Skip to comments.Erectus Ahoy (Stone Age Voyages)
Posted on 10/22/2003 12:28:49 PM PDT by blam
Prehistoric seafaring floats into view
As the sun edged above the horizon on Jan. 31, 2000, a dozen men boarded a bamboo raft off the east coast of the Indonesian island of Bali. Each gripped a wooden paddle and, in unison, deftly stroked the nearly 40-foot-long craft into the open sea. Their destination: the Stone Age, by way of a roughly 18-mile crossing to the neighboring island of Lombok. Project director Robert G. Bednarik, one of the assembled paddlers, knew that a challenging trip lay ahead, even discounting any time travel. Local fishing crews had told him of the Lombok Strait's fiendishly shifting currents, vicious whirlpools, and unexpected waves far from shore. No matterBednarik knew of no other way to demonstrate that Homo erectus, humanity's evolutionary precursor and perhaps a direct ancestor of Homo sapiens, was the world's first seafarer.
SEA FARE. During a crossing of the Timor Sea to Australia on a bamboo raft, a crew member cooks a tuna he has just harpooned. Bednarik
Such a possibility falls far outside mainstream ideas about the origins of sea travel. Many researchers theorize that Southeast Asian H. sapiens built and navigated the first sea vessels between 60,000 and 40,000 years ago, ultimately piloting them to the open spaces of Australia. However, archaeologists have found precious few remains of prehistoric rafts and boats. The oldest such finds, including wooden canoes and paddles, come from northern Europe and date to at most 9,000 years ago.
Nonetheless, Bednarik says, it's apparent that H. erectuswhich may have survived in Java until 30,000 years agolaunched the first age of ocean journeys between 900,000 and 800,000 years ago. On Flores, an island separated from Bali by ocean waters and the islands of Lombok and Sumbawa, other scientists have dated stone tools at more than 800,000 years old (SN: 3/14/98, p. 164). Although a land bridge connected Bali to mainland Asia at that time, it's unlikely such walkways existed between the other islands, in Bednarik's view.
If hardy teams of H. erectus reached Flores by sea, their mode of transportation remains unknown. Some scientists suspect that small numbers of Stone Age folk accidentally drifted as far as Flores after climbing onto thick mats of vegetation that sometimes form near the Southeast Asian coast.
That speculation doesn't float, contends Bednarik. Only a craft propelled by its occupants could negotiate the treacherous straits separating one Indonesian island from the next. To back up that claim, he launched a project in 1996 to determine what Stone Age groups would have had to do, at a minimum, to reach Flores and its neighboring islands. A lot of hard work, a handful of sea excursions, and a few close calls later, he and his comrades thrust their newest and most improved bamboo raft, dubbed Nale Tasih 4, into the Lombok Strait.
Nearly 12 hours later, after covering a distance of 30 miles, they completed their journeyjust barely.
Through it all, Nale Tasih 4 held up well. Bednarik and a team of Indonesian boat makers and craftsmen built the raft out of natural materials, using sharpened stone tools comparable to those wielded by H. erectus. Despite the simplicity of such implements, prehistoric island colonizers must have possessed a broad range of knowledge and skills to assemble rafts on a par with Nale Tasih 4, Bednarik holds.
Ancient seafaring, he adds, coincided with other cultural advances usually attributed by scientists to H. sapiens, such as communicating with a spoken language and creating the carved and painted symbols that we now call art.
"A quantum leap in cognition and technology occurred around 900,000 years ago," Bednarik says. "All the traits that fundamentally define modern humans were first developed by Homo erectus."
The millennial voyage of Nale Tasih 4 started out swimmingly. After a couple of hours, the vessel reached deep sea, where it floated two-thirds of a mile above the ocean floor. A stubborn current began to muscle against the raft as 5-foot waves peeled off choppy waters.
Furious paddling produced little headway as the current's strength increased. Around noon, an exhausted Balinese paddler collapsed. Responding to a call radioed by Bednarik, a support ship picked up the man and dropped off a replacement.
The going stayed rough throughout the afternoon. Crewmembers couldn't keep the raft from drifting northward in the unrelenting current. Several of them fought off light-headedness brought on by fatigue. It looked as if the crossing might fail.
Then, the wind shifted and the sea calmed. A course correction and final push by the bedraggled paddlers brought Nale Tasih 4 to one of the Gillies Islands, just off Lombok's west coast, shortly after 6 p.m.
Bednarik cherishes such skin-of-the-teeth crossings. As director of the International Institute of Replicative Archaeology in South Caulfield, Australia, he is working to establish the minimum conditions necessary for H. erectus to have hopped from one island to another. Ancient vessels may not have looked like Nale Tasih 4, but they had to have been technological marvels for their time, if the Lombok Strait crossing is any guide.
Bednarik's technological explorations began in August 1997, when he directed 7 months of work on Nale Tasih 1, a 70-foot-long, 15-ton bamboo raft. It included two sails of woven palm leaves rigged on A-frame masts.
Bednarik hoped to sail the craft from the Indonesian island of Timor to Australia, recreating the crossing that presumably occurred as many as 60,000 years ago. However, sea trials indicated that the raft was too heavy to maneuver across the Timor Sea.
That experience resulted in Nale Tasih 2, a 58-foot-long, 2.8-ton bamboo raft rigged with a single palm-leaf sail. In December 1998, a crew guided this vessel from Timor to Australia, taking 13 days to travel nearly 600 miles. Two hollow mangrove tree trunks held fresh water for the travelers. Meals consisted of fish caught with bone harpoons and cooked over a small hearth, as well as rations of palm sugar and fruit.
The trip was no picnic, though. At times, Nale Tasih 2 braved tropical storms that whipped up 16-foot waves. The craft suffered extensive damage during these tempests, including a smashed rudder and a shredded sail. The five-man crew used stone tools to repair the damage at sea.
That mission accomplished, Bednarik turned to a simpler, oar-driven crossing from Bali to Flores that he contends happened as many as 750,000 years before the original Timor-to-Australia voyage. In March 1999, six oarsmen directed Nale Tasih 3 eastward from Bali into the Lombok Strait. The expedition was cut short after 6 hours of rowing, when the crew realized that currents had pulled them too far north to reach Lombok's west coast.
That set the stage for Nale Tasih 4's grueling demonstration of how H. erectus could have conquered a short but taxing stretch of ocean.
Our Stone Age ancestors were certainly smart enough to have traversed a nautical obstacle course such as the Lombok Strait, Bednarik contended in the April Cambridge Archaeological Journal. Findings by researchers working in Asia and Africa suggest that rock art, decorative beads, engraved stones, and hunting spears all originated at least several hundred thousand years before the appearance of H. sapiens. Such accomplishments would require that individuals speak to one another and assign abstract meanings to various objects and symbols, in Bednarik's opinion.
He suspects that genetic and cultural evolution played out slowly among human ancestors over the past 2 million years. Groups that moved across Africa and Asia interbred to some extent and passed cultural innovations back and forth. In this continental melting pot, a hazy biological boundary separated H. erectus from H. sapiens. About 1 million years ago, Stone Age Asians probably congregated near coasts, and their fishing rafts were eventually adapted for sea travel. Remains of these shore inhabitants would have since become submerged and so are unavailable to archaeologists.
In contrast, many scientists maintain that H. sapiens alone developed language and symbolic thought, after having evolved in Africa between 200,000 and 150,000 years ago (SN: 6/14/03, p. 371: http://www.sciencenews.org/20030614/fob1.asp). Interbreeding and cultural exchanges played no role in modern humanity's rise, this camp argues.
Bednarik has no qualms about paddling against the academic mainstream. Over the past 30 years, he's become a self-taught authority on Stone Age rock art. He's written hundreds of scientific articles and now edits three journals, all without having attended a university or earned an academic degree.
CANE CROSSING. Craftsman Abdeslam El Kasmi and scientist Robert Bednarik assemble part of a cane raft on the Moroccan coast of the Strait of Gibraltar. Bednarik
His equally unconventional raft project, reminiscent of Thor Heyerdahl's 1947 voyage from Peru to Polynesia on a balsa raft, has its supporters.
"Maybe Bednarik is right," remarks archaeologist Michael J. Morwood of the University of New England in Armidale, Australia. Morwood directs ongoing excavations on Flores.
Only watercraft navigators and especially hardy, swimming creatures reached the island in the thick of the Stone Age, Morwood says. Dating of stone-tool-bearing sediment indicates that H. erectus occupied the island 840,000 years ago, in his view. At that time, fossil discoveries show that rodents and now-extinct elephants also lived there. Modern versions of these animals are renowned as long-distance swimmers.
"[Stone Age] seafaring appears to have been possible," says anthropologist Tim Bromage of Hunter College, City University of New York. Southeast Asian bamboo that grows in stalks as thick as 12 inches across provides a versatile material for building rafts with the aid of simple stone tools, he notes.
While H. erectus possessed enough smarts to construct rafts and navigate them to nearby islands, Bednarik errs in assuming that the ancient species gradually evolved into modern humanity, maintains anthropologist Russell L. Ciochon of the University of Iowa in Iowa City. Instead, H. erectus evolved in Asia and died out there, while today's people originated in Africa around 200,000 years ago, Ciochon says.
Some scientists, however, don't think any part of Bednarik's theory holds water. Stone Age folk 800,000 years ago didn't make long-range plans, talk to one another, or form cultural groups, so they couldn't have organized efforts to build rafts and row to islands, contends archaeologist Iain Davidson of the University of New England in Australia.
For instance, the singular, unchanging appearance of stone tools from disparate regions throughout most of the Stone Age betrays an absence of cultural traditions in making and using such vital implements, Davidson says. Moreover, there's virtually no evidence of our 800,000-year-old ancestors having practiced group efforts of any kind, he adds. A small number of H. erectus individuals may accidentally have reached Flores, perhaps by floating on mats of vegetation, in Davidson's opinion.
"It seems premature to rule out the use of natural rafts of vegetation in colonization [of Flores]," remarks archaeologist Matthew Spriggs of Australian National University in Canberra. "May [Bednarik's] experiments continue."
The next phase of Bednarik's rafting experiments has moved to Europe. Proposals that H. erectus intentionally traveled to Mediterranean islands and entered Europe from Africa via the Strait of Gibraltar have attracted considerable controversy (SN: 1/4/97, p. 12).
Bednarik is now directing the construction of rafts made out of cane that grows near the Mediterranean Sea. His team will attempt crossings from the coasts of Greece and Italy to the island of Sardinia, as well as across the Strait of Gibraltar, a channel of water at the Mediterranean's mouth that separates Europe from Africa.
For now, academic squabbling worries Bednarik far less than the challenge of navigating a raft through the Strait of Gibraltar's strenuous currents. "Armchair archaeologists, who think that sea crossings are a piece of cake, really ought to try doing this on drifting vegetation," he says.
Quite an achievement!
Am I to assume that a pre-historic Gilligan got lost on a summer's day?
Please FREEPMAIL me if you want on or off the
"Gods, Graves, Glyphs" PING list or GGG weekly digest
-- Archaeology/Anthropology/Ancient Cultures/Artifacts/Antiquities, etc.
Gods, Graves, Glyphs (alpha order)
Isn't Flores the island believed to have been inhabited by hobbit-like hominids?
There are signs of land long before land comes into view. If the next island were 30 miles, they would be 100% sure. To cross to Easter Island would take navigational skills using stars, and a spirit of adventure.
Yes. Tiny people who most believe are/were Homo-Erectus.
In my youth and after being at sea for a while, I could smell land even when it was far out of sight.
That's one. There is also a quality to the water and its motion, things in the water, maybe the seafloor rising up if the water is clear enough, birds, maybe even different kinds of fish.
Teacher was "sacked for Bible attack"
Source: Electronic Telegraph
Published: November 5, 1999 Author: Ben Fenton
Posted on 11/05/1999 02:11:51 PST by Cincinatus' Wife
Is "Flat-Faced Man" Your Ancestor?
Published: 3/24/01 Author: Bill Sardi
Posted on 03/25/2001 04:04:36 PST by Ada Coddington
Study Says Americas Settled 15,000 Years Ago
Source: National Geographic
Published: 8-31-2001 Author: Not stated
Posted on 09/03/2001 06:59:54 PDT by blam
New Evidence for Multiregional Origins
Anthropology | Alec Christensen
Posted on 09/05/2001 8:05:20 PM EDT by sarcasm
Calico: A 200,000-year Old Site In The Americas?
ASA On Line | unknown
Posted on 12/17/2001 5:22:22 PM EST by blam
New Out-Of-Africa Theory Unveiled
Discovery News | 2-25-2002 | Larry O'Hanlon
Posted on 02/27/2002 7:56:58 PM EST by blam
Our Species Mated With Other Human Species, Study Says
National Geographic | March 6, 2002 | Hillary Mayell
Posted on 03/06/2002 10:38:41 PM EST by ValerieUSA
Theory on origins of man gets genetic overhaul
USA Today newspaper | March 7, 2002 | Dan Vergano
Posted on 03/07/2002 6:27:07 AM EST by johnandrhonda
New evidence we all have the same ancestors Cal student's discovery should resolve dispute
San Francisco Chronicl^ | Thursday, March 21, 2002 | David Perlman, Chronicle Science Editor
Posted on 03/22/2002 5:24:28 AM EST by Phil V.
Edited on 04/13/2004 5:39:59 AM EDT by Jim Robinson. [history]
Skulls Found in Africa and in Europe Challenge Theories of Human Origins
NY Times | August 6, 2002 | By JOHN NOBLE WILFORD
Posted on 08/11/2002 6:59:04 PM EDT by vannrox
Sabre-tooths and Hominids
Instituto Geologico y Minero de Espana | Alfonso Arribas & Paul Palmqvist
Posted on 11/22/2002 5:18:45 PM EST by Sabertooth
Evidence Aquits Clovis People Of Ancient Killings, Archaeologists Say
University Of Washington | 2-25-2003 | Joel Schwartz
Posted on 02/25/2003 7:46:54 PM EST by blam
Javanese Fossil Skull Provides New Insights into Ancient Humans
Scientific American | 28 February 2002 | Sarah Graham
Posted on 02/28/2003 6:48:16 AM EST by PatrickHenry
Why Humans and Their Fur Parted Ways
The New York Times (Science Times) | August 19, 2003 | NICHOLAS WADE
Posted on 08/19/2003 8:41:06 AM EDT by Pharmboy
Stranger In A New Land (Archaeology)
Scientific American | 11-13-2003 | Kate Wong
Posted on 11/01/2003 11:45:22 AM EST by blam
Debate Heats Up On Role Of Climate In Human Evolution
Eurekalert | 11-3-2003 | Geological Society Of America
Posted on 11/03/2003 10:52:15 PM EST by blam
Earliest Stone Tools And Bones Site Discovered
Newswise | 11-3-2003 | Southern Connecicut State University
Posted on 11/04/2003 7:11:26 PM EST by blam
Neanderthal Extinction Pieced Together
Discovery Channel | 1/27/04 | Jennifer Viegas
Posted on 01/27/2004 4:31:28 PM EST by LibWhacker
New Twist On Out-Of-Africa Theory
ABC Science News | 7-14-2004 | Judy Skatssoon
Posted on 07/14/2004 11:53:47 AM EDT by blam
Israeli Site Yields 750,000 Year Old Fire Evidence
AP-via Duluth-News Tribune | April 29, 2004 | Randolf E Schimd
Posted on 04/29/2004 4:32:24 PM EDT by me_newswire
First Americans - Homo Erectus in America
http://home.pacbell.net/tcbpfb/ | January 01, 1999 | Tom Baldwin (apparently)
Posted on 09/24/2004 10:54:26 PM EDT by SunkenCiv
Archaeology | Volume 51 Number 3 May/June 1998 | Mark Rose
Posted on 09/25/2004 3:44:19 AM EDT by SunkenCiv
Giant asteroid rocked Antarctica
Near Earth Object Information Centre | 8/20/2004 | staff
Posted on 10/18/2004 12:26:51 AM EDT by SunkenCiv
Archeologist finds evidence of humans in North America 50,000 years ago
Canoe (Canada) | November 17, 2004 | AP
Posted on 11/18/2004 1:04:06 AM EST by SunkenCiv
(South Carolina) Fire Pit Dated To Over 50,000 Years Old (More)
AP | 11-18-2004 | Amy Geier Edgar
Posted on 11/19/2004 11:07:26 AM EST by blam
400,000-Year-Old Stone Tools Discovered In Mazandaran (Iran)
Mehr News | 6-8-2005
Posted on 06/08/2005 2:08:52 PM EDT by blam
Science News Magazine | 6-11-2005 | Bruce Bower
Posted on 06/17/2005 11:33:25 AM EDT by blam
Footsteps in time that add 30,000 years to history of America
Times Online UK | 7/4/05 | Lewis Smith
Posted on 07/05/2005 12:59:36 AM EDT by freedom44
40,000-year-old footprint of first Americans
The Telegraph (U.K.) | 5-07-2005 | Roger Highfield
Posted on 07/05/2005 6:38:09 AM EDT by Renfield
Georgians Claim to Unearth Ancient Skull
Associated Press | 8/22/05 | MISHA DZHINDZHIKHASHVILI
Posted on 08/22/2005 9:43:45 PM EDT by anymouse
African cousins behind extinction of Indians 70,000 years ago!
New Kerala.com & ANI | 05 Nov 2005
Posted on 11/06/2005 4:00:32 AM EST by CarrotAndStick
Ancient Tools At High Desert Site Go Back 135,000 Years (California)
San Bernardino Sun | 11-24-2005 | Chuck Mueller
Posted on 11/24/2005 4:02:17 PM EST by blam
Not Out Of Africa But Regional Continuity
The Bradshaw Foundation | Alan Thorne
Posted on 12/16/2005 2:03:02 PM EST by blam
Did Early Humans First Arise in Asia, Not Africa?
National Geographic News | December 27, 2005 | Nicholas Bakalar
Posted on 12/28/2005 7:01:34 PM EST by SuzyQue
A Talk With Colin Renfrew [The Third Culture, The Three Dimensions of Human History]
The Edge | August 25 1997 | John Brockman
Posted on 01/12/2006 1:28:06 AM EST by SunkenCiv
Oldest Hominid Skull In Australia Found Near Bega (7 Million Years Old)
Bega District News | 1-13-2006
Posted on 01/13/2006 7:46:20 PM EST by blam
Neanderthal Man Floated Into Europe, Say Spanish Researchers
The Guardian (UK) | 1-16-2006 | Giles Tremlett
Posted on 01/16/2006 6:13:24 PM EST by blam
Origins Of The Ainu
Nova/PBS | 2-2-2006 | Gary Crawford
Posted on 02/02/2006 7:16:59 PM EST by blam
New analysis shows three human migrations out of Africa, Replacement theory 'demolished'
Washington University in St. Louis | 02 February 2006 | Tony Fitzpatrick
Posted on 02/10/2006 5:54:05 AM EST by PatrickHenry
"Homo erectus": didn't they all cross the sea and enter San Francisco Bay?
LOL! That's funny!
Disclaimer: Opinions posted on Free Republic are those of the individual posters and do not necessarily represent the opinion of Free Republic or its management. All materials posted herein are protected by copyright law and the exemption for fair use of copyrighted works.