cock crow twice, thou shalt deny me thrice.
AUGUSTINE. (iii. 2. de Con. Evan) Though all the Evangelists say that the Lord foretold that Peter was to deny before the cock crew, Mark alone has related it more minutely, wherefore some from inattention suppose that he does not agree with the others. For the whole of Peter’s denial is threefold; if it had begun altogether after the cock crew, the other three Evangelists would seem to have spoken falsely, in saying, that before the cock crew, he would deny him thrice. Again, if he had finished the entire threefold denial before the cock began to crow, Mark would in the person of the Lord seem to have said needlessly, Before the cock crow twice, thou shall deny me thrice. But because that threefold denial began before the first cock-crowing, the other three did not notice when Peter was to finish it, but how great it was to be, that is, threefold, and when it was to begin, that is, before the cock crew, although the whole was conceived in his mind, even before the first cock crew; but Mark has related more plainly the interval between his words themselves.
THEOPHYLACT. We are to understand that it happened thus; Peter denied once, then the cock crew, but after he had made two more denials, then the cock crew for the second time.
PSEUDO-JEROME. Who is the cock, the harbinger of day, but the Holy Ghost? by whose voice in prophecy, and in the Apostles, we are roused from our threefold denial, to most bitter tears after our fall, for we have thought evil of God, spoken evil of our neighbours, and done evil to ourselves.
BEDE. (ubi sup.) The faith of the Apostle Peter, and his burning love for our Lord, is shewn in what follows. For it goes on: But he spake the more vehemently, If I should die with thee, I will not deny thee in any wise.
THEOPHYLACT. The other disciples also shewed a fearless zeal. For there follows, Likewise also said they all, but nevertheless they acted against the truth, which Christ had prophesied.
32. And they came to a place which was named Gethsemane: and he saith to his disciples, Sit ye here, while I shall pray.
33. And he taketh with him Peter and James and John, and began to be sore amazed, and to be very heavy;
34. And saith unto them, My soul is exceeding sorrowful unto death: tarry ye here, and watch.
35. And he went forward a little, and fell on the ground, and prayed that, if it were possible, the hour might pass from him.
36. And he said, Abba, Father, all things are possible unto thee; take away this cup from me: nevertheless not what I will, but what thou wilt.
37. And he cometh, and findeth them sleeping, and saith unto Peter, Simon, sleepest thou? couldest not thou watch one hour?
38. Watch ye and pray, lest ye enter into temptation. The spirit truly is ready, but the flesh is weak.
39. And again he went away, and prayed, and spake the same words.
40. And when he returned, he found them asleep again, (for their eyes were heavy,) neither wist they what to answer him.
41. And he cometh the third time, and saith unto them, Sleep on now, and take your rest: it is enough, the hour is come; behold, the Son of man is betrayed into the hands of sinners.
42. Rise up, let us go; lo, he that betrayeth me is at hand.
GLOSS. (non occ.) After that the Lord had foretold the offence of His disciples, the Evangelist gives an account of His prayer, in which He is supposed to have prayed for His disciples; and first describing the place of prayer, he says, And they came to a place which was named Gethsemane.
BEDE. (ubi sup.) The place Gethsemane, in which the Lord prayed, is shewn up to this day at the foot of the Mount of Olives. The meaning of Gethsemane is, the valley of the fat, or of fatness. Now when our Lord prays on a mountain, He teaches us that we should when we pray ask for lofty things; but by praying in the valley of fatness, He implies that in our prayer humility and the fatness of interior love must be kept. He also by the valley of humility and the fatness of charity underwent death for us.
PSEUDO-JEROME. In the valley of fatness also, the fat bulls beset Him. There follows, And he saith to his disciples, Sit ye here, while I shall pray; they are separated from Him in prayer, who are separated in His Passion; for He prays, they sleep, overcome by the sloth of their heart.
THEOPHYLACT. It was also His custom always to pray by Himself, in order to give us an example, to seek for silence and solitude in our prayers. There follows: And he taketh with him Peter, and James, and John. He takes only those who had been witnesses of His glory on Mount Tabor, that they who had seen His glory might also see His sufferings, and learn that He is really man, in that He is sorrowful. Wherefore there follows: And began to be sore amazed, and very heavy. For since He had taken on Himself the whole of human nature, He took also those natural things which belong to man, amazement, heaviness, and sorrow; for men are naturally unwilling to die. Wherefore it goes on: And he saith unto them, My soul is exceeding sorrowful unto death.
BEDE. (ubi sup.) As being God, dwelling in the body, He shews the frailty of flesh, that the blasphemy of those who deny the mystery of His Incarnation might find no place; for having taken up a body, He must needs also take up all that belongs to the body, hunger, thirst, pain, grief; for the Godhead cannot suffer the changes of these affections.
THEOPHYLACT. But some have understood this, as if He had said, I am sorrowful, not because I am to die, but because the Jews, my countrymen, are about to crucify me, and by these means to be shut out from the kingdom of God.
PSEUDO-JEROME. By this also we are taught to fear and to be sorrowful before the judgment of death, for not by ourselves, but by Him only, can we say, The prince of this world cometh, and hath nothing in Me. (John 14:30) There follows: Tarry ye here, and watch.
BEDE. He does not mean natural sleep by the sleep which He forbids, for the time of approaching danger did not allow of it, but the sleep of unfaithfulness, and the torpor of the mind. But going forward a little, He falls on His face, and shews his lowliness of mind, by the posture of His body. Wherefore there follows: And he went forward a little, and fell on the ground, and prayed that, if it were possible, the hour might pass from him.
AUGUSTINE. (de Con. iii. iv) He said not, if He could do it, but if it could be done; for whatever He wills is possible. We must therefore understand, if it be possible, as if it were; if He is willing. And lest any one should suppose that He lessened His Father’s power, he shews in what sense the words are to be understood; for there follows, And he said, Abba, Father, all things are possible unto thee. By which He sufficiently shews, that the words, if it be possible, must be understood not of any impossibility, but of the will of His Father. As to what Mark relates, that he said not only Father, but Abba, Father, Abba is the Hebrew for Father. And perhaps the Lord said both words, on account of some Sacrament contained in them; wishing to shew that He had taken upon Himself that 1sorrow in the person of His body, the Church, to which He was made the chief corner stone, and which came to Him, partly from the Hebrews, who are represented by the word Abba, partly from the Gentiles, to whom Father belongs.
BEDE. (ubi sup.) But He prays, that the cup may pass away, to shew that He is very man, wherefore He adds: Take away this cup from me. But remembering why He was sent, He accomplishes the dispensation for which He was sent, and cries out, But not what I will, but what thou wilt. As if He had said, If death can die, without my dying according to the flesh, let this cup pass away; but since this cannot be otherwise, not what I will, but what thou wilt. Many still are sad at the prospect of death, but let them keep their heart right, and avoid death as much as they can; but if they cannot, then let them say what the Lord said for us.
PSEUDO-JEROME. By which also He ceases not up to the end to teach us to obey our fathers, and to prefer their will to ours. There follows: And he cometh, and findeth them sleeping. For as they are asleep in mind, so also in body. 1But after His prayer, the Lord coming, and seeing His disciples sleeping, rebukes Peter alone. Wherefore it goes on: And saith unto Peter, Simon, steepest thou? couldest not thou watch with me one hour? As if He had said, If thou couldest not watch one hour with me, how wilt thou be able to despise death, thou who promisest to die with me? It goes on: Watch and pray, that ye enter not into temptation, that is, the temptation of denying me.
BEDE. (ubi sup.) He does not say, Pray that ye may not be tempted, because it is impossible for the human mind not to be tempted, but that ye enter not into temptation, that is, that temptation may not vanquish you.
PSEUDO-JEROME. But he is said to enter into temptation, who neglects to pray. There follows: The spirit indeed is willing, but the flesh is weak.
THEOPHYLACT. As if He had said, Your spirit indeed is ready not to deny me, and for this reason ye promise; but your flesh is weak, in that unless God give power to your flesh through prayer, ye shall enter into temptation.
BEDE. (ubi sup.) He here represses the rash, who think that they can compass whatever they are confident about. But in proportion as we are confident from the ardour of our mind, so let us fear from the weakness of our flesh. 2For this place makes against those, who say that there was but one operation in the Lord and one will. For He shews two wills, one human, which from the weakness of the flesh shrinks from suffering; one divine, which is most ready. It goes on: And again he went away and prayed, and spake the same words.
THEOPHYLACT. That by His second prayer He might shew Himself to be very man. It goes on: And when he returned, he found them asleep again; He however did not rebuke them severely. For their eyes were heavy, (that is, with sleep,) neither wist they what to answer him. By this learn the weakness of men, and let us not, whom even sleep can overcome, promise things which are impossible to us. Therefore He goes away the third time to pray the prayer mentioned above. Wherefore it goes on: And he cometh the third time, and saith unto them, Sleep on now, and take your rest. He is not vehement against them, though after His rebuke they had done worse, but He tells them ironically, Sleep on now, and take your rest, because He knew that the betrayer was now close at hand. And that He spoke ironically is evident, by what is added: It is enough, the hour is come; behold, the Son of man is betrayed into the hands of sinners. He speaks this, as deriding their sleep, as if He had said; Now indeed is a time for sleep, when the traitor is approaching. Then He says; Arise, let us go; lo, he that betrayeth me is at hand; he did not say this to bid them fly, but that they might meet their enemies.
AUGUSTINE. (ubi sup.) Or else; In that it is said, that after He had spoken these words, Sleep on note, and take your rest, He added, It is enough, and then, the hour is come; behold, the Son of man is betrayed, we must understand that after saying, Sleep on now, and take your rest, our Lord remained silent for a short time, to give space for that to happen, which He had permitted; and then that He added, the hour is come; and therefore He puts in between, it is enough, that is, your rest has been long enough.
PSEUDO-JEROME. The threefold sleep of the disciples points out the three dead, whom our Lord raised up; the first, in a house; the second, at the tomb; the third, from the tomb. And the threefold watch of the Lord teaches us in our prayers, to beg for the pardon of past, future, and present sins.
43. And immediately, while he yet spake, cometh Judas, one of the twelve, and with him a great multitude with swords and staves, from the Chief Priests and the Scribes and the elders.
44. And he that betrayed him had given them a token, saying, Whomsoever I shall kiss, that same is he; take him, and lead him away safely.
45. And as soon as he was come, he goeth straightway to him, and saith, Master, master; and kissed him.
46. And they laid their hands on him, and took him.
47. And one of them that stood by drew a sword, and smote a servant of the High Priest, and cut off his ear.
48. And Jesus answered and said unto them, Are ye come out, as against a thief, with swords and with staves to take me?
49. I was daily with you in the temple teaching, and ye took me not: but the Scriptures must be fulfilled.
50. And they all forsook him, and fled.
51. And there followed him a certain young man, having a linen cloth cast about his naked body; and the young men laid hold on him:
52. And he left the linen cloth, and fled from them naked.
BEDE. (ubi sup.) After that our Lord had prayed three times, and had obtained by His prayers that the fear of the Apostles should be amended by future repentance, He, being tranquil as to His Passion, goes to His persecutors, concerning the coming of whom the Evangelist says, And immediately, while he yet spake, cometh Judas Iscariot, one of the twelve.
THEOPHYLACT. This is not put without reason, but to the greater conviction of the traitor, since though he was of the chief company amongst the disciples, he turned himself to furious enmity against our Lord. There follows: And with him a great multitude with swords and staves from the Chief Priests and the Scribes and the elders.
PSEUDO-JEROME. For he who despairs of help from God, has recourse to the power of the world.
BEDE. (ubi sup.) But Judas had still something of the shame of a disciple, for he did not openly betray Him to his persecutors, but by the token of a kiss. Wherefore it goes on: And he that betrayed him had given them a token, saying, Whomsoever I shall kiss, that same is he; take him, and lead him away safely.
THEOPHYLACT. See how in his blindness he thought to deceive Christ by the kiss, so as to be looked upon by Him as His friend. But if thou wert a friend, Judas, how didst thou come with His enemies? But wickedness is ever without foresight. It goes on: And as soon as he was come, he goeth straightway to him, and saith, Master, master; and kissed him.
PSEUDO-JEROME. Judas gives the kiss as a token, with poisonous guile, just as Cain offered a crafty, reprobate sacrifice.
BEDE. (ubi sup.) With envy and with a wicked confidence, he calls Him master, and gives Him a kiss, in betraying Him. But the Lord receives the kiss of the traitor, not to teach us to deceive, but lest he should seem to avoid betrayal, and at the same time to fulfil that Psalm, Among them that are enemies unto peace, I labour for peace. (Ps. 120:5) It goes on: And they laid hands on him, and took him.
PSEUDO-JEROME.w This is the Joseph who was sold by his brethren, (Ps. 105:18) and into whose soul the iron entered. There follows: And one of them that stood by drew a sword, and smote a servant of the High Priest, and cut off his ear.
BEDE. (ubi sup.) Peter did this, as John declares, with the same ardent mind with which he did all things; for he knew how Phineas had by punishing sacrilegious persons received the reward of righteousness and of perpetual priesthood.
THEOPHYLACT. Mark conceals his name, lest he should seem to be praising his master for his zeal for Christ. Again, the action of Peter points out that they were disobedient and unbelieving, despising the Scriptures; for if they had had ears to hear the Scriptures, they would not have crucified the Lord of glory. But he cut off the ear of a servant of the High Priest, for the Chief Priests especially passed over the Scriptures, like disobedient servants. It goes on: And Jesus answered and said unto them, Are ye come out, as against a thief, with swords and with staves to take me?
BEDE. (ubi sup.) As if He had said, it is foolish to seek with swords and staves Him, who offers Himself to you of His own accord, and to search, as for one who hides Himself, by night and by means of a traitor, for Him who taught daily in the temple.
THEOPHYLACT. This, however, is a proof of His divinity, for when He taught in the temple they were unable to take Him, although He was in their power, because the time of His Passion had not yet come; but when He Himself was willing, then He gave Himself up, that the Scriptures might be fulfilled, for he was led as a lamb to the slaughter, not crying nor raising His voice, but suffering willingly. It goes on: And they all forsook him and fled.
BEDE. (ubi sup.) In this is fulfilled the word, which the Lord had spoken, that all His disciples should be offended in Him that same night. There follows: And there followed him a certain young man, having a linen cloth cast about his naked body, that is, he had no other clothing but this linen cloth. It goes on: And they laid hold on him, and he left the linen cloth, and fled from them naked. That is, he fled from them, whose presence and whose deeds he abhorred, not from the Lord, for whom his love remained fixed in his mind, when absent from Him in body.
PSEUDO-JEROME. Just as Joseph left his mantle behind him, and fled naked from the wanton woman; so also let him, who would escape the hands of the evil ones, quit in mind all that is of the world, and fly after Jesus.
THEOPHYLACT. It appears probable that this young man was of that house, where they had eaten the Passover. But some say that this young man was James, the brother of our Lord, who was called Just; who after the ascension of Christ received from the Apostles the throne of the bishopric of Jerusalem.
GREGORY. (Mor. 14. 49) Or, he says this of John, who, although he afterwards returned to the cross to hear the words of the Redeemer, at first was frightened and fled.
BEDE. (ubi sup.) For that he was a young man at that time, is evident from his long sojourn in the flesh. Perhaps he escaped from the hands of those who held him for the time, and afterwards got back his garment and returned, mingling under cover of the darkness with those who were leading Jesus, as though he was one of them, until he arrived at the door of the High Priest, to whom he was known, as he himself testifies in the Gospel. But as Peter, who washed away the sin of his denial with the tears of penitence, shews the recovery of those who fall away in time of martyrdom, so the other disciples who prevented their actual seizure, teach the prudence of flight to those who feel themselves unequal to undergo tortures.
53. And they led Jesus away to the High Priest: and with him were assembled all the Chief Priests and the elders and the Scribes.
54. And Peter followed him afar off, even into the palace of the High Priest: and he sat with the servants, and warmed himself at the fire.
55. And the Chief Priests and all the council sought for witness against Jesus to put him to death; and found none.
56. For many bare false witness against him, but their witness agreed not together.
57. And there arose certain, and bare false witness against him, saying,
58. We heard him say, I will destroy this temple that is made with hands, and within three days I will build another made without hands.
59. But neither so did their witness agree together.
GLOSS. (non occ.) The Evangelist had related above how our Lord had been taken by the servants of the Priests, now he begins to relate how He was condemned to death in the house of the High Priest: wherefore it is said, And they led Jesus away to the High Priest.
BEDE. (ubi sup.) He means by the High Priest Caiaphas, who (as John writes) was High Priest that year, of whom Josephus relates that he bought his priesthood of the Roman Emperor. There follows: And with him were assembled all the Chief Priests and the elders and the scribes.
PSEUDO-JEROME. Then took place the gathering together of the bulls among the heifers of the people. (Ps. 67:31, Vulg.) It goes on: And Peter followed him afar off, even into the palace of the High Priest. For though fear holds him back, love draws him on.
BEDE. (ubi sup.) But rightly does he follow afar off, who is just about to betray Him; for he could not have denied Christ, if he had remained close to Him. There follows, And he sat with the servants, and warmed himself at the fire.
PSEUDO-JEROME. He warms himself at the fire in the hall, with the servants. The hall of the High-Priest is the enclosure of the world, the servants are the devils, with whom whosoever remains cannot weep for his sins; the fire is the desire of the flesh.
BEDE. (ubi sup.) For charity is the fire of which it is said, I am come to send fire on the earth, (Luke 12:49) which flame coming down on the believers, taught them to speak with various tongues the praise of the Lord. There is also a fire of covetousness, of which it is said, They are all adulterers as an oven; (Hosea 7:4) this fire, raised up in the hall of Caiaphas by the suggestion of an evil spirit, was arming the tongues of the traitors to deny and blaspheme the Lord. For the fire lit up in the hall amidst the cold of the night was a figure of what the wicked assembly was doing within; for because of the abounding of iniquity the love of many waxes cold. Peter, who for a time was benumbed by this cold, wished as it were to be warmed by the coals of the servants of Caiaphas, because He sought in the society of traitors the consolation of worldly comfort. It goes on, And the Chief Priests and all the council sought for witness against Jesus to put him to death. (Matt. 24:12)
THEOPHYLACT. Though the law commanded that there should be but one High Priest, there were then many put into the office, and stripped of it, year by year, by the Roman emperor. He therefore calls chief priests those who had finished the time allotted to them, and had been stripped of their priesthood. But their actions are a sign of their judgment, which they earned on as they had prejudged, for they sought for a witness, that they might seem to condemn and destroy Jesus with justice.
PSEUDO-JEROME. But iniquity lied as the queen did against Joseph, and the priests against Susannah, but a flame goes out, if it has no fuel; wherefore it goes on, And found none. For many bare false witness against him, but their witness agreed not together. For whatever is not consistent is held to be doubtful. There follows, And there arose certain, and bare false witness against him, saying, We heard him say, I will destroy this temple that is made with hands, and within three days I will build another made without hands. It is usual with heretics out of the truth to extract the shadow; He did not say what they said, but something like it, of the temple of His body, which He raised again after two days.
THEOPHYLACT. For the Lord had not said, I will destroy, but, Destroy, nor did He say, made with hands, but, this temple.
BEDE. (ubi sup.) He had said also, I will raise up, meaning a thing with life and soul, and a breathing temple. He is a false witness, who understands words in a sense, in which they are not spoken.
60. And the High Priest stood up in the midst, and asked Jesus, saying, Answerest thou nothing? what is it which these witness against thee?
61. But he held his peace, and answered nothing. Again the High Priest asked him, and said unto him, Art thou the Christ, the Son of the Blessed?
62. And Jesus said, I am: and ye shall see the Son of man sitting on the right hand of power, and coming in the clouds of heaven.
63. Then the High Priest rent his clothes, and saith, What need we any further witnesses?
64. Ye have heard the blasphemy: what think ye? And they all condemned him to be guilty of death.
65. And some began to spit on him, and to cover his face, and to buffet him, and to say unto him, Prophesy: and the servants did strike him with the palms of their hands.
BEDE. (ubi sup.) The more Jesus remained silent before the false witnesses who were unworthy of His answer, and the impious priests, the more the High Priest, overcome with anger, endeavoured to provoke Him to answer, that he might find room for accusing Him, from any thing whatever which He might say. Wherefore it is said, And the High Priest stood up in the midst, and asked Jesus, saying, Answerest thou nothing? what is it which these witness against thee? The High Priest, angry and impatient at finding no room for accusation against Him, rises from his seat, thus shewing by the motion of his body the madness of his mind.
PSEUDO-JEROME. But our God and Saviour Himself, Who brought salvation to the world, and assisted mankind by His love, is led as a sheep to the slaughter, without crying, and remained mute and kept silence yea even from good words. (Ps. 39:3) Wherefore it goes on, But he field his peace, and answered nothing. The silence of Christ is the pardon for the defence or excuse of Adam. (Gen. 3:10.)
THEOPHYLACT. But He remained silent because He knew that they would not attend to his words; wherefore He answered according to Luke, If I tell you, ye will not believe. (Luke 22:67) Wherefore there follows, Again the High Priest asked him, and said unto him, Art thou the Christ, the Son of the Blessed? The High Priest indeed puts this question, not that he might learn of Him and believe, but in order to seek occasion against Him. But he asks, Art thou the Christ, the Son of the Blessed, because there were many Christs, that is, anointed persons, as Kings and High Priests, but none of these was called the Son of the Blessed God, that is, the Ever-praised.
PSEUDO-JEROME. But they looked from afar off for Him, whom though near they cannot see, as Isaac from the blindness of his eyes does not know Jacob who was under his hands, but prophesies long before things which were to come to him. It goes on, Jesus said, I am; namely, that they might be inexcusable.
THEOPHYLACT. For He knew that they would not believe, nevertheless He answered them, lest they should afterwards say, If we had heard any thing from Him, we would have believed on Him; but this is their condemnation, that they heard and did not believe.
AUGUSTINE. (de Con. iii. 6) Matthew, however, does not say that Jesus answered I am, but, Thou hast said. But Mark shews, that the words I am were equivalent to Thou hast said. There follows, And ye shall see the Son of Man silting on the right hand of power, and coming in the clouds of heaven. (Matt. 26:64)
THEOPHYLACT. As if He had said, Ye shall see Me as the Son of Man sitting on the right hand of the Father, for He here calls the Father power. He will not however come without a body, but as He appeared to those who crucified Him, so will He appear in the judgment.
BEDE. (ubi sup.) If therefore to thee, O Jew, O Pagan, and heretic, the contempt, weakness, and cross in Christ are a subject of scorn, see how by this the Son of Man is to sit at the right hand of the Father, and to come in His majesty on the clouds of heaven.
PSEUDO-JEROME. The High Priest indeed asks the Son of God, but Jesus in His answer speaks of the Son of Man, that we may by this understand that the Son of God is also the Son of Man; and let us not make a quaternityx in the Trinity, but let man be in God and God in man. And He said, Sitting on the right hand of power, that is, reigning in life everlasting, and in the Divine power. He says, And coming with the clouds of heaven. He ascended in a cloud, He will come with a cloud; that is, He ascended in that body alone, which He took of the Virgin, and He will come to judgment with the whole Church, which is His body and His fulness.
LEO. (Serm. 5. de Pass.) But Caiaphas, to increase the odiousness of what they had heard rent his clothes, and without knowing what his frantic action meant, by his madness, deprived himself of the honour of the priesthood, forgetting that command, by which it is said of the High Priest, He shall not uncover his head or rend his clothes. For there follows: Then the High Priest rent his clothes, and saith, What need we any further witnesses? Ye have heard the blasphemy: what think ye?
THEOPHYLACT. The High Priest does after the manner of the Jews; for whenever any thing intolerable or sad occurred to them, they used to rend their clothes. In order then to shew that Christ had spoken great and intolerable blasphemy, he rent his clothes.
BEDE. (ubi sup.) But it was also with a higher mystery, that in the Passion of our Lord the Jewish priest rent his own clothes, that is, his ephod, whilst the garment of the Lord could not be rent, even by the soldiers, who crucified Him. For it was a figure that the Jewish priesthood was to be rent on account of the wickedness of the priests themselves. But the solid strength of the Church, which is often called the garment of her Redeemer, can never be torn asunder.
THEOPHYLACT. The Jewish priesthood was to be rent from the time that they condemned Christ as guilty of death; wherefore there follows, And they all condemned him to be guilty of death.
PSEUDO-JEROME. They condemned Him to be guilty of death, that by His guiltiness He might absolve our guilt. It goes on: And some began to spit on him, and to cover his face, and to buffet him, and to say unto him, Prophesy: and the servants did strike him with the palms of their hands; that is, that by being spit upon He might wash the face of our soul, and by the covering of His face, might take away the veil from our hearts, and by the buffets, which were dealt upon His head, might heal the head of mankind, that is, Adam, and by the blows, by which He was smitten with the hands, His great praise might be testified by the clapping of our hands and by our lips, as it is said, O clap your hands together, all ye people. (Ps. 47:1)
BEDE. (ubi sup.) By saying, Prophesy, who is he that smote thee, they mean to insult Him, because He wished to be looked upon as a prophet by the people.
AUGUSTINE. (ubi sup.) We must understand by this, that the Lord suffered these things till morning, in the house of the High Priest, whither He had first been brought.
66. And as Peter was beneath in the palace, there cometh one of the maids of the High Priest:
67. And when she saw Peter warming himself, she looked upon him, and said, And thou also wast with Jesus of Nazareth.
68. But he denied, saying, I know not, neither understand I what thou sayest. And he went out into the porch; and the cock crew.
69. And a maid saw him again, and began to say to them that stood by, This is one of them.
70. And he denied it again. And a little after, they that stood by said again to Peter, Surely thou art one of them: for thou art a Galilæan, and thy speech agreeth thereto.
71. But he began to curse and to swear, saying, I know not this man of whom ye speak.
72. And the second time the cock crew. And Peter called to mind the word that Jesus said unto him, Before the cock crow twice, thou shalt deny me thrice. And when he thought thereon, he wept.
AUGUSTINE. (ubi sup.) Concerning the temptation of Peter, which happened during the injuries before mentioned, all the Evangelists do not speak in the same order. For Luke first relates the temptation of Peter, then these injuries of the Lord; but John begins to speak of the temptation of Peter, and then puts in some things concerning our Lord’s ill-treatment, and adds, that He was sent from there to Caiaphas the High Priest, and then he goes back to unfold the temptation of Peter, which he had begun. Matthew and Mark on the other hand first notice the injuries done to Christ, then the temptation of Peter. Concerning which it is said, And as Peter was beneath in the palace, there cometh one of the maids of the High Priest.
BEDE. (upi. sup.) But what can be meant by his being first recognised by a woman, when men were more able to know him, if it be not that that sex might be seen to sin in the death of our Lord, and that sex be redeemed by His Passion? It goes on: But he denied, saying, I know not, neither understand I what thou sayest.
PSEUDO-JEROME. Peter when he had not the Spirit yielded and lost courage at the voice of a girl, though with the Spirit he was not afraid before princes and kings.
THEOPHYLACT. The Lord allowed this to happen to him by His providence, that is, lest he should be too much elated, and at the same time, that he might prove himself merciful to sinners, as knowing from himself the result of human weakness. There follows: And he went out into the porch; and the cock crew.
BEDE. (ubi sup.) The other Evangelists do not mention this crowing of the cock; they do not however deny the fact, as also some pass over many other things in silence, which others relate. There follows: And a maid saw him again, and began to say to them that stood by, This is one of them
AUGUSTINE. (ubi sup.)y This maid is not the same, but another, as Matthew says. Indeed we must also understand, that in this second denial he was addressed by two persons, that is, by the maid whom Matthew and Mark mention, and by another person, of whom Luke takes notice. It goes on: And he denied it again. Peter had now returned, for John says that he denied Him again standing at the fire; wherefore the maid said what has been mentioned above, not to him, that is, Peter, but to those who, when he went out, had remained, in such a way however that he heard it; wherefore coming back and standing again at the fire, he contradicted them, and denied their words. For it is evident, if we compare the accounts of all the Evangelists on this matter, that Peter did not the second time deny him before the porch, but within the palace at the fire, whilst Matthew and Mark who mention his having gone out are silent, for the sake of brevity, as to his return.
BEDE. (ubi sup.) By this denial of Peter we learn, that not only he denies Christ, who says that He is not the Christ, but he also, who although he is a Christian, denies himself to be such. For the Lord did not say to Peter, Thou shalt deny thyself to be my disciple, but, Thou shalt deny me; he therefore denied Christ, when he said that he was not His disciple. There follows: And a little after, they that stood by said again to Peter, Surely thou art one of them, for thou art a Galilæan, and thy speech agreeth thereto. Not that the Galilæans spoke a different tongue from the inhabitants of Jerusalem, for they were both Hebrews, but that each province and region has its own peculiarities, and cannot avoid a vernacular pronunciation.
THEOPHYLACT. Therefore Peter was seized with fear, and for-getting the word of the Lord, which said, Whosoever shall confess me before men, him will I confess before my Father, (Matt. 30, 32) he denied our Lord; wherefore there follows: But he began to curse and to swear, saying, I know not this man of whom ye speak.
BEDE. (ubi sup.) How hurtful is it1 to speak with the wicked. He denies before infidels that he knows the man, whom amongst the disciples, he had confessed to be God. But the Scripture is wont to point out a Sacrament2 of the causes of things, by the state of the time; thus Peter, who denied at midnight, repented at cock crow; wherefore it is added: And the second time the cock crew. And Peter called to mind the word which Jesus said unto him, Before the cock crow twice, thou shalt deny me thrice. And he began to weep.
THEOPHYLACT. For tears brought Peter by penitence to Christ. Confounded then be the Novatians, who say that he who sins after receiving baptism, is not received to the remission of his sin. For behold Peter, who had also received the Body and Blood of the Lord, is received by penitence; for the failings of saints are written, that if we fall by want of caution, we also may be able to run back through their example, and hope to be relieved by penitence.
PSEUDO-JEROME. But in a mystical sense, the first maid means the wavering, the second, the assent, the third man is the act. This is the threefold denial which the remebrance of the word of the Lord washes away through tears. The cock then crows for us when some preacher up our hearts by repentance to compunction. We then begin to weep, when we are set on fire within by the spark of knowledge, and we go forth, when we cast out what we were within.
Catena Aurea Mark 14
|English: Douay-Rheims||Latin: Vulgata Clementina||Greek NT: Byzantine/Majority Text (2000)|
|1.||AND straightway in the morning, the chief priests holding a consultation with the ancients and the scribes and the whole council, binding Jesus, led him away, and delivered him to Pilate.||Et confestim, mane consilium facientes summi sacerdotes cum senioribus, et scribis, et universo concilio, vincientes Jesum, duxerunt, et tradiderunt Pilato.||και ευθεως επι το πρωι συμβουλιον ποιησαντες οι αρχιερεις μετα των πρεσβυτερων και γραμματεων και ολον το συνεδριον δησαντες τον ιησουν απηνεγκαν και παρεδωκαν τω πιλατω|
|2.||And Pilate asked him: Art thou the king of the Jews? But he answering, saith to him: Thou sayest it.||Et interrogavit eum Pilatus : Tu es rex Judæorum ? At ille respondens, ait illi : Tu dicis.||και επηρωτησεν αυτον ο πιλατος συ ει ο βασιλευς των ιουδαιων ο δε αποκριθεις ειπεν αυτω συ λεγεις|
|3.||And the chief priests accused him in many things.||Et accusabant eum summi sacerdotes in multis.||και κατηγορουν αυτου οι αρχιερεις πολλα|
|4.||And Pilate again asked him, saying: Answerest thou nothing? behold in how many things they accuse thee.||Pilatus autem rursum interrogavit eum, dicens : Non respondes quidquam ? vide in quantis te accusant.||ο δε πιλατος παλιν επηρωτησεν αυτον λεγων ουκ αποκρινη ουδεν ιδε ποσα σου καταμαρτυρουσιν|
|5.||But Jesus still answered nothing; so that Pilate wondered.||Jesus autem amplius nihil respondit, ita ut miraretur Pilatus.||ο δε ιησους ουκετι ουδεν απεκριθη ωστε θαυμαζειν τον πιλατον|
|6.||Now on the festival day he was wont to release unto them one of the prisoners, whomsoever they demanded.||Per diem autem festum solebat dimittere illis unum ex vinctis, quemcumque petissent.||κατα δε εορτην απελυεν αυτοις ενα δεσμιον ονπερ ητουντο|
|7.||And there was one called Barabbas, who was put in prison with some seditious men, who in the sedition had committed murder.||Erat autem qui dicebatur Barrabas, qui cum seditiosis erat vinctus, qui in seditione fecerat homicidium.||ην δε ο λεγομενος βαραββας μετα των συστασιαστων δεδεμενος οιτινες εν τη στασει φονον πεποιηκεισαν|
|8.||And when the multitude was come up, they began to desire that he would do, as he had ever done unto them.||Et cum ascendisset turba, cœpit rogare, sicut semper faciebat illis.||και αναβοησας ο οχλος ηρξατο αιτεισθαι καθως αει εποιει αυτοις|
|9.||And Pilate answered them, and said: Will you that I release to you the king of the Jews?||Pilatus autem respondit eis, et dixit : Vultis dimittam vobis regem Judæorum ?||ο δε πιλατος απεκριθη αυτοις λεγων θελετε απολυσω υμιν τον βασιλεα των ιουδαιων|
|10.||For he knew that the chief priests had delivered him up out of envy.||Sciebat enim quod per invidiam tradidissent eum summi sacerdotes.||εγινωσκεν γαρ οτι δια φθονον παραδεδωκεισαν αυτον οι αρχιερεις|
|11.||But the chief priests moved the people, that he should rather release Barabbas to them.||Pontifices autem concitaverunt turbam, ut magis Barabbam dimitteret eis.||οι δε αρχιερεις ανεσεισαν τον οχλον ινα μαλλον τον βαραββαν απολυση αυτοις|
|12.||And Pilate again answering, saith to them: What will you then that I do to the king of the Jews?||Pilatus autem iterum respondens, ait illis : Quid ergo vultis faciam regi Judæorum ?||ο δε πιλατος αποκριθεις παλιν ειπεν αυτοις τι ουν θελετε ποιησω ον λεγετε βασιλεα των ιουδαιων|
|13.||But they again cried out: Crucify him.||At illi iterum clamaverunt : Crucifige eum.||οι δε παλιν εκραξαν σταυρωσον αυτον|
|14.||And Pilate saith to them: Why, what evil hath he done? But they cried out the more: Crucify him.||Pilatus vero dicebat illis : Quid enim mali fecit ? At illi magis clamabant : Crucifige eum.||ο δε πιλατος ελεγεν αυτοις τι γαρ κακον εποιησεν οι δε περισσοτερως εκραξαν σταυρωσον αυτον|
|15.||And so Pilate being willing to satisfy the people, released to them Barabbas, and delivered up Jesus, when he had scourged him, to be crucified.||Pilatus autem volens populo satisfacere, dimisit illis Barabbam, et tradidit Jesum flagellis cæsum, ut crucifigeretur.||ο δε πιλατος βουλομενος τω οχλω το ικανον ποιησαι απελυσεν αυτοις τον βαραββαν και παρεδωκεν τον ιησουν φραγελλωσας ινα σταυρωθη|
|16.||And the soldiers led him away into the court of the palace, and they called together the whole band:||Milites autem duxerunt eum in atrium prætorii, et convocant totam cohortem,||οι δε στρατιωται απηγαγον αυτον εσω της αυλης ο εστιν πραιτωριον και συγκαλουσιν ολην την σπειραν|
|17.||And they clothe him with purple, and platting a crown of thorns, they put it upon him.||et induunt eum purpura, et imponunt ei plectentes spineam coronam.||και ενδυουσιν αυτον πορφυραν και περιτιθεασιν αυτω πλεξαντες ακανθινον στεφανον|
|18.||And they began to salute him: Hail, king of the Jews.||Et cœperunt salutare eum : Ave rex Judæorum.||και ηρξαντο ασπαζεσθαι αυτον χαιρε ο βασιλευς των ιουδαιων|
|19.||And they struck his head with a reed: and they did spit on him. And bowing their knees, they adored him.||Et percutiebant caput ejus arundine : et conspuebant eum, et ponentes genua, adorabant eum.||και ετυπτον αυτου την κεφαλην καλαμω και ενεπτυον αυτω και τιθεντες τα γονατα προσεκυνουν αυτω|
|20.||And after they had mocked him, they took off the purple from him, and put his own garments on him, and they led him out to crucify him.||Et postquam illuserunt ei, exuerunt illum purpura, et induerunt eum vestimentis suis : et educunt illum ut crucifigerent eum.||και οτε ενεπαιξαν αυτω εξεδυσαν αυτον την πορφυραν και ενεδυσαν αυτον τα ιματια τα ιδια και εξαγουσιν αυτον ινα σταυρωσωσιν αυτον|
|21.||And they forced one Simon a Cyrenian who passed by, coming out of the country, the father of Alexander and of Rufus, to take up his cross.||Et angariaverunt prætereuntem quempiam, Simonem Cyrenæum venientem de villa, patrem Alexandri et Rufi, ut tolleret crucem ejus.||και αγγαρευουσιν παραγοντα τινα σιμωνα κυρηναιον ερχομενον απ αγρου τον πατερα αλεξανδρου και ρουφου ινα αρη τον σταυρον αυτου|
|22.||And they bring him into the place called Golgotha, which being interpreted is, The place of Calvary.||Et perducunt illum in Golgotha locum : quod est interpretatum Calvariæ locus.||και φερουσιν αυτον επι γολγοθα τοπον ο εστιν μεθερμηνευομενον κρανιου τοπος|
|23.||And they gave him to drink wine mingled with myrrh; but he took it not.||Et dabant ei bibere myrrhatum vinum : et non accepit.||και εδιδουν αυτω πιειν εσμυρνισμενον οινον ο δε ουκ ελαβεν|
|24.||And crucifying him, they divided his garments, casting lots upon them, what every man should take.||Et crucifigentes eum, diviserunt vestimenta ejus, mittentes sortem super eis, quis quid tolleret.||και σταυρωσαντες αυτον διαμεριζονται τα ιματια αυτου βαλλοντες κληρον επ αυτα τις τι αρη|
|25.||And it was the third hour, and they crucified him.||Erat autem hora tertia : et crucifixerunt eum.||ην δε ωρα τριτη και εσταυρωσαν αυτον|
|26.||And the inscription of his cause was written over: THE KING OF THE JEWS.||Et erat titulus causæ ejus inscriptus : Rex Judæorum.||και ην η επιγραφη της αιτιας αυτου επιγεγραμμενη ο βασιλευς των ιουδαιων|
|27.||And with him they crucify two thieves; the one on his right hand, and the other on his left.||Et cum eo crucifigunt duos latrones : unum a dextris, et alium a sinistris ejus.||και συν αυτω σταυρουσιν δυο ληστας ενα εκ δεξιων και ενα εξ ευωνυμων αυτου|
|28.||And the scripture was fulfilled, which saith: And with the wicked he was reputed.||Et impleta est Scriptura, quæ dicit : Et cum iniquis reputatus est.||και επληρωθη η γραφη η λεγουσα και μετα ανομων ελογισθη|
|29.||And they that passed by blasphemed him, wagging their heads, and saying: Vah, thou that destroyest the temple of God, and in three days buildest it up again;||Et prætereuntes blasphemabant eum, moventes capita sua, et dicentes : Vah qui destruis templum Dei, et in tribus diebus reædificas :||και οι παραπορευομενοι εβλασφημουν αυτον κινουντες τας κεφαλας αυτων και λεγοντες ουα ο καταλυων τον ναον και εν τρισιν ημεραις οικοδομων|
|30.||Save thyself, coming down from the cross.||salvum fac temetipsum descendens de cruce.||σωσον σεαυτον και καταβα απο του σταυρου|
|31.||In like manner also the chief priests mocking, said with the scribes one to another: He saved others; himself he cannot save.||Similiter et summi sacerdotes illudentes, ad alterutrum cum scribis dicebant : Alios salvos fecit, seipsum non potest salvum facere.||ομοιως και οι αρχιερεις εμπαιζοντες προς αλληλους μετα των γραμματεων ελεγον αλλους εσωσεν εαυτον ου δυναται σωσαι|
|32.||Let Christ the king of Israel come down now from the cross, that we may see and believe. And they that were crucified with him reviled him.||Christus rex Israël descendat nunc de cruce, ut videamus, et credamus. Et qui cum eo crucifixi erant, convitiabantur ei.||ο χριστος ο βασιλευς του ισραηλ καταβατω νυν απο του σταυρου ινα ιδωμεν και πιστευσωμεν [αυτω] και οι συνεσταυρωμενοι αυτω ωνειδιζον αυτον|
|33.||And when the sixth hour was come, there was darkness over the whole earth until the ninth hour.||Et facta hora sexta, tenebræ factæ sunt per totam terram usque in horam nonam.||γενομενης δε ωρας εκτης σκοτος εγενετο εφ ολην την γην εως ωρας ενατης|
|34.||And at the ninth hour, Jesus cried out with a loud voice, saying: Eloi, Eloi, lamma sabacthani? Which is, being interpreted, My God, my God, why hast thou forsaken me?||Et hora nona exclamavit Jesus voce magna, dicens : Eloi, eloi, lamma sabacthani ? quod est interpretatum : Deus meus, Deus meus, ut quid dereliquisti me ?||και τη ωρα τη ενατη εβοησεν ο ιησους φωνη μεγαλη λεγων ελωι ελωι λιμα σαβαχθανι ο εστιν μεθερμηνευομενον ο θεος μου ο θεος μου εις τι με εγκατελιπες|
|35.||And some of the standers by hearing, said: Behold he calleth Elias.||Et quidam de circumstantibus audientes, dicebant : Ecce Eliam vocat.||και τινες των παρεστηκοτων ακουσαντες ελεγον ιδου ηλιαν φωνει|
|36.||And one running and filling a sponge with vinegar, and putting it upon a reed, gave him to drink, saying: Stay, let us see if Elias come to take him down.||Currens autem unus, et implens spongiam aceto, circumponensque calamo, potum dabat ei, dicens : Sinite, videamus si veniat Elias ad deponendum eum.||δραμων δε εις και γεμισας σπογγον οξους περιθεις τε καλαμω εποτιζεν αυτον λεγων αφετε ιδωμεν ει ερχεται ηλιας καθελειν αυτον|
|37.||And Jesus having cried out with a loud voice, gave up the ghost.||Jesus autem emissa voce magna expiravit.||ο δε ιησους αφεις φωνην μεγαλην εξεπνευσεν|
|38.||And the veil of the temple was rent in two, from the top to the bottom.||Et velum templi scissum est in duo, a summo usque deorsum.||και το καταπετασμα του ναου εσχισθη εις δυο απο ανωθεν εως κατω|
|39.||And the centurion who stood over against him, seeing that crying out in this manner he had given up the ghost, said: Indeed this man was the son of God.||Videns autem centurio, qui ex adverso stabat, quia sic clamans expirasset, ait : Vere hic homo Filius Dei erat.||ιδων δε ο κεντυριων ο παρεστηκως εξ εναντιας αυτου οτι ουτως κραξας εξεπνευσεν ειπεν αληθως ο ανθρωπος ουτος υιος ην θεου|
|40.||And there were also women looking on afar off: among whom was Mary Magdalen, and Mary the mother of James the less and of Joseph, and Salome:||Erant autem et mulieres de longe aspicientes : inter quas erat Maria Magdalene, et Maria Jacobi minoris, et Joseph mater, et Salome :||ησαν δε και γυναικες απο μακροθεν θεωρουσαι εν αις ην και μαρια η μαγδαληνη και μαρια η του ιακωβου του μικρου και ιωση μητηρ και σαλωμη|
|41.||Who also when he was in Galilee followed him, and ministered to him, and many other women that came up with him to Jerusalem.||et cum esset in Galilæa, sequebantur eum, et ministrabant ei, et aliæ multæ, quæ simul cum eo ascenderant Jerosolymam.||αι και οτε ην εν τη γαλιλαια ηκολουθουν αυτω και διηκονουν αυτω και αλλαι πολλαι αι συναναβασαι αυτω εις ιεροσολυμα|
|42.||And when evening was now come, (because it was the Parasceve, that is, the day before the sabbath,)||Et cum jam sero esset factum (quia erat parasceve, quod est ante sabbatum),||και ηδη οψιας γενομενης επει ην παρασκευη ο εστιν προσαββατον|
|43.||Joseph of Arimathea, a noble counsellor, who was also himself looking for the kingdom of God, came and went in boldly to Pilate, and begged the body of Jesus.||venit Joseph ab Arimathæa nobilis decurio, qui et ipse erat exspectans regnum Dei, et audacter introivit ad Pilatum, et petiit corpus Jesu.||ηλθεν ιωσηφ ο απο αριμαθαιας ευσχημων βουλευτης ος και αυτος ην προσδεχομενος την βασιλειαν του θεου τολμησας εισηλθεν προς πιλατον και ητησατο το σωμα του ιησου|
|44.||But Pilate wondered that he should be already dead. And sending for the centurion, he asked him if he were already dead.||Pilatus autem mirabatur si jam obiisset. Et accersito centurione, interrogavit eum si jam mortuus esset.||ο δε πιλατος εθαυμασεν ει ηδη τεθνηκεν και προσκαλεσαμενος τον κεντυριωνα επηρωτησεν αυτον ει παλαι απεθανεν|
|45.||And when he had understood it by the centurion, he gave the body to Joseph.||Et cum cognovisset a centurione, donavit corpus Joseph.||και γνους απο του κεντυριωνος εδωρησατο το σωμα τω ιωσηφ|
|46.||And Joseph buying fine linen, and taking him down, wrapped him up in the fine linen, and laid him in a sepulchre which was hewed out of a rock. And he rolled a stone to the door of the sepulchre.||Joseph autem mercatus sindonem, et deponens eum involvit sindone, et posuit eum in monumento quod erat excisum de petra, et advolvit lapidem ad ostium monumenti.||και αγορασας σινδονα και καθελων αυτον ενειλησεν τη σινδονι και κατεθηκεν αυτον εν μνημειω ο ην λελατομημενον εκ πετρας και προσεκυλισεν λιθον επι την θυραν του μνημειου|
|47.||And Mary Magdalen, and Mary the mother of Joseph, beheld where he was laid.||Maria autem Magdalene et Maria Joseph aspiciebant ubi poneretur.||η δε μαρια η μαγδαληνη και μαρια ιωση εθεωρουν που τιθεται|
1. And straightway in the morning the Chief Priests held a consultation with the elders and Scribes and the whole council, and bound Jesus, and carried him away, and delivered him to Pilate.
2. And Pilate asked him, Art thou the King of the Jews? And he answering said unto him, Thou sayest it.
3. And the Chief Priests accused him of many things: but he answered nothing.
4. And Pilate asked him again, saying, Answerest thou nothing? behold how many things they witness against thee.
5. But Jesus yet answered nothing; so that Pilate marvelled.
BEDE. (in Marc. 4, 44) The Jews had a custom of delivering him whom they had condemned to death, bound to the judge. Wherefore after the condemnation of Christ, the Evangelist adds: And straightway in the morning the Chief Priests held a consultation with the elders and Scribes and the whole council, and bound Jesus, and carried him away, and delivered him to Pilate. But it must be observed, that they did not then first bind Him, but they bound Him on first taking Him in the garden by night, as John declares.
THEOPHYLACT. They then gave Jesus up to the Romans, but were themselves given up by God into the hands of the Romans, that the Scriptures might be fulfilled, which say, Recompense them after the work of their hands. (Ps. 28:5) It goes on: And Pilate asked him, Art thou the King of the Jews?
BEDE. (ubi sup.) By Pilate’s asking Him about no other accusation, except whether He was King of the Jews, they are convicted of impiety, for they could not even find a false accusation against our Saviour. It goes on: And he answering said unto him, Thou sayest. He answers in this way so as both to speak the truth, and yet not to be open to cavil.
THEOPHYLACT. For His answer is doubtful, since it may mean, Thou sayest, but I say not so. 1And observe that He does somewhere answer Pilate, who condemned Him unwillingly, but does not choose to answer the priests and great men, and judges them unworthy of a reply. It goes on: And the Chief Priests accused him of many things.
AUGUSTINE. (de Con. Evan. iii. 8) Luke has also laid open the false charges which they brought against Him; for he thus relates it: And they began to accuse him, saying, We found this fellow perverting the nation, and forbidding to give tribute to Cæsar, saying that he himself is Christ a King. (Luke 23:2) There follows: And Pilate asked him, saying, Answerest thou nothing? behold how many things they witness against thee.
BEDE. (ubi sup.) He indeed who condemns Jesus is a heathen, but he refers it to the people of the Jew’s as the cause. There follows: But Jesus yet answered nothing; so that Pilate marvelled. He was unwilling to give an answer, lest He should clear Himself of the charge, and be acquitted by the judge, and so the gain resulting from the Cross should be done away.
THEOPHYLACT. But Pilate wondered, because, though He was a teacher of the law, and eloquent, and able by His answer to destroy their accusations, He did not answer any thing, but rather bore their accusations courageously.
6. Now at that feast he released unto them one prisoner, whomsoever they desired.
7. And there was one named Barabbas, which lay bound with them that had made insurrection with him, who had committed murder in the insurrection.
8. And the multitude crying aloud began to desire him to do as he had ever done unto them.
9. But Pilate answered them, saying, Will ye that I release unto you the King of the Jews?
10. For he knew that the Chief Priests had delivered him for envy.
11. But the Chief Priests moved the people, that he should rather release Barabbas unto them.
12. And Pilate answered and said again unto them, What will ye then that I shall do unto him whom ye call the King of the Jews?
13. And they cried out again, Crucify him.
14. Then Pilate said unto them, Why, what evil hath he done? And they cried out the more exceedingly, Crucify him.
15. And so Pilate, willing to content the people, released Barabbas unto them, and delivered Jesus, when he had scourged him, to be crucified.
BEDE. (ubi sup.) Pilate furnished many opportunities of releasing Jesus, in the first place contrasting a robber with the Just One. Wherefore it is said, Now at that feast he released unto them one prisoner, whomsoever they desired.
GLOSS. (non occ.) Which indeed he was accustomed to do, to obtain favour with the people, and above all, on the feast day, when the people of the whole province of the Jews flocked to Jerusalem. And that the wickedness of the Jews might appear the greater, the enormity of the sin of the robber, whom they preferred to Christ, is next described. Wherefore there follows: And there was one Barabbas, who lay bound with them that had made insurrection with him, who had committed murder in the insurrection. In which words their wickedness is shewn both from the heinousness of his signal crime, in that he had committed murder, and from the way in which he did it, because he had in doing it raised a sedition and disturbed the city, and also because his crime was notorious, for he was bound with seditious persons. It goes on: And the multitude, when it had come up, began to desire him to do as he had ever done unto them.
AUGUSTINE. (ubi sup.) No one can feel it a difficulty that Matthew is silent as to their asking some one to be released unto them, which Mark here mentions; for it is a thing of no consequence that one should mention a thing which another leaves out. There follows: But Pilate answered them, saying, Will ye that I release unto you the King of the Jews? For he knew that the Chief Priests had delivered him for envy. Some one may ask, which were the words of which Pilate made use, those which are related by Matthew, or those which Mark relates; for there seems to be a difference between, Whom will ye that I release unto you? Barabbas, or Jesus which is called Christ? as Matthew has it; and, Will ye that I release unto you the King of the Jews? (Matt. 27:17) as is here said. But since they gave to kings the name of Christs, he who said this man or that must have asked whether they wished the King of the Jews to be released unto them, that is, Christ. It makes no difference to the sense that Mark has said nothing of Barabbas, wishing only to mention what belonged to the Lord, since by their answer he sufficiently shewed whom they wished to have released to them. For there follows, But the Chief Priests moved the people that he should rather release unto them Barabbas.
BEDE. (ubi sup.) This demand which the Jews made with such toil to themselves still sticks to them. Because, when the choice was given to them, they chose a robber instead of Christ, a murderer instead of the Saviour, they deservedly lost their salvation and their life, and they subjected themselves to such a degree to robbery and sedition, that they lost their country and their kingdom which they preferred to Christ, and never regained their liberty, body or soul. Then Pilate gives another opportunity of releasing the Saviour, when there follows, And Pilate answered and said again unto them, What will ye then that I should do unto the King of the Jews?
AUGUSTINE. (ubi sup.) It now is clear enough that Mark means by King of the Jews what Matthew means by the word Christ; for no kings but those of the Jews were called Christs. For in this place according to Matthew it is said, What then shall I do with Jesus which is called Christ? There follows, And they cried out again, Crucify him. (Matt. 27:22)
THEOPHYLACT. Now see the wickedness of the Jews, and the moderation of Pilate, though he too was worthy of condemnation for not resisting the people. For they cried out, Crucify; he faintly tries to save Jesus from their determined sentence, and again puts a question to them. Wherefore there follows, Then Pilate said unto them, Why, what evil hath he done? For he wished in this way to find an opportunity for releasing Christ, who was innocent.
BEDE. (ubi sup.) But the Jews giving loose to their madness do not answer the question of the judge. Wherefore it goes on, And they cried out the more exceedingly, Crucify him, that those words of the Prophet Jeremiah might be fulfilled, Mine heritage is unto me as a lion in the forest, it crieth out against me. (Jer. 12:8) There follows, And so Pilate, willing to content the people, released Barabbas unto them, and delivered Jesus, when he had scourged him, to be crucified.
THEOPHYLACT. He wished indeed to satisfy the people, that is, to do their will, not what was agreeable to justice and to God.
PSEUDO-JEROME. Here are two goats; one is the scape goat, that is, one loosed and sent out into the wilderness of hell with the sin of the people; the other is slain, as a lamb, for the sins of those who are forgiven. The Lord’s portion is always slain; the devil’s part, (for he is the master of those men, which is the meaning of Barabbas,) when freed, is cast headlong into hell.
BEDE. (ubi sup.) We must understand that Jesus was scourged by no other than Pilate himself. For John writes, Pilate took Jesus, and scourged him, (John 13:1) which we must suppose that he did, that the Jews might be satisfied with His pains and insults, and cease from thirsting for His blood.
16. And the soldiers led him away into the hall, called Prætorium; and they call together the whole band.
17. And they clothed him with purple, and platted a crown of thorns, and put it about his head,
18. And began to salute him, Hail, King of the Jews!
19. And they smote him on the head with a reed, and did spit upon him, and bowing their knees worshipped him.
20. And when they had mocked him, they took off the purple from him, and put his own clothes on him.
THEOPHYLACT. The vainglory of soldiers, ever rejoicing in disorder and in insult, here displayed what properly belonged to them. Wherefore it is said, And the soldiers led him away into the hall called Prætorium, and they call together the whole band, that is, the whole company of the soldiers, and they clothed him with purple as a king.
BEDE. (ubi sup.) For since He had been called King of the Jews, and the scribes and priests had objected to Him as a crime that He usurped rule over the Jewish people, they in derision strip Him of His former garments, and put on Him a purple robe, which ancient kings used to wear.
AUGUSTINE. (de Con. Evan. iii. 9) But we must understand that the words of Matthew, they put on him a scarlet robe, Mark expresses by clothed him in purple; for that scarlet robe was used by them in derision for the royal purple, and there is a sort of red purple, very like scarlet. It may also be that Mark mentions some purple which the robe had about it, though it was of a scarlet colour.
BEDE. (ubi sup.) But instead of the diadem, they put on Him a crown of thorns, wherefore it goes on, And platted a crown of thorns, and put it about his head. And for a royal sceptre they give Him a reed, as Matthew writes, and they bow before Him as a king, wherefore there follows, And began to salute him, Hail, King of the Jews! And that the soldiers worshipped Him as one who falsely called Himself God, is clear from what is added: And bowing their knees, worshipped him, as though He pretended to be God.
PSEUDO-JEROME. His shame took away our shame; His bonds made us free; by the thorny crown of His head, we have obtained the crown of the kingdom; by His wounds we are healed.
AUGUSTINE. (ubi sup.) It appears that Matthew and Mark here relate things which took place previously, not that they happened when Pilate had already delivered Him to be crucified. For John says that these things took place at Pilate’s house; but that which follows, And when they had mocked him, they took off the purple from him, and put on him his own clothes, must be understood to have taken place last of all, when He was already being led to be crucified.
PSEUDO-JEROME. But in a mystic sense, Jesus was stripped of His clothes, that is, of the Jews, and is clothed in a purple robe, that is, in the Gentile church, which is gathered together out of the rocks. Again, putting it off in the end, as offending, He again is clothed with the Jewish people, for when the fulness of the Gentiles is come in, then shall all Israel be saved. (Rom. 11:25.)
BEDE. Or else, by the purple robe, with which the Lord is clothed, is meant His flesh itself, which He gave up to suffering, and by the thorny crown which He carried is meant, the taking upon Him of our sins.
THEOPHYLACT. Let us also put on the purple and royal robe, because we must walk as kings treading on serpents and scorpions, and 1 having sin under our feet. For we are called Christians, that is, anointed ones, just as kings were then called anointed. Let us also take upon ourselves the crown of thorns, that is, let us make haste to be crowned with a strict life, with self-denials and purity.
BEDE. (ubi sup.) But they smite the head of Christ, who deny that He is very God. And because men are wont to use a reed to write with, they, as it were, smite the head of Christ with a reed, who speak against His divinity, and endeavour to confirm their error by the authority of Holy Writ. They spit in His face, who spit from them by their accursed words the presence of His grace. There are some also in this day, who adore Him, with a sure faith, as very God, but by their perverse actions, despise His words as though they were fabulous, and think the promises of that word inferior to worldly allurements. But just as Caiaphas said, though he knew not what it meant, It is expedient for us that one man should die for the people, (John 11:50) so also the soldiers do these things in ignorance.
20. —And led him out to crucify him.
21. And they compel one Simon a Cyrenian, who passed by, coming out of the country, the father of Alexander and Rufus, to bear his cross.
22. And they bring him unto the place Golgotha, which is, being interpreted, The place of a scull.
23. And they gave him to drink wine mingled with myrrh: but he received it not.
24. And when they had crucified him, they parted his garments, casting lots upon them, what every man should take.
25. And it was the third hour, and they crucified him.
26. And the superscription of his accusation was written over, THE KING OF THE JEWS.
27. And with him they crucify two thieves; the one on his right hand, and the other on his left.
28. And the Scripture was fulfilled, which saith, And he was numbered with the transgressors.
GLOSS. (non occ.) After the condemnation of Christ, and the insults heaped upon Him when He was condemned, the Evangelist proceeds to relate His crucifixion, saying, And led him out to crucify him.
PSEUDO-JEROME. Here Abel is brought out into the field by his brother, to be slain by him. Here Isaac comes forth with the wood, and Abraham with the ram caught in the thicket. Here also Joseph with the sheaf of which he dreamed, and the long robe steeped in blood. Here is Moses with the rod, and the serpent hanging on the wood. Here is the cluster of grapes, carried on a staff. Here is Elisha with the piece of wood sent to seek for the axe, which had sunk, and which swam to the wood; that is, mankind, which by the forbidden tree, fell down to hell, but by the wood of the cross of Christ, and by the baptism of water, swims to paradise.z Here is Jonah out of the wood of the ship sent down into the sea and into the whale’s belly for three days. There follows: And they compel Simon a Cyrenian, who passed by, coming out of the country, the father of Alexander and Rufus, to bear his cross.
THEOPHYLACT. Now John says that He Himself bare His cross, for both took place; for He first bore the cross Himself, until some one passed, whom they compelled, and who then carried it. But he mentioned the name of his sons, to make it more credible and the affirmation stronger, for the man still lived to relate all that had happened about the cross.
PSEUDO-JEROME. Now since some men are known by the merits of their fathers, and some by those of their sons, this Simon, who was compelled to carry the cross, is made known by the merits of his sons, who were disciples. By this we are reminded, that in this life, parents are assisted by the wisdom and the merits of their children, wherefore the Jewish people is always held worthy of being remembered on account of the merits of the Patriarchs, Prophets, and Apostles. But this Simon who carries the cross, because he is compelled, is the man who labours for human praise. For men compel him to work, when the fear and love of God could not compel him.
BEDE. (ubi sup.) Or, since this Simon is not called a man of Jerusalem, but a Cyrenian, (for Cyrene is a city of Libya,) fitly is he taken to mean the nations of the Gentiles, which were once foreigners and strangers to the covenants, but now by obedience are heirs of God, and joint heirs with Christ. Whence also Simon is fitly interpreted ‘obedient,’ and Cyrene ‘an heir.’ But he is said to come from a country place, for a country place is called ‘pagos’ in Greek, wherefore those whom we see to be aliens from the city of God, we call pagans. Simon then coming out from the country carries the cross after Jesus, when the Gentile nations leaving pagan rites embrace obediently the footsteps of our Lord’s Passion. There follows: And they bring him unto the place Golgotha, which is being interpreted, the place of Calvary. There are places without the city and the gate, in which the heads of condemned persons are cut off, and which receive the name of Calvary, that is, of the beheaded. But the Lord was crucified there, that where once was the field of the condemned, there the standards of martyrdom might be lifted up.
PSEUDO-JEROME. But the Jews relate, that in this spot of the mountain the ram was sacrificed for Isaac, and there Christ is made bald1, that is, separated from His flesh, that is, from the carnal Jews. There follows: And they gave him to drink wine mingled with myrrh.
AUGUSTINE. (de Con. Evan. iii. 11) This we must understand to be what Matthew expresses by, mixed with gall; for he put gall for any thing bitter, and wine mingled with myrrh is most bitter; although there may have been both gall and myrrh to make the wine most bitter.
THEOPHYLACT.a Or, they may have brought different things, in order, some vinegar and gall, and others wine mixed with myrrh.
PSEUDO-JEROME. Or else, wine mingled with myrrh, that is, vinegar; by it the juice of the deadly apple is wiped away.
BEDE. (ubi sup.) Bitter the vine which bore the bitter wine, set before the Lord Jesus, that the Scripture might be fulfilled which saith, They gave me gall to eat, and when I was thirsty, they gave me vinegar to drink. (Ps. 69:22)
AUGUSTINE. (ubi sup.) That which follows, But he received it not, must’ mean, He received it not to drink, but only tasted it, as Matthew witnesses. And what the same Matthew relates, he would not drink, Mark expresses by, he received it not, but was silent as to His tasting it.
PSEUDO-JEROME. He also refused to take sin for which He suffered, wherefore it is said of Him, I then paid the things that I never took. There follows: And when they had crucified him, they parted his garments, casting lots upon them, what every man should take. (Ps. 68:5. Vulg.) In this place salvation is figured by the wood; the first wood was that of the tree of knowledge of good and evil; the second wood is one of unmixed good for us, and is the wood of life. The first hand stretched out to the wood caught hold of death; the second found again the life which had been lost. By this wood we are carried through a stormy sea to the land of the living, for by His cross Christ has taken away our torment, and by His death has killed our death.b With the form of a serpent He kills the serpent, for the serpent made out of the rod swallowed up the other serpents. But what means the shape itself of the cross, save the four quarters of the world; the East shines from the top, the North is on the right, the South on the left, the West is firmly fixed under the feet. Wherefore the Apostle says: That we may know what is the height, and breadth, and length, and depth. (Eph. 3:18) Birds, when they fly in the air, take the shape of a cross; a man swimming in the waters is borne up by the form of a cross. A ship is blown along by its yards, which are in the shape of the cross. The letter Tau is written as the sign of salvation and of the cross.
BEDE. (ubi sup.) Or else, in the transverse beam of the cross, where the hands are fixed, the joy of hope is set forth; for by the hands we understand good works, by its expansion the joy of him who does them, because sadness puts us in straits. By the height to which the head is joined, we understand the expectation of reward from the lofty righteousness of God; by the length, over which the whole body is stretched, patience, wherefore patient men are called long-suffering; by the depth, which is fixed in the ground, the hidden Sacrament itself. As long therefore as our bodies work here to the destruction of the body of sin, it is the time of the cross for us.
THEOPHYLACT. But their casting lots for His garments was also meant as an insult, as though they were dividing the clothes of a king; for they were coarse and of no great value. And John’s Gospel shews this more clearly, for the soldiers, though they divided every thing else into four parts, according to their number, cast lots for the coat, which was without seam, woven from the top throughout. (John 19:23)
PSEUDO-JEROME. Now the garments of the Lord are His commandments, by which His body, that is, the Church, is covered; which the soldiers of the Gentiles divide amongst themselves, that there may be four classes with one faith, the married, and the widowed, those who bear rule, and those who are separatec. They cast lots for the undivided garment, which is peace and unity. It goes on: And it was the third hour, and they crucified him. Mark has introduced this truly and rightly, for at the sixth hour darkness overspread the earth, so that no one could move his head.
AUGUSTINE. (de Con. Evan. iii. 13) If Jesus was given up to the Jews to be crucified, when Pilate sat down at his tribunal about the sixth hour, as John relates, how could He be crucified at the third hour, as many persons have thought from not understanding the words of Mark? First then let us see at what hour He might have been crucified, then we shall see why Mark said that He was crucified at the third hour. It was about the sixth hour when He was given up to be crucified by Pilate sitting on his judgment seat, as has been said, for it was not yet fully the sixth hour, but about the sixth, that is, the fifth was over, and some of the sixth had begun, so that those things which are related of the crucifixion of our Lord took place after the finishing of the fifth, and at the commencement of the sixth, until, when the sixth was completed and He was hanging on the cross, the darkness which is spoken of took place. Let us now consider, why Mark has said, It was the third hour. He had already said positively, And when they had crucified him, they parted his garments; as also the others declare, that when He was crucified His garments were divided. Now if Mark had wished to fix the time of what was done, it would have been enough to say, And it was the third hour, why did He add, and they crucified him, unless it was that he wished to point to something which had gone before, and which if enquired into would be explained, since that same Scripture was to be read at a time, when it was known to the whole Church at what hour our Lord was crucified, by which means any error might be taken away, and any falsehood be refuted. But because he knew that the Lord was fixed to the cross not by the Jews but by the soldiers, as John very plainly shews, he wished to intimate that the Jews had crucified Him, since they cried out, Crucify Him, rather than those who executed the orders of their chief according to their duty. It is therefore implied, that it took place at the third hour when the Jews cried out, Crucify Him, and it is most truly shewn that they crucified Him, when they so cried out. But in the attempt of Pilate to save the Lord, and the tumultuous opposition of the Jews, we understand that a space of two hours was consumed, and that the sixth hour had begun, before the end of which, those things occurred which are related to have taken place from the time when Pilate gave up the Lord, and the darkness overspread the earth. Now he who will apply himself to these things, without the hard-heartedness of impiety, will see that Mark has fitly placed it at the third hour, in the same place as the deed of the soldiers who were the executors of it is related. Therefore lest any one should transfer in his thoughts so great a crime from the Jews to the soldiers, he says it was the third hour, and they crucified him, that the fault might rather by a careful enquirer be charged to them, who, as he would find, had at the third hour cried out for His crucifixion, whilst at the same time it would be seen that what was done by the soldiers was done at the sixth hourd.
PSEUDO-AUGUSTINE. (Quæst. Vet. et Nov. Test. 65) Therefore he wishes to imply that it was the Jews who passed sentence concerning the crucifixion of Christ at the third hour; for every condemned person is considered as dead, from the moment that sentence is passed upon him. Mark therefore shewed that our Saviour was not crucified by the sentence of the judge, because it is difficult to prove the innocence of a man so condemned.
AUGUSTINE. (ubi sup.) Still there are not wanting persons who assert that the preparation, mentioned by John, Now it was the preparation about the sixth hour, was really the third hour of the day. For they say that on the day before the sabbath day, there was a preparation of the passover of the Jews, because on that sabbath, they began the unleavened bread; but however that the true passover, which is now celebrated on the day of our Lord’s Passion, that is, the Christian not the Jewish passover, began to be prepared, or to have its parasceue, from that ninth hour of the night, when His death began to be prepared by the Jews; for parasceue means preparation. Between that hour therefore of the night and His crucifixion occurs the sixth hour of preparation, according to John, and the third hour of the day, according to Mark. What Christian would not give in to this solution of the question, provided that we could find some circumstance, from which we might gather that this preparation of our Passover, that is, of the death of Christ, began at the ninth hour of the night? For if we say that it began when our Lord was taken by the Jews, it was still early in the night, but if when our Lord was carried away to the house of the father in law of Caiaphas, where also He was heard by the chief priests, the cock had not crowed; but if when He was given up to Pilate, it is very plain that it was morning. It remains therefore that we must understand the preparation of our Lord’s death to have commenced when all the Chief Priests pronounced, He is guilty of death. For there is nothing absurd in supposing that that was the ninth hour of the night, so that we may understand that Peter’s denial is put out of its order after it really happened. It goes on: And the superscription of his accusation was written over, THE KING OF THE JEWS.
THEOPHYLACT. They wrote this superscription, as the reason why He was crucified, thus wishing to reprove His vainglory in making Himself a king, that so the passers by might not pity Him, but rather hate Him as a tyrant.
PSEUDO-JEROME. He wrote it in three languages, in Hebrew, Melech Jeudim; in Greek, βασιλεὺς ἐξομολογητῶν in Latin, Rex confessorum. These three languages were consecrated to be the chief, in the superscription on the cross, that every tongue might record the treachery of the Jews.
BEDE. (ubi sup.) But this superscription on the cross shews, that they could not even in killing Him take away the kingdom over them from Him who was about to render unto them according to their works. There follows: And with him they crucify two thieves, the one on his right hand, the other on his left.
THEOPHYLACT. They did this that men might have a bad opinion of Him, as though He also were a robber and a malefactor. But it was done by Providence to fulfil the Scriptures. There follows: And the Scripture was fulfilled which saith, And he was numbered with the transgressors.
PSEUDO-JEROME. Truth was numbered with the wicked; He left one on His left hand, the other He takes on the right, as He will do at the last day. With a similar crime they are allotted different paths; one precedes Peter into Paradise, the other Judas into hell. A short confession won for him a long life, and a blasphemy which soon ended is punished with endless pain.
BEDE. (ubi sup.) Mystically, however, the thieves crucified with Christ signify those, who by their faith and confession of Christ undergo either the struggle of martyrdom, or some rules of a stricter discipline. But those who do these deeds for the sake of endless glory, are signified by the faith of the right hand robber; those again who do them for worldly praise copy the mind and the acts of the left hand robber.
THEOPHYLACT. Or else; the two robbers were meant to point out the two people, that is, the Jews and the Gentiles, for both were evil, the Gentile as transgressing natural law, but the Jew by breaking the written law, which the Lord had delivered to them; but the Gentile was penitent, the Jew a blasphemer unto the end. Between whom our Lord is crucified, for He is the corner stone, which binds us together.
29. And they that passed by railed on him, wagging their heads, and saying, Ah, thou that destroyest the temple, and buildest it in three days,
30. Save thyself, and come down from the cross.
31. Likewise also the Chief Priests mocking said among themselves with the Scribes, He saved others; himself he cannot save.
32. Let Christ the King of Israel descend now from the cross, that we may see and believe. And they that were crucified with him reviled him.
PSEUDO-JEROME. The foal of Judah (Gen. 49:11.) has been tied to the vine, and his clothes dyed in the blood of the grape, and the kids tear the vine, blaspheming Christ, and wagging their heads. Wherefore it is said: And they that passed by railed on him, wagging their heads, and saying, Ah, thou that destroyest the temple.
THEOPHYLACT. For the passers by blasphemed Christ, reproaching Him as a seducer. But the devil moved them to bid Him come down from the Cross; for he knew that salvation was being won by the Cross, therefore he again proceeded to tempt Christ, so that if He came down from the Cross, he might be certain that He is not truly the Son of God, and so the salvation, which is by the Cross, might be done away. But He being truly the Son of God, did not come down; for if He ought to have come down, He would not have ascended there at all; but since He saw that in this way salvation must be effected, He underwent the crucifixion, and many other sufferings, unto the finishing of His work. It goes on: Likewise also the Chief Priests mocking said among themselves with the Scribes, He saved others, himself he cannot save. They said this, to do away with His miracles, as though those which He had done were but the semblance of them, for by working miracles He saved many.
BEDE. (ubi sup.) Thus also they confess, though against their will, that He saved many. Therefore your words condemn you, for He who saved others could have saved Himself. It goes on: Let Christ the King of Israel descend now from the cross, that we may see and believe.
PSEUDO-JEROME. Afterwards they saw Him arise from the grave, though they would not believe that He could come down from the tree of the Cross. Where, O Jews, is your lack of faith? Your own selves I appeal to; your own selves I bring as judges. How much more wonderful is it that a dead man should arise, than that one yet living should choose to come down from the cross. Ye asked but small things, till greater should have come to pass; but your want of faith could not be healed by signs much greater than those for which you sought. Here all have gone out of the way, all are become abominable. (Ps. 14:4) Wherefore it goes on: And they that were crucified with him reviled.
AUGUSTINE. (de Con. Evan. 3. 16) How can this be, when according to Luke one only reviled Him, but was rebuked by the other who believed on God; unless we understand that Matthew and Mark, who touched but slightly on this place, put the plural for the singular number?
THEOPHYLACT. Or else, both at first reviled Him, then one recognising Him as innocent, rebukes the other for blaspheming Him.
33. And when the sixth hour was come, there was darkness over the whole land until the ninth hour.
34. And at the ninth hour Jesus cried with a loud voice, saying, Eloi, Eloi, lama sabachthani? which is, being interpreted, My God, my God, why hast thou forsaken me?
35. And some of them that stood by, when they heard it, said, Behold, he calleth Elias.
36. And one ran and filled a spunge full of vinegar, and put it on a reed, and gave him to drink, saying, Let alone; let us see whether Elias will come to take him down.
37. And Jesus cried with a loud voice, and gave up the ghost.
BEDE. (ubi sup.) This most glorious light took away its rays from the world, lest it should see the Lord hanging, and lest the blasphemers should have the benefit of its light. Wherefore it goes on: And when the sixth hour was come, there was darkness over the whole land until the ninth hour.
AUGUSTINE. (de Con. Evan. 3, 17) Luke added to this account the cause of the darkness, that is, the darkening of the sun.
THEOPHYLACT. If this had been the time for an eclipse, some one might have said that this that happened was natural, but it was the fourteenth moon, when no eclipse can take place. There follows: And at the ninth hour Jesus cried with a loud voice, saying, Eloi, Eloi, lama sabachthani.
PSEUDO-JEROME. At the ninth hour, the tenth piece of money which had been lost is found, by the overturning of the house.
BEDE. (ubi sup.) For when Adam sinned, it is also written that he heard the voice of the Lord, walking in paradise, in the cool after mid-day; (Gen. 3:8.) and in that hour when the first Adam by sinning brought death into the world, in that same hour the second Adam by dying destroyed death. And we must observe, that our Lord was crucified, when the sun was going away from the centre of the world; but at sunrise He celebrated the mysteries of His resurrection; because He died for our sins, but rose again for our justification. Nor need you wonder at the lowliness of His words, at the complaints as of one forsaken, when you look on the offence of the cross, knowing the form of a servant. For as hunger, and thirst, and fatigue were not things proper to the Divinity, but bodily affections; so His saying, Why hast thou forsaken me? was proper to a bodily voice, for the body is never naturally wont to wish to be separated from the life which is joined to it. For although our Saviour Himself said this, He really shewed the weakness of His body; He spoke therefore as man, bearing about with Him my feelings, for when placed in danger we fancy that we are deserted by God.
THEOPHYLACT. Or, He speaks this as man crucified by God for me, for we men have been forsaken by the Father, but He never has. For hear what He says; I am not alone, because the Father is with me. (John 16:32) Though He may also have said this as being a Jew, according to the flesh, as though He had said, Why hast thou forsaken the Jewish people, so that they have crucified Thy Son? For as we sometimes say, God has put on me, that is, my human nature, so here also we must understand thou hast forsaken me, to mean my nature, or the Jewish people. It goes on: And some of them that stood by, when they heard it, said, Behold, he calleth Elias.
BEDE. (ubi sup.) These however I suppose were Roman soldiers who did not understand the peculiarity of the Hebrew tongue, but, from His calling Eloi, thought that Elias was called by Him. But if the Jews are understood to have said this, they must be supposed to do this, as accusing Him of folly in calling for the aid of Elias. It goes on: And one ran and filled a sponge full of vinegar, and put it on a reed, and gave him to drink, saying, Let alone: let us see whether Elias will come to take him down. John shews more fully the reason why the vinegar was given to the Lord to drink, saying, that Jesus said, I thirst, (John 19:28.) that the Scriptures might be fulfilled. They however applied a sponge full of vinegar to His mouth.
PSEUDO-JEROME. Here he points out a similitude for the Jews; a sponge on a reed, weak, dry, fit for burning; they fill it with vinegar, that is, with wickedness and guile.
AUGUSTINE. (ubi sup.) Matthew has not related, that the man who brought the sponge filled with vinegar, but that the others spoke about Elias; from whence we gather that both said it.
PSEUDO-JEROME. Though the flesh was weak, yet the heavenly voice, which said, Open me the gates of righteousness, (Ps. 117:19) waxed strong. Wherefore there follows: And Jesus cried with a loud voice, and gave up the ghost. We who are of the earth die with a very low voice, or with no voice at all; but He who descended from heaven breathed His last with a loud voice.
THEOPHYLACT. He who both rules over death and commands it dies with power, as its Lord. But what this voice was is declared by Luke: Father, into thy hands I commend my spirit. For Christ would have us understand by this, that from that time the souls of the saints go up into the hands of God. (v. note u, p. 217) For at first the souls of all were held in hell, till He came, who preached the opening of the prison to the captives.
38. And the veil of the temple was rent in twain from the top to the bottom.
39. And when the centurion, which stood over against him, saw that he so cried out, and gave up the ghost, he said, Truly this man was the Son of God.
40. There were also women looking on afar off: among whom was Mary Magdalene, and Mary the mother of James the less and of Joses, and Salome;
41. (Who also, when he was in Galilee, followed him, and mininistered unto him;) and many other women which came up with him unto Jerusalem.
GLOSS. After the Evangelist has related the Passion and the death of Christ, he now goes on to mention those things which followed after the death of our Lord. Wherefore it is said: And the veil of the temple was rent in twain from the top to the bottom.
PSEUDO-JEROME. The veil of the temple is rent, that is, the heaven is opened.
THEOPHYLACT. Again, God by the rending of the veil implied that the grace of the Holy Spirit goes away and is rent from the temple, so that the Holy of holies might be seen by all;e also that the temple will mourn amongst the Jews, when they shall deplore their calamities, and rend their clothes. This also is a figure of the living temple, that is, the body of Christ, in whose Passion His garment is torn, that is, His flesh. Again, it means another thing; for the flesh is the veil of our temple, that is, of our mind. But the power of the flesh is torn in the Passion of Christ, from the top to the bottom, that is, from Adam even down to the latest man; for also Adam was made whole by the Passion of Christ, and his flesh does not remain under the curse, nor does it deserve corruption, but we all are gifted with incorruption. And when the centurion who stood over against him saw. He who commands a hundred soldiers is called a centurion. But seeing that He died with such power as the Lord, he wondered and confessed.
BEDE. (ubi sup.) Now the cause of the centurion’s wonder is clear, that seeing that the Lord died in that way, that is, sent forth His spirit, he said, Truly this man was the Son of God. For no one can send forth his own spirit, but He who is the Creator of souls.
AUGUSTINE. (de Trin. 4, 13) This also he most of all wondered at, that after that voice which He sent forth as a figure of our sin, He immediately gave up His spirit. For the spirit of the Mediator shewed that no penalty of sin could have had power to cause the death of His flesh; for it did not leave the flesh unwillingly, but as it willed, for it was joined to the Word of God in the unity of person.
PSEUDO-JEROME. But the last are now made the first. The Gentile people confesses. The blinded Jew denies, so that their error is worse than the first.
THEOPHYLACT. And so the order is inverted, for the Jew kills, and the Gentile confesses; the disciples fly, and the women remain. For there follows: There were also women looking on afar off, amongst whom was Mary Magdalene, and Mary the mother of James the less and of Joses, and Salome.
ORIGEN. (in Matt. Tract. 35) But it seems to me, that here three women are chiefly named, by Matthew and Mark. Two indeed are set down by each Evangelist, Mary Magdalene, and Mary the mother of James; the third is called by Matthew, the mother of the sons of Zebedee, but by Mark she is called Salome.
BEDE. (ubi sup.) He means by James the Less, the son of Alphæus, who was also called the brother of our Lord, because he was the son of Mary, our Lord’s mother’s sister, whom John mentions, saying, Now there stood by the cross of Jesus his mother and his mother’s sister, Mary of Cleophas, and Mary Magdalene. (John 19:25) And he seems to call her Mary of Cleophas, from her father or some relation. But he was called James the Less, to distinguish him from James the Great, that is, the son of Zebedee, who was called amongst the first of the Apostles by our Lord. Further, it was a Jewish custom, nor was it thought blamable after the manners of an ancient people, that women should furnish to teachers food and clothing out of their substance. Wherefore there follows: Who also when he was in Galilee followed him, and ministered unto him. They ministered unto the Lord of their substance, that He might reap their carnal things whose spiritual things they reaped, and that He might shew forth a type for all masters, who ought to be content with food and clothing from their disciples. But let us see what companions He had with Him, for it goes on: And many other women which came up with him into Jerusalem.
PSEUDO-JEROME. As the female sex through the Virgin Mary is not shut out from salvation, so it is not thrust away from the knowledge of the mystery of the cross, and of the resurrection, through the widow Mary Magdalene, and the others, who were mothers.
42. And now when the even was come, because it was the preparation, that is, the day before the sabbath,
43. Joseph of Arimathæa, an honourable counsellor, which also waited for the kingdom of God, came, and went in boldly unto Pilate, and craved the body of Jesus.
44. And Pilate marvelled if he were already dead: and calling unto him the centurion, he asked him whether he had been any while dead.
45. And when he knew it of the centurion, he gave the body to Joseph.
46. And he bought fine linen, and took him down, and wrapped him in the linen, and laid him in a sepulchre which was hewn out of a rock, and rolled a stone unto the door of the sepulchre.
47. And Mary Magdalene and Mary the mother of Joses beheld where he was laid.
GLOSS. (non occ.) After the passion and death of Christ, the Evangelist relates His burial, saying, And now when the even was come, because it was the preparation, that is, the day before the sabbath, Joseph of Arimathæa.
BEDE. (ubi sup.) What is called parasceue in Greek, is in Latin præparatio; by which name those Jews, who lived amongst Greeks, used to call the sixth day of the week, because on that day they used to prepare what was necessary for the rest of the sabbath day. Because then man was made on the sixth day, but on the seventh the Creator rested from all His work, fitly was our Saviour crucified on the sixth day, and thus fulfilled the mystery of man’s restoration. But on the sabbath, resting in the tomb, He was waiting for the event of the resurrection, which was to come on the eighth day. So we must also in this age of time be crucified to the world; but in the seventh day, that is, when a man has paid the debt to death, our bodies indeed must rest in the grave, but our souls after good works in hidden peace with God; till in the eighth period, even our bodies themselves, glorified in the resurrection, receive incorruption together with our souls. But the man who buried the body of the Lord must needs by his righteous merits have been worthy, and by the nobility of worldly power able to perform this service. Therefore it is said, An honourable counsellor, which also waited for the kingdom of God. He is called in Latin, decurio, because he is of the order of the curia, and served the office of a provincial magistracy; this officer was also called curialis, from his care of civic duties. Arimathæa is the same as Ramathain, the city of Elkanah and Samuel.
PSEUDO-JEROME. It is interpreted, taking down, of which was Joseph, who came to take down the body of Christ from the cross. There follows: Came and went in boldly unto Pilate, and craved the body of Jesus.
THEOPHYLACT. He was bold with a praiseworthy boldness; for he did not consider within himself, I shall fall from my rich estate, and I shall be expelled by the Jews, if I beg for the body of Him, who was condemned as a blasphemer. It goes on: And Pilate marvelled if he were already dead. For he thought that He should continue long alive upon the cross, as also the thieves used to live long, upon the instrument of their execution. It goes on: And calling unto him the centurion, he asked him if he had been any while dead; that is, before the time when other executed persons usually died. There follows: And when he knew it of the centurion, (that is, that He was dead,) he gave the body to Joseph.
BEDE. (ubi sup.) But it was not an obscure person, nor a man of mean rank, who could come to the governor and obtain the body. There follows: And he bought fine linen, and took him down, and wrapped him in the linen.
THEOPHYLACT. Burying the precious body preciously; for being a disciple of our Lord, he knew how greatly the Lord’s body ought to be honoured.
BEDE. (ubi sup.) By this however, according to a spiritual meaning, we may understand that the body of the Lord should not be wrapped in gold or gems, or silk, but in a clean linen cloth. Hence it became a custom in the Church that the sacrifice of the altar should not be celebrated in silk, or in a dyed cloth, but in linen produced from the earth, just as the body of the Lord was wrapped in clean linen; as, we read in the Pontifical acts, it was ordered by the blessed Sylvesterf. Though it has also another meaning, that he who receives Jesus in a pure mind wraps Him in clean linen. There follows: And laid him in a sepulchre which was hewn out of a rock, and rolled a stone unto the door of the sepulchre. It is said that the sepulchre of the Lord is a round cell, hewn out of the rock which was around it, so high, that a man standing upright could scarcely touch the roof with his outstretched hand; and it has an entrance to the east, to which the great stone was rolled, and placed upon it. In the northern part of it is the tomb itself, that is, the place where our Lord’s body lay, made of the same rock, seven feet in length, raised three palms higher than the floor. It is not open from above, but on the south side, the whole of which is open, and through which the body was brought in. The colour of the sepulchre and of the recess is said to be a mixed white and red.
PSEUDO-JEROME. By the burial of Christ we rise again, by His going down into hell we mount up into heaven; here is found the honey in the mouth of the dead lion.
THEOPHYLACT. Let us too imitate Joseph, taking to ourselves the body of Christ by Unity, and let us place it in a sepulchre, hewn out of the rock, that is, in a soul recollected, never forgetful of God; for this is a soul hewn out of the rock, that is, out of Christ, for He is our rock, who holds together our strength. We ought also to wrap Him in linen, that is, to receive Him in a pure body; for the linen is the body which is the clothing of the soul. We must, however, not throw open, but wrap Him up; for He is secret, closed and hidden. There follows: And Mary Magdalene and Mary the mother of Joses beheld where he was laid.
BEDE. We read in Luke, that His acquaintances and the women who had followed Him stood afar off. When these then who were known to Jesus returned home after the burial of His body, the women alone, who were bound to Him with a closer love, after following the funeral, took care to see how He was laid, that they might be able at a fitting season to offer Him the sacrifice of their devotion. But on the day of the parasceue, that is, of the preparation, the holy women, that is, humble souls, do the same, when they burn with love for the Saviour, and diligently follow the steps of His Passion in this life, where their future rest is to be prepared; and they weigh with a pious minuteness the order in which His passion was accomplished, if perchance they be able to imitate it.
PSEUDO-JEROME. These things also fit the Jewish people, which finally is believing, which is ennobled by faith to become the child of Abraham. It lays aside its despair, it waits for the kingdom of God, it goes in to the Christians, that it may be baptized; which is implied by the name of Pilate, which is interpreted, ‘One who works with a hammer,’ that is, he who subdues the iron nations, that he may rule them with a rod of iron. It seeks for the sacrifice, that is, the viaticum, which is given to penitents at their last end, and wraps it up in a heart clean and dead to sin; it makes it firm in the safeguard of faith, and shuts it up with the covering of hope, through works of charity; (for the end of the commandment is charity;) (1 Tim. 1:5) whilst the elect, who are the stars of the sea, are looking on from afar, for, if it be possible, the very elect shall be offended.
Catena Aurea Mark 15
From: Mark 11:1-10
The Messiah Enters Jerusalem
 And when they drew near to Jerusalem, to Bethphage and Bethany, at the Mount of Olives, he sent two of his disciples,  and said to them, “Go into the village opposite you, and immediately as you enter it you will find a colt tied, on which no one has ever sat; untie it and bring it.  If any one says to you, ‘Why are you doing this?’ say, ‘The Lord has need of it and will send it back here immediately.”  And they went away, and found a colt tied at the door out in the open street; and they untied it.  And those who stood there said to them, “What are you doing, untying the colt?”  And they told them what Jesus had said; and they let them go.  And they brought the colt to Jesus, and threw their garments on it; and be sat upon it.  And many spread their garments on the road, and others spread leafy branches which they had cut from the fields.  And those who went before and those who followed cried out, “Hosanna! Blessed is be who comes.in the name of the Lord!  Blessed is the kingdom of Our father David that is coming! Hosanna in the highest!”
 And he entered Jerusalem, and went into the temple; and when he had looked around at everything, as it was already late, he went out to Bethany with the twelve.
1-11. Jesus had visited Jerusalem various times before, but he never did so in this way. Previously he had not wanted to be recognized as the Messiah; he avoided the enthusiasm of the crowd; but now he accepts their acclaim and even implies that it is justified, by entering the city in the style of a pacific king. Jesus’s public ministry is about to come to a close: he has completed his mission; he has preached and worked miracles; he has revealed himself as God wished he should; now in this triumphant entry into Jerusalem he shows that he is the Messiah. The people, by shouting “Blessed is he who comes in the name of the Lord! Blessed is the kingdom of our father David that is coming!”, are proclaiming Jesus as the long-awaited Messiah. When the leaders of the people move against him some days later, they reject this recognition the people have given him. Cf. notes on Mt 21:1-5 and 21:9.
3. Although, absolutely speaking, our Lord has no need of man, in fact he does choose to use us to carry out his plans just as he made use of the donkey for his entry into Jerusalem. “Jesus makes do with a poor animal for a throne. I don’t know about you; but I am not humiliated to acknowledge that in the Lord’s eyes I am a beast of burden: ‘I am like a donkey in your presence; nevertheless I am continually with you. You hold my right hand,’ (Ps 72:23), you take me by the bridle.
“Try to remember what a donkey is like--now that so few of them are left. Not an old, stubborn, vicious one that would give you a kick when you least expected, but a young one with his ears up like antennae. He lives on a meagre diet, is hard-working and has a quick, cheerful trot. There are hundreds of animals more beautiful, more deft and strong. But it was a donkey Christ chose when he presented himself to the people as king in response to their acclamation. For Jesus has no time for calculations, for astuteness, for the cruelty of cold hearts, for attractive but empty beauty. What he likes is the cheerfulness of a young heart, a simple step, a natural voice, clean .eyes, attention to his affectionate word of advice. That is how he reigns in the soul” ([St] J. Escriva, "Christ Is Passing By", 181).
Third Song of the Servant of the Lord
 The Lord GOD has given me the tongue of those who are taught; that I may know how to sustain with a word him that is weary. Morning by morning he wakens, he wakens my ear to hear as those who are taught.  The Lord GOD has opened my ear, and I was not rebellious, I turned not backward. I gave my back to the smiters, and my cheeks to those who pulled out the beard; I hid not my face from shame and spitting.
 For the LORD GOD helps me; therefore I have not been confounded; therefore I have set my face like a flint, and I know that I shall not be put to shame;  he who vindicates me is near. Who will contend with me? Let us stand up together. Who is my adversary? Let him come near me. [9a] Behold, the Lord GOD helps me; who will declare me guilty?
50:4-9. The second song dealt with the servant’s mission (cf. 49:6); the third song focuses on the servant himself. The term “servant” as such does not appear here, and therefore some commentators read the passage as being a description of a prophet and not part of the songs. Still, the context (cf. 50:10) does suggest that the protagonist is the servant. The poem is neatly constructed in three stanzas, each beginning with the words, “The Lord God” (vv. 4, 5, 7), and it has a conclusion containing that same wording (v. 9). The first stanza emphasizes the servant’s docility to the word of God; that is, he is not depicted as a self-taught teacher with original ideas, but as an obedient disciple. The second (vv. 5-6) speaks of the suffering that that docility has brought him, without his uttering a word of complaint. The third (vv. 7-8) shows how determined the servant is: if he suffers in silence, it is not out of cowardice but because God helps him and makes him stronger than his persecutors. The conclusion (v. 9) is like the verdict of a trial: when all is said and done, the servant will stand tall, and all his enemies will be struck down.
The evangelists saw the words of this song as finding fulfillment in Jesus--especially what the song has to say about the suffering and silent fortitude of the servant. The Gospel of John, for example, quotes Nicodemus’ acknowledgment of Christ’s wisdom: “Rabbi, we know that you are a teacher come from God; for no one can do these signs that you do, unless God is with him” (Jn 3:21). But the description of the servant’s sufferings was the part that most impressed the early Christians; that part of the song was recalled when they meditated on the passion of Jesus and how “they spat in his face; and struck him; and some slapped him” (Mt 26:67) and later how the Roman soldiers “spat upon him, and took the reed and struck him on the head” (Mt 27:30; cf. also Mk 15:19; Jn 19:3). St Paul refers to v. 9 when applying to Christ Jesus the role of intercessor on behalf of the elect in the suit pressed constantly against them by the enemies of the soul: “Who shall bring any charge against God’s elect?” (Rom 8:33).
St Jerome sees the servant’s docility as a reference to Christ: “His self-discipline and wisdom enabled him to communicate to us the knowledge of the Father. And he was obedient onto death, death on the cross; he offered his body to the blows they struck, his shoulders to the lash; and though he was wounded on the chest and on his face, he did not try to turn away and escape their violence” ("Commentarii In Isaiam", 50, 4). This passage is used in the liturgy of Palm Sunday (along with Psalm 22 and St Paul’s hymn in the Letter to the Philippians 2:6-11), before the reading of our Lord’s passion.
Unity and Humility
 So if there is any encouragement in Christ, any incentive of love, any participation in the Spirit, any affection and sympathy,  complete my joy by being of the same mind, having the same love, being in full accord and of one mind.  Do nothing from selfishness or conceit, but in humility count others better than yourselves.  Let each of you look not only to his own interests, but also to the interests of others.
Hymn in Praise of Christ's Self-Emptying
 Have this mind among yourselves, which was in Christ Jesus,)  who, though He was in the form of God, did not count equality with God a thing to be grasped,  but emptied Himself, taking the form of a servant, being born in the likeness of men.  And being found in human form He humbled Himself and became obedient unto death, even death on a cross.  Therefore God has highly exalted Him and bestowed on Him the name which is above every name,  that at the name of Jesus every knee should bow, in Heaven and on earth and under the earth,  and every tongue confess that Jesus Christ is Lord, to the glory of God the Father.
1-4. Verse 1 begins with a very awkwardly constructed clause, which the New Vulgate and the RSV translate literally. It is a conditional, rhetorical clause, rather than an affirmative statement, and its meaning is clarified by the rest of the sentence.
St Paul is making an affectionate appeal to the Christian good sense of the faithful; he seems to be saying: "If you want to console me in Christ, complete my joy by paying attention to the advice I am now going to give you" (cf. St Thomas Aquinas, "Commentary on Phil, ad loc.").
The Apostle recommends that they should always act humbly and with an upright intention (vv. 3-4) if they want charity to reign among them (v. 2). In their work and social life ordinary Christians should be upright in all their dealings. They should go about everything, even apparently unimportant things, in a humble way, doing them for God. But they should also remember that their behavior has an effect on others. "Don't forget that you are also in the presence of men, and that they expect from you, from you personally, a Christian witness. Thus, as regards the human dimension of our job, we must work in such a way that we will not feel ashamed when those who know us and love us see us at our work, nor give them cause to feel embarrassed" ([St] J. Escriva, "Friends of God", 66).
This fact that our behavior can encourage others and set a headline for them means that we need to act very responsibly: "Let us try therefore, brethren," St Augustine says, "not only to be good but to conduct ourselves well in the eyes of others. Let us try to see that there is nothing that our conscience upbraids us for, and also, bearing in mind our weakness, do all that we can, to avoid disedifying our less mature brother" ("Sermon 47", 14).
3-11. Verse 3 exhorts us to see others as better than ourselves. Our Lord, although he was our superior in all respects, did not see his divinity as something to boast about before men (v. 6). In fact, he humbled himself and emptied himself (vv. 7-8), was not motivated by conceit or selfishness (cf. v. 3), did not look to his own interests (cf. v. 4), and "became obedient unto death" (v. 8), thereby carrying out the Father's plan for man's salvation. By reflecting on his example we shall come to see that suffering for Christ is a sign of salvation (cf. 1:28-29): after undergoing the sufferings of his passion and death, Christ was publicly exalted above all creation (cf. vv. 9-11).
Our Lord offers us a perfect example of humility. "The coming of our Lord Jesus Christ, the Scepter of God's Majesty, was in no pomp of pride and haughtiness--as it could so well have been--but in self-abasement [...]. You see, dear friends, what an example we have been given. If the Lord humbled himself in this way, what ought we to do, who through him have come under the yoke of his guidance?" (St Clement of Rome, "Letter to the Corinthians", 13).
3-4. "'In every man,' writes St Thomas Aquinas, 'there are some grounds for others to look on him as superior, according to the Apostle's words, "Each of us must have the humility to think others better men than himself" (Phil 2:3). It is in this spirit that all men are bound to honor one another' ("Summa Theologiae", II-II, q. 103, a. 2). Humility is the virtue that teaches us that signs of respect for others--their good name, their good faith, their privacy--are not external conventions, but the first expressions of charity and justice.
"Christian charity cannot confine itself to giving things or money to the needy. It seeks, above all, to respect and understand each person for what he is, in his intrinsic dignity as a man and child of God" ([St] J. Escriva, "Christ Is Passing By", 72).
5. The Apostle's recommendation, "'Have this mind among yourselves, which was in Christ Jesus, requires all Christians, so far as human power allows, to reproduce in themselves the sentiments that Christ had when He was offering Himself in sacrifice--sentiments of humility, of adoration, praise, and thanksgiving to the divine majesty. It requires them also to become victims, as it were; cultivating a spirit of self-denial according to the precepts of the Gospel, willingly doing works of penance, detesting and expiating their sins. It requires us all, in a word, to die mystically with Christ on the Cross, so that we may say with the same Apostle: 'I have been crucified with Christ' (Galatians 2:19)" ([Pope] Pius XII, "Mediator Dei", 22).
6-11. In what he says about Jesus Christ, the Apostle is not simply proposing Him as a model for us to follow. Possibly transcribing an early liturgical hymn (and) adding some touches of his own, he is--under the inspiration of the Holy Spirit--giving a very profound exposition of the nature of Christ and using the most sublime truths of faith to show the way Christian virtues should be practiced.
This is one of the earliest New Testament texts to reveal the divinity of Christ. The epistle was written around the year 62 (or perhaps before that, around 55) and if we remember that the hymn of Philippians 2:6-11 may well have been in use prior to that date, the passage clearly bears witness to the fact that Christians were proclaiming, even in those very early years, that Jesus, born in Bethlehem, crucified, died and buried, and risen from the dead, was truly both God and man.
The hymn can be divided into three parts. The first (verses 6 and the beginning of 7) refers to Christ's humbling Himself by becoming man. The second (the end of verse 7 and verse 8) is the center of the whole passage and proclaims the extreme to which His humility brought Him: as man He obediently accepted death on the cross. The third part (verses 9-11) describes His exaltation in glory. Throughout St. Paul is conscious of Jesus' divinity: He exists from all eternity. But he centers his attention on His death on the cross as the supreme example of humility. Christ's humiliation lay not in His becoming a man like us and cloaking the glory of His divinity in His sacred humanity: it also brought Him to lead a life of sacrifice and suffering which reached its climax on the cross, where He was stripped of everything He had, like a slave. However, now that He has fulfilled His mission, He is made manifest again, clothed in all the glory that befits His divine nature and which His human nature has merited.
The man-God, Jesus Christ, makes the cross the climax of His earthly life; through it He enters into His glory as Lord and Messiah. The Crucifixion puts the whole universe on the way to salvation.
Jesus Christ gives us a wonderful example of humility and obedience. "We should learn from Jesus' attitude in these trials," [St.] Monsignor Escriva reminds us. "During His life on earth He did not even want the glory that belonged to Him. Though He had the right to be treated as God, He took the form of a servant, a slave (cf. Philippians 2:6-7). And so the Christian knows that all glory is due God and that he must not use the sublimity and greatness of the Gospel to further his own interests or human ambitions.
"We should learn from Jesus. His attitude in rejecting all human glory is in perfect balance with the greatness of His unique mission as the beloved Son of God who becomes incarnate to save men" ("Christ Is Passing By", 62).
6-7. "Though He was in the form of God" or "subsisting in the form of God": "form" is the external aspect of something and manifests what it is. When referring to God, who is invisible, His "form" cannot refer to things visible to the senses; the "form of God" is a way of referring to Godhead. The first thing that St. Paul makes clear is that Jesus Christ is God, and was God before the Incarnation. As the "Nicene-Constantinopolitan Creed" professes it, "the only-begotten Son of God, born of the Father before time began, light from light, true God from true God."
"He did not count equality with God as something to be grasped": the Greek word translated as "equality" does not directly refer to equality of nature but rather the equality of rights and status. Christ was God and He could not stop being God; therefore, He had a right to be treated as God and to appear in all His glory. However, He did not insist on this dignity of His as if it were a treasure which He possessed and which was legally His: it was not something He clung to and boasted about. And so He took "the form of a servant". He could have become man without setting His glory aside--He could have appeared as He did, momentarily, as the Transfiguration (cf. Matthew 17:1ff); instead He chose to be like men, in all things but sin (cf. verse 7). By becoming man in the way He did, He was able, as Isaiah prophesied in the Song of the Servant of Yahweh, to bear our sorrows and to be stricken (cf. Isaiah 53:4).
"He emptied Himself", He despoiled Himself: this is literally what the Greek verb means. But Christ did not shed His divine nature; He simply shed its glory, its aura; if He had not done so it would have shone out through His human nature. From all eternity He exists as God and from the moment of the Incarnation He began to be man. His self-emptying lay not only in the fact that the Godhead united to Himself (that is, to the person of the Son) something which was corporeal and finite (a human nature), but also in the fact that this nature did not itself manifest the divine glory, as it "ought" to have done. Christ could not cease to be God, but He could temporarily renounce the exercise of rights that belonged to Him as God--which was what He did.
Verses 6-8 bring the Christian's mind the contrast between Jesus and Adam. The devil tempted Adam, a mere man, to "be like God" (Genesis 3:5). By trying to indulge this evil desire (pride is a disordered desire for self-advancement) and by committing the sin of disobeying God (cf. Genesis 3:6), Adam drew down the gravest misfortunes upon himself and on his whole line (present potentially in him): this is symbolized in the Genesis passage by his expulsion from Paradise and by the physical world's rebellion against his lordship (cf. Genesis 3:16-24). Jesus Christ, on the contrary, who enjoyed divine glory from all eternity, "emptied Himself": He chooses the way of humility, the opposite way to Adam's (opposite, too, to the way previously taken by the devil). Christ's obedience thereby makes up for the disobedience of the first man; it puts mankind in a position to more than recover the natural and supernatural gifts with which God endowed human nature at the Creation. And so, after focusing on the amazing mystery of Christ's humiliation or self-emptying ("kenosis" in Greek), this hymn goes on joyously to celebrate Christ's exaltation after death.
Christ's attitude in becoming man is, then, a wonderful example of humility. "What is more humble", St. Gregory of Nyssa asks, "than the King of all creation entering into communion with our poor nature? The King of kings and Lord of lords clothes Himself with the form of our enslavement; the Judge of the universe comes to pay tribute to the princes of this world; the Lord of creation is born in a cave; He who encompasses the world cannot find room in the inn...; the pure and incorrupt one puts on the filthiness of our nature and experiences all our needs, experiences even death itself" ("Oratio I In Beatitudinibus").
This self-emptying is an example of God's infinite goodness in taking the initiative to meet man: "Fill yourselves with wonder and gratitude at such a mystery and learn from it. All the power, all the majesty, all the beauty, all the infinite harmony of God, all His great and immeasurable riches. God whole and entire was hidden for our benefit in the humanity of Christ. The Almighty appears determined to eclipse His glory for a time, so as to make it easy for His creatures to approach their Redeemer." ([St] J. Escriva, "Friends of God", 111).
8. Jesus Christ became man "for us men and for our salvation", we profess in the Creed. Everything He did in the course of His life had a salvific value; His death on the cross represents the climax of His redemptive work for, as St. Gregory of Nyssa says, "He did not experience death due to the fact of being born; rather, He took birth upon Himself in order to die" ("Oratio Catechetica Magna", 32).
Our Lord's obedience to the Father's saving plan, involving as it did death on the cross, gives us the best of all lessons in humility. For, in the words of St. Thomas Aquinas, "obedience is the sign of true humility" ("Commentary on Phil., ad loc."). In St. Paul's time death by crucifixion was the most demeaning form of death, for it was inflicted only on criminals. By becoming obedient "unto death, even death on a cross", Jesus was being humble in the extreme. He was perfectly within His rights to manifest Himself in all His divine glory, but He chose instead the route leading to the most ignominious of deaths.
His obedience, moreover, was not simply a matter of submitting to the Father's will, for, as St. Paul points out, He made Himself obedient: His obedience was active; He made the Father's salvific plans His own. He chose voluntarily to give Himself up to crucifixion in order to redeem mankind. "Debasing oneself when one is forced to do so is not humility", St. John Chrysostom explains; "humility is present when one debases oneself without being obliged to do so" ("Hom. on Phil., ad loc.").
Christ's self-abasement and his obedience unto death reveals His love for us, for "greater love has no man than this, that a man lay down his life for his friends" (John 15:13). His loving initiative merits a loving response on our part: we should show that we desire to be one with Him, for love "seeks union, identification with the beloved. United to Christ, we will be drawn to imitate His life of dedication, His unlimited love and His sacrifice unto death. Christ brings us face to face with the ultimate choice: either we spend our life in selfish isolation, or we devote ourselves and all our energies to the service of others" ([St] J. Escriva, "Friends of God", 236).
9-11. "God highly exalted Him": the Greek compounds the notion of exaltation, to indicate the immensity of His glorification. Our Lord Himself foretold this when He said, "He who humbles himself will be exalted" (Luke 14:11).
Christ's sacred humanity was glorified as a reward for His humiliation. The Church's Magisterium teaches that Christ's glorification affects his human nature only, for "in the form of God the Son was equal to the Father, and between the Begetter and the Only-begotten there was no difference in essence, no difference in majesty; nor did the Word, through the mystery of incarnation, lose anything which the Father might later return to Him as a gift" ([Pope] St. Leo the Great, "Promisisse Me Memini", Chapter 8). Exaltation is public manifestation of the glory which belongs to Christ's humanity by virtue of its being joined to the divine person of the Word. This union to the "form of a servant" (cf. verse 7) meant an immense act of humility on the part of the Son, but it led to the exaltation of the human nature He took on.
For the Jews the "name that is above every name" is the name of God (Yahweh), which the Mosaic Law required to be held in particular awe. Also, they regarded a name given to someone, especially if given by God, as not just a way of referring to a person but as expressing something that belonged to the very core of his personality. Therefore, the statement that God "bestowed on Him the name which is above every name" means that God the Father gave Christ's human nature the capacity to manifest the glory of divinity which was His by virtue of the hypostatic union: therefore, it is to be worshipped by the entire universe.
St. Paul describes the glorification of Jesus Christ in terms similar to those used by the prophet Daniel of the Son of Man: "To Him was given dominion and glory and kingdom, that all peoples, nations and languages should serve His Kingdom, one that shall not be destroyed" (Daniel 7:14). Christ's lordship extends to all created things. Sacred Scripture usually speaks of "heaven and earth" when referring to the entire created universe; by mentioning here the underworld it is emphasizing that nothing escapes His dominion. Jesus Christ can here be seen as the fulfillment of Isaiah's prophecy about the universal sovereignty of Yahweh: "To Me every knee shall bow, every tongue shall swear" (Isaiah 45:23). All created things come under His sway, and men are duty-bound to accept the basic truth of Christian teaching: "Jesus Christ is Lord." The Greek word "Kyrios" used here by St. Paul is the word used by the Septuagint, the early Greek version of the Old Testament, to translate the name of God ("Yahweh"). Therefore, this sentence means "Jesus Christ is God."
The Christ proclaimed here as having been raised on high is the man-God who was born and died for our sake, attaining the glory of His exaltation after undergoing the humiliation of the cross. In this also Christ sets us an example: we cannot attain the glory of Heaven unless we understand the supernatural value of difficulties, ill-health and suffering: these are manifestations of Christ's cross present in our ordinary life. "We have to die to ourselves and be born again to a new life. Jesus Christ obeyed in this way, even unto death on a cross (Philippians 2:18); that is why God exalted Him. If we obey God's will, the cross will mean our own resurrection and exaltation. Christ's life will be fulfilled step by step in our own lives. It will be said of us that we have tried to be good children of God, who went about doing good in spite of our weakness and personal shortcomings, no matter how many" ([St] J. Escriva, "Christ Is Passing By", 21).
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