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The FReeper Foxhole Remembers The Battle of Waxhaws (5/29/1780) - Apr. 29th, 2004 ^

Posted on 04/29/2004 12:00:03 AM PDT by SAMWolf


Keep our Troops forever in Your care

Give them victory over the enemy...

Grant them a safe and swift return...

Bless those who mourn the lost.

FReepers from the Foxhole join in prayer
for all those serving their country at this time.

...................................................................................... ...........................................

U.S. Military History, Current Events and Veterans Issues

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The Battle of Waxhaws

General Isaac Huger, who had been surprised by Lt. Colonel Banastre Tarleton at the Battle of Monck's Corner on April 14, ordered Buford to retreat to Hillsborough, North Carolina.

On May 27, Tarleton set out from Nelson's Ferry with 270 men in pursuit of South Carolina Governor John Rutledge, who was said to be travelling with Buford. On May 29, Tarleton caught up with Buford and his men. Buford refused to surrender and was quickly defeated by Tarleton's cavalry. The aftermath of the battle became controversial and settled Tarleton's reputation in the South for no mercy.


On May 7, 1780 at Lenud's Ferry, Colonel Abraham Buford and 350 Virginia Continentals had watched helplessly from the far bank of the Santee River when Lt. Colonel Banastre Tarleton had dispersed a force of Continentals including Lt. Colonel William Washington. They had been on their way to Charleston as reinforcements.

On May 12, however, the Siege of Charleston ended when Maj. General Benjamin Lincoln surrendered to Lt. General Henry Clinton. When word of the surrender reached Colonel Buford, he held his position and awaited new orders. General Isaac Huger, who had been surprised by Lt. Colonel Tarleton at the Battle of Monck's Corner on April 14, ordered Buford to retreat to Hillsborough, North Carolina.

On May 18, 1780, Lt. General Charles Cornwallis commanding 2,500 men marched out of Charleston with orders from General Clinton to subdue the backcountry and establish outposts. He made his way to Lenud's Ferry and crossed the Santee River and made for Camden. Along the way, Cornwallis learned that South Carolina Governor John Rutledge had used the same route under the escort of Colonel Buford. Rutledge had managed to flee Charleston during the early stages of the siege.

South Carolina Governor John Rutledge

However, Colonel Buford was ten days ahead, so General Cornwallis' only chance was to send Lt. Colonel Tarleton after Buford. On May 27, Tarleton set out from Nelson's Ferry with 270 men. His command force included forty British regulars of the 17th Dragoons, 130 of his British Legion cavalry , 100 of his British Legion infantry, mounted on this occasion, and one three-pound artillery piece.

Since Colonel Buford had such a large lead on them, General Cornwallis had given Lt. Colonel Tarleton discretion to continue the pursuit, turn back or attack Buford if he caught up with him. Tarleton was at Camden the next day. At 2:00 A.M. on May 29, he set out again and reached Rugeley's Mill by mid-morning. There, he learned that Governor Rutledge had been there the night before and Colonel Buford was now only 20 miles ahead.

The Battle

Lt. Colonel Banastre Tarleton sent a messenger ahead requesting that Colonel Abraham Buford surrender. In the message, Tarleton exaggerated his forces in hopes of scaring Buford into surrender, or at least delaying him. After delaying the messenger, while his infantry reached a favorable position, Buford declined in a one sentence reply: "Sir, I reject your proposals, and shall defend myself to the last extremity."

Around three o'clock in the afternoon on May 29, 1780, Lt. Colonel Tarleton caught up with Colonel Buford near the Waxhaws district on the border of North and South Carolina. Tarleton's advance guard slashed through Buford's rear guard. Buford now formed his men up in a single line, while it is unknown what he did with Lt. Colonel William Washington's dragoons. Meanwhile, Tarleton did not wait for his stragglers to catch up, but continued to press the attack.

Lt. Colonel Tarleton assigned fifty cavalry and fifty infantry to harass Colonel Buford's left flank. Another forty cavalry were to charge at the center of Buford's line, while Tarleton would take another thirty cavalry to Buford's right flank and reserves. He formed up his troops on a low hill opposite the American line. At 300 yards, his cavalry began their charge.

When Lt. Colonel Tarleton's cavalry was fifty yards from Colonel Buford's line, the Americans presented their muskets, but they were ordered to hold their fire until the British were closer. Finally, at ten yards, Buford's men opened up, but that was too close for cavalry. Tarleton's horse was killed under him, but the American line was broken and in some cases, ridden down. The rout began and controversy soon followed.

Aftermath: The Controversy

The details of what happened following the battle are still under controversy. Lt. Colonel Banastre Tarleton claimed that his horse was shot out from under him and he was pinned. His men, thinking that their commander had been shot and killed under a flag of truce, angrily attacked again. They slashed at anyone and everyone, including men who were kneeling with their hands up in surrender.

Patriots claimed that Lt. Colonel Tarleton himself ordered the renewed attack because he didn't want to bother with taking prisoners. Based on his aggressive style and zeal for brutal charges in other engagements, the Patriot claims are usually given more credence. Although the first complete statement claiming a massacre did not appear until 1821 in a letter from Dr. Robert Brownfield to William Dobein James.

Either way, the slaughter lasted fifteen minutes. The result was 113 Continentals killed and 203 captured with 150 of those wounded. Colonel Buford himself managed to escape. There were only five killed and twelve wounded on the British side. The controversy continues to this day, but it took only days for Lt. Colonel Tarleton to be branded with the reputation for which he is remembered even now.

Lt. Colonel Tarleton became known as 'Bloody Ban' or 'Ban the Butcher.' For the remainder of the war in the South, 'Tarleton's Quarter' meant no quarter and Buford's Massacre became a rallying cry for Patriots. It was on the lips of the Over Mountain Men at the Battle of King's Mountain in October 1780 during their defeat of Major Patrick Ferguson. There was no indication that Tarleton minded the nickname. Meanwhile, Lt. General Charles Cornwallis occasionally reminded Tarleton to look after the behavior of his men.

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The Waxhaws "Massacre"

The legends of "Bloody Tarleton" trace their roots to a single skirmish which took place near Waxhaws Creek, South Carolina, on May 29, 1780. The encounter might be more properly identified as the First Battle of the Waxhaws, but it is more often referred to by melodramatic nicknames such as "The Waxhaws Massacre," "The Buford Massacre" or "Buford's Bloody Battleground."

Events leading up to the Waxhaws skirmish began with the surrender of Charleston. Colonel Abraham Buford had been leading a force of roughly 400 Virginia Continentals towards the city but after the skirmish at Lenud's Ferry, he headed back towards North Carolina, where the rebel forces were hoping to regroup. Gaining information that the force was moving through the area, Lord Cornwallis sent Tarleton and the Legion in pursuit.

Lt. Colonel Banastre Tarleton

Tarleton had a talent for moving men and equipment around at amazing speed. With less than 300 men, a mixture of Legion mounted infantry, Legion cavalry and regular British dragoons, Banastre pushed after Buford at top speed, covering more than 100 miles in 54 hours -- a nearly impossible accomplishment for a corps which included infantry and even some extremely light artillery. This spectacular speed exacted a heavy price from his troops and cavalry horses, many of whom were carrying two men. The weather was fiercely hot, and a number of horses died along the way and had to be hastily replaced. By the time his scouts located Buford's column, the Legion was on its last legs. Men were falling behind and horses were beginning to collapse with the heat.

In A New Age Now Begins, Page Smith remarks:

The determination of the young officer is worth commenting on. On this occasion, as on a number of others, Tarleton displayed that quality essential to successful military leaders -- the resolution to force an issue by sheer power of will, ignoring or overcoming the obstacles and complications that will provide ample excuse for a less aggressive commander to break off the action.

Even force of will could only carry him so far. Realizing that it would be impossible to push the chase any further, Tarleton came up with a plan to delay Buford so he could catch up. He sent Captain David Kinlock forward under a flag of truce to demand Buford's surrender. In his message, he hugely exaggerated the size of his force -- claiming he had 700 men -- in hopes of swaying Buford's decision, or at the very least causing him to delay while he conferred with his officers.

His message to Buford began with the prophetic words, "Resistance being vain, to prevent the effusion of human blood, I make offers which can never be repeated," and went on to outline a set of fairly standard articles of surrender, based upon those which Sir Henry Clinton had offered to the defenders of Charleston. The message ended with another warning: "I expect an answer to these propositions as soon as possible; if they are accepted, you will order every person under your command to pile his arms in one hour after you receive the flag: If you are rash enough to reject them, the blood be upon your head." Buford sent back a terse reply: "I reject your proposals, and shall defend myself to the last extremity."

Waxhaws Battlefield

As Kinlock headed back to Tarleton to bring him this information, Buford made the decision to continue marching rather than preparing his troops to meet the upcoming battle. Even worse, he kept his artillery at the front of the column, where they proved useless when the Legion overtook him from the rear.

It took Tarleton's exhausted forces until mid-afternoon to catch up with Buford's small rear guard, which they immediately captured en masse. Only at this point did Buford finally shift his column from their marching order into a defensive formation. In doing so, he failed to take into account that the terrain -- open woods -- would not prevent an effective cavalry charge.

Tarleton formed his troops and ordered a charge. Buford's officers ordered their men to hold their fire. Apparently no one explained to them that the old adage "don't fire until you see the whites of their eyes" does not apply when facing cavalry. By the time the rebel line finally opened up, the Legion cavalry was ten yards away -- no more than a second or two at full gallop -- and the rebel volley had essentially no effect. The Legion rolled over Buford's badly formed line with deadly efficiency, breaking it completely on their first charge. Some of Buford's men ran; others were cut down as they attempted to put up a disorganized resistance.

The most significant casualty of the charge seems to have been Banastre Tarleton's horse. Its loss put Tarleton out of action for several minutes while he recovered from the fall, cut himself free of his saddle equipment, found another mount, and regained control of his troops.

Lt. General Charles Cornwallis

What happened during and after those critical few minutes has been the subject of controversy for more than two hundred years. Eyewitness accounts vary so wildly that it is hard to believe all the speakers were fighting in the same battle. Generations of historians have further muddied the waters by taking one side or another and skewing their recounting to support their theories.

Tarleton's own comment in his Campaigns is terse and to the point: "...the battalion was totally broken, and slaughter was commenced before Lieutenant-colonel Tarleton could remount another horse, the one with which he led his dragoons being overturned by the volley. Thus in a few minutes ended an affair which might have had a very different termination."

The final comment, "Thus in a few minutes ended an affair which might have had a very different termination," derives from the fact that the Legion was badly outnumbered by Buford's forces, and Tarleton entered the battle having made plans with his officers to regroup and retire in haste if Buford repulsed their initial attack.

For obvious reasons, subsequent generations of American historians have had reservations about accepting Tarleton's version. After all, he was bound to be biased in his own favor. Also, Tarleton has nothing whatsoever to say about the controversial matter of the white flag.

According to some rebel accounts (most famously those of Adjutant Henry Bowyer, and Surgeon's Mate Robert Brownfield) in the wake of having his line broken by Tarleton's cavalry charge, Buford made a belated decision to accept the surrender terms he had rejected that morning. The usefulness of the accounts is reduced by the fact that they tell mutually contradictory stories about what happened, and even about who carried the hypothetical surrender flag. A third account (by Captain John Marshall of Virginia) joins Tarleton in making no mention of a flag at all.

Bowyer claims to have been ordered to carry the flag himself, which he did under protest:

Adjutant Bowyer was ordered to advance with a flag, and to say to Tarleton, that [Buford] was willing to accept the terms offered before the action began. The Adjutant remonstrated by saying, that as the firing still continued, the execution of the order would be impracticable, exposing the bearer of the flag to the shot of both parties. Beaufort repeated his orders, in positive terms, and the Adjutant rode forward, with a handkerchief displayed on the point of his sword. When close to the British commander, he delivered Beaufort's message, but a ball at the moment striking the forehead of Tarleton's horse, he plunged and both fell to the ground, the horse being uppermost. Extricated by his men from so perilous a position, the exasperated Colonel rose from the ground, and ordered the soldiers to despatch him.

Bowyer eluded their efforts and made a clean escape from the field -- presumably taking his white flag with him. Bowyer's account differs from Tarleton's in several particulars (and, apparently, from Buford's as well, though the latter, unfortunately, is unpublished and I have only heard isolated snippets of information on its contents.) He goes on to confirm that firing continued after the raising of a white flag: "The rage of the British soldiers, excited by the continued fire of the Americans, while a negotiation was offered by flag, impelled them to acts of vengeance[.]" Their "rage" was hardly surprising, since by the standards of 18th century warfare Buford was (albeit by ineptness rather than intent) guilty of the worst sort of treachery.

Sir Henry Clinton

It is Brownfield's melodramatic account which provided most of the myths associated with the "Waxhaws Massacre." Brownfield's version, like Bowyer's, was written down some forty years after the events took place, but beyond that they have little in common:

"Buford now perceiving that further resistance was hopeless, ordered a flag to be hoisted and the arms to be grounded, expecting the usual treatment sanctioned by civilized warfare. This, however, made no part of Tarleton's creed. His ostensible pretext, for the relentless barbarity that ensued, was, that his horse was killed under [him] just as the flag was raised. He affected to believe that this was done afterwards, and imputed it to treachery on the part of Buford; but, in reality, a safe opportunity was presented to gratify that thirst for blood which marked his character in every conjuction that promised probable impunity to himself. Ensign Cruit, who advanced with the flag, was instantly cut down. Viewing this as an earnest of what they were to expect, a resumption of their arms was attempted, to sell their lives as dearly as possible; but before this was fully effected, Tarleton and his cruel myrmidons was in the midst of them, when commenced a scene of indiscriminate carnage never surpassed by the ruthless atrocities of the most barbarous savages."

He goes on to recount how "not a man was spared" and how the Legion infantry scoured the field, plunging their bayonets into anything that moved.

Brownfield may have had a great future in writing Gothic horror or rebel propaganda, but there is relatively little in his account that is useful as history. The claim that no man was spared is contradicted by the casualty figures reported by both commanders and numerous subsequent documents. Ensign (John) Cruit (or Crute) must have had more lives than a cat, for Brownfield himself later mentions him as being one of the survivors. (There even exists the possibility that Cruit was not present at all. Another document lists an officer of the same name as having been taken prisoner at Charleston, and there seems to be no suggestion that two John Cruits were serving locally.)

Although they disagree on what happened afterwards, the two other main accounts (Buford's and Bowyer's) which discuss Buford's attempted surrender agree that the bearer of the white flag survived unharmed. There is, however, an anecdote which claims that Buford's standard-bearer was taken down during the initial cavalry charge. Given Brownfield's attitude, it is deeply ironic that he wove these two events into a mélange, because the anecdote presents a Legion officer (the same Captain Kinlock who delivered Tarleton's initial surrender terms) protecting the life of a fallen enemy. The standard-bearer, Sergeant Mitchell, was wounded in the initial charge but refused to surrender his Colors, and Kinlock shielded him from being killed in the subsequent action.

The words Brownfield lays at Tarleton's door can be dismissed after reading Tarleton's accounts of the incident. He claims nothing of the sort in either his report to Lord Cornwallis or his account of the battle in his Campaigns.

1 posted on 04/29/2004 12:00:04 AM PDT by SAMWolf
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To: snippy_about_it; PhilDragoo; Johnny Gage; Victoria Delsoul; The Mayor; Darksheare; Valin; ...
What actually happened? We'll never know the details, and can only derive a scattering of conclusions from those facts which can be reasonably documented.

That the skirmish was bloody is obvious from the casualty figures. As Banastre puts it, "The loss of officers and men was great on the part of the Americans, owing to the dragoons so effectually breaking the infantry, and to a report amongst the cavalry, that they had lost their commanding officer, which stimulated the soldiers to a vindictive asperity not easily restrained." In other words, Buford's high casualties resulted from a combination of his bad tactics and the perception of treachery during his belated attempt to surrender.

Mass grave of Buford’s men resulting from their massacre by Tarleton following the fall of Charleston.

That a portion of Buford's force survived is well documented. His advance column seem to have taken no part in the fighting at all, but continued on their way, leaving their comrades behind to be defeated. Already exhausted, the Legion made no attempt to pursue them even though (as one modern historian has noted) they would have been easy prey if Tarleton had been actively seeking to increase the bloodshed. Independent documentation from both sides confirms that there were survivors among the elements of Buford's fighting force which engaged in the battle. One hundred and fifty wounded men were paroled on the field and sent to the nearby Waxhaw Presbyterian church for medical treatment. (Future President Andrew Jackson's mother was among the women who attended to them.) Uninjured prisoners (fifty-three of them, by Tarleton's numbers which are generally accepted) were marched off to Camden, where they were incarcerated in the local jail. As many as seventy men escaped during the battle.

Did Tarleton order his men to "wipe out" Buford's forces? Aside from Brownfield's overblown rhetoric, there is no evidence that he did, and considerable logic to imply that he didn't.

As Dan Morrill observes, "Rational judgment suggests that the commander of the British Legion was most likely innocent of intentionally ignoring Buford's white flag or practicing bloodthirsty tactics. If he were completely insensitive to the accepted conventions of warfare, why, for example, did Tarleton let the wounded patriots go and allow them to be hauled away by the Presbyterian ladies?"

Lt. Colonel William Washington

Why indeed? Another sensible question is whether Tarleton would have risked his promising career merely for a chance to indulge in a few homicidal jollies, as Brownfield implies. The overwhelming drive behind Ban's military career was ambition. He was a young man without high connections who had already made a meteoric rise through the ranks on his own merits. Keeping himself on that fast track meant keeping in good with his (relatively new) boss, Lord Cornwallis, who was an old-style soldier with strict notions of honor. Brownfield's "safe opportunity" to indulge his baser nature doesn't take into account that the 18th century British Army was a hotbed of office politics worthy of Dilbert. Whatever information made it into the official reports, we can be sure that the full details filtered back to Cornwallis via some grapevine or other. It was in Ban's very best interest to be sure those details contained nothing of which the Earl would disapprove. This was especially true at the time of the battle, at which point Tarleton had only been under Cornwallis's command for a brief time, and was still "on probation." (Cornwallis, in general, did not take to officers who came to him from Clinton's ranks. The aloofness of his communications with Tarleton during this early period stands in obvious contrast with the friendly warmth of letters written later in the year. )

An ancillary question is whether Tarleton was even inclined towards homicidal jollies. There is no evidence that he had any particular love of killing for its own sake. He abhorred the practice of duelling. Outside the years he spent in America, he seems to have had no more interest in blood sports than was considered normal for a man of his culture (i.e. cock fighting, boxing, hunting, etc.) His attachment to Charles James Fox's radical Whigs involved him in some rough-and-tumble politics, but again they fall within the normal range for late 18th century society. There is plentiful evidence that he had no compunctions about killing when his job called for it, but that seems to be all it was to him: a job.

It's not so easy to give the whole Legion a clean slate in this particular incident, though the more I learn about the battle, the more I realize that there are a number of factors which must be taken into consideration before judging their actions. They were always noted for fierceness in combat, and in this case there is evidence -- including Tarleton's own comments -- that they did get out of control for a short time while seeking "revenge" for their not-quite-as-dead-as-he-appeared commander. Given the chaos of close-quarters combat and Buford's perceived treachery in allowing his men to continue firing while Bowyer (or whoever) was presenting a white flag, such a reaction was almost inevitable. (I don't believe for a moment that Buford intended treachery, but after looking at the man's military career -- check out his bio note -- it isn't surprising that he lost control of his troops entirely as soon as things went bad.)

I recently encountered an academic paper on the battle which provided several excellent insights into how human psychology under battlefield conditions would apply to this particular incident. Tarleton's men, badly outnumbered and suffering from exhaustion, made their initial charge against a (relatively) well-rested enemy in battle formation. Buford's line may have been hastily (and as it turned out, badly) set up, but from the Legion's perspective it must have appeared formidable. So they entered the battle in anticipation of a tough fight against a strong enemy, but instead almost immediately found themselves in the midst of a mop-up operation when that "formidable" enemy line turned to smoke and chaos.

During the subsequent few minutes, while some of Buford's men attempted to surrender and their comrades continued to fight, the Legion troops remained in deadly danger. Faced with scattered groups of enemy soldiers, some putting down their weapons, others taking them up again, a man doesn't have the luxury to differentiate. He kills to stay alive. There is nothing cruel or inhuman about soldiers under fire concerning themselves foremost with their own survival and that of their comrades, rather than trying to identify which individual enemies might not (but then again might) be a continuing threat.

The same modern analysis found that the reported incidents of quarter being granted or denied to members of Buford's corps folowed a pattern which was the exact opposite to Brownfield's claim that Legion troopers went on a killing rampage at the end of the battle. In fact, it was exactly what common sense would dictate for a bloody encounter. During the beginning or middle of the skirmish, when the Legion troops felt themselves to be in danger and/or believed that Buford had killed their commanding officer by treachery, they fought flat-out. When the battle began to wind down, humane concerns returned, and incidents were reported of quarter being granted, prisoners taken, and aid given to wounded enemies.

The majority of the high casualty figures at Waxhaws can be traced to Buford's poorly chosen tactics, which rendered his defense essentially useless. His unmounted, badly placed troops faced a cavalry charge essentially without resisting it, due to their extended delay in firing. This was followed by a bayonet charge by the Legion infantry. Heavy casualties were the inevitable result. The situation was compounded by the confusion of an abortive surrender attempt, the perception of treachery, and psychological factors including the initial belief by the Legion that Buford's forces had the upper hand. Mark Mayo Boatner III sums it up well: "As for the morality displayed by the victor, a successful cavalry charge exploited by a bayonet attack is bound to be messy, and the dividing line between military success and slaughter depends on which side you're on."

Buford himself didn't stick around to share the final outcome of his command decisions. Sometime during the chaos he escaped on a fast horse and eventually rejoined the Southern Army. He was courtmartialled for losing his command, but acquitted of blame.

Marg B.

Additional Sources:

2 posted on 04/29/2004 12:00:42 AM PDT by SAMWolf (War is God's way of teaching us geography)
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To: All
Copy of a summons sent by Lieutenant-Colonel Tarleton to Colonel Buford, dated Wacsaws, May 29, 1780.


Resistance being vain, to prevent the effusion of human blood, I make offers which can never be repeated:-- You (a.) are now almost encompassed by a corps of seven hundred light troops on horseback; half of that number are infantry with cannon, the rest cavalry: Earl Cornwallis is likewise within a short march with nine British battalions.

I warn you of the temerity of farther inimical proceedings, and I hold out the following conditions, which are nearly the same as were [p78] accepted by Charles town: But if any persons attempt to fly after this flag is received, rest assured, that their rank shall not protect them, if taken, from rigorous treatment.

1st ART. All officers to be prisoners of war, but admitted to parole, and allowed to return to their habitations till exchanged.

2d ART. All continental soldiers to go to Lamprie's point, or any neighbouring post, to remain there till exchanged, and to receive the same provisions as British soldiers.

3d ART. All militia soldiers to be prisoners upon parole at their respective habitations.

4th ART. All arms, artillery, ammunition, stores, provisions, waggons, horses, &c. to be faithfully delivered.

5th ART. All officers to be allowed their private baggage and horses, and to have their side arms returned.

I expect an answer to these propositions as soon as possible; if they are accepted, you will order every person under your command to pile his arms in one hour after you receive the flag: If you are rash enough to reject them, the blood be upon your hand.

I have the honour to be,

Lieutenant colonel, commandant
of the British legion.

Colonel Buford, &c. &c.

Copy of Colonel Buford's answer to Lieutenant-Colonel Tarleton's summons to surrender.

Wacsaws, May 29, 1780.


(b.) I reject your proposals, and shall defend myself to the last extremity. I have the honour to be, &c.
(Signed) ABR. BUFORD, Colonel.

Lieut. Col. Tarleton,
Commanding British legion.

The phrase "Tarleton's quarter" was coined by the rebels to mean "no quarter," i.e. "take no prisoners." It came into use after the Battle of the Waxhaws, where it was claimed that the British Legion slaughtered members of a defeated rebel force as they were trying to surrender.

The truth of the accusation is a source of endless debate -- see my article on the battle itself -- but it was widely accepted at the time. Once it gained a foothold, the cry "Give them Tarleton's quarter" became an excuse used by the rebels to butcher British or Tory forces in "revenge" for Abraham Buford's command -- even though, needless to say, it was unlikely that the men they were killing had anything whatsoever to do with the events at Waxhaws. This modus operandi is recorded at the battles of Williamson's Plantation, King's Mountain and Cowpens, after the Lee/Pyle conflict at Haw River, and elsewhere.

Many 19th century (and even a few modern) historians have not only swallowed the myth of "Tarleton's quarter" as an objective truth, they have exaggerated it into a claim that Ban Tarleton and the British Legion never took prisoners.

This allegation has no basis in fact and even the worst of the contemporary accounts do not support it. At Waxhaws, traditionally considered the Legion's most brutal battle, more than two-thirds of Abraham Buford's rebel command survived the skirmish. Eyewitness accounts tell us that wounded prisoners were paroled on the battlefield and transported to the nearby Waxhaw Presbyterian church for medical treatment. Healthy prisoners (of which there were at least fifty) were marched off to Camden, where they were confined in the local jail.

3 posted on 04/29/2004 12:01:05 AM PDT by SAMWolf (War is God's way of teaching us geography)
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To: All

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Bryan's "Aunt Sassy"

If you knows anyone who can help with this project, please FReep-Mail me so I can contact the people who are trying to put this together.

The FReeper Foxhole. America's History. America's Soul

Click on Hagar for
"The FReeper Foxhole Compiled List of Daily Threads"

4 posted on 04/29/2004 12:01:31 AM PDT by SAMWolf (War is God's way of teaching us geography)
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To: CarolinaScout; Tax-chick; Don W; Poundstone; Wumpus Hunter; StayAt HomeMother; Ragtime Cowgirl; ...

FALL IN to the FReeper Foxhole!

Good Thursday Morning Everyone.

If you would like added to our ping list let us know.

5 posted on 04/29/2004 12:02:38 AM PDT by snippy_about_it (Fall in --> The FReeper Foxhole. America's History. America's Soul.)
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To: snippy_about_it
Good Night Snippy
6 posted on 04/29/2004 12:02:56 AM PDT by SAMWolf (War is God's way of teaching us geography)
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To: SAMWolf
Good night Sam. ;-)
7 posted on 04/29/2004 12:03:11 AM PDT by snippy_about_it (Fall in --> The FReeper Foxhole. America's History. America's Soul.)
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To: SAMWolf; snippy_about_it; bentfeather; Darksheare; Johnny Gage; Light Speed; Samwise; ...
Good morning everyone!

To all our military men and women, past and present, and to our allies who stand with us,

8 posted on 04/29/2004 12:26:54 AM PDT by radu (May God watch over our troops and keep them safe)
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To: snippy_about_it
Morning, snippy and everyone at the Foxhole.
9 posted on 04/29/2004 3:07:38 AM PDT by E.G.C.
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To: snippy_about_it; Anoreth
Good morning Snippy! Lovely day here in the Waxhaw country - 45 at 7:30 a.m. This one is right our backyard, almost. The stable where Anoreth used to ride was only a couple hundred yards from a soybean field that is one of the (disputed) locations of the birthplace of Andrew Jackson.
10 posted on 04/29/2004 4:17:25 AM PDT by Tax-chick (I was swimming with dolphins whispering imaginary numbers in the fourth dimension.)
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To: snippy_about_it; SAMWolf
Highs finally in the 70's today.. : )

There are some who walk among you in a disorderly manner, not working at all, but are busybodies. —2 Thessalonians 3:11

In service true of any kind,
Lord, happy I shall be,
If by my help some soul may find
The path that leads to Thee.

God's house should be a hive for workers—not a nest for drones.

11 posted on 04/29/2004 4:25:13 AM PDT by The Mayor (Don't let tragedy steal your trust in God.)
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To: snippy_about_it; bentfeather
Good morning ladies. Flag-o-gram.

Spaceship One

Burt Rutan and his company Scaled Composites, the same folks who built the Voyager airplane that circled the globe, are striving to claim the X-Prize. Spaceship One is the leading contender among dozens of teams worldwide competing toward the $10 million cash prize. The prize will be awarded to the first ship to reach 62 miles up, the edge of space, and repeat the feat within two weeks.

Spaceship One rocketing well past Mach 1 during it's second powered test flight. This photo was taken from video from a ground RADAR station at Edwards AFB.

At the maximum altitude following burn-out of the engine. Photo taken by an on-baord video camera mounted in the tail. I love this sight, for many reasons. Mainly, a privately financed American, free enterprise, effort is likely to ignite another Space Race. OH YES!!

12 posted on 04/29/2004 4:50:30 AM PDT by Professional Engineer (Welcome to the Free Republic ~ You can logout any time you like, but you can't ever leave.)
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To: SAMWolf
His command force included forty British regulars of the 17th Dragoons,

Subsequently designated the 17th Lancers, this regiment rode in the center of the first line of the "Charge of the Light Brigade" at Balaclava. Now part of the Queen's Royal Lancers.

13 posted on 04/29/2004 6:34:19 AM PDT by CholeraJoe (No matter where you go, there you are.)
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To: SAMWolf
On This Day In History

Birthdates which occurred on April 29:

1660 Matthias Henriksen Schacht composer
1745 Oliver Ellsworth 3rd Chief Justice Supreme Court (1796-1800)
1806 Earnest Freiherr von Feuchtersleben Austria, physician/philosopher
1815 Abram Duryee Brevet Major General (Union volunteers), died in 1890
1818 Alexander II [N Romanov] Tsar of Russia (1855-81)
1830 Adolph Sutro San Francisco mayor, built Cliff House, railways, tunnels
1855 Anatol K Liadov Russian composer (Bewitched Lake)
1860 Lorado Taft US, sculptor (Black Hawk)
1863 William Randolph Hearst publisher (San Francisco Examiner, Seattle P-I)
1879 Sir Thomas Beecham England, composer, founded London Philharmonic
1893 Harold C Urey Walkerton IN, physicist (discovered Deuterium, Nobel 1934)
1899 Duke [Edward Kennedy] Ellington Washington DC, bandleader (Take the A Train, It Don’t Mean a Thing (If It Ain’t Got That Swing))
1901 Emperor Hirohito of Japan (1926-89)
1907 Fred Zinnemann Vienna Austria, movie director (From Here to Eternity, Day of the Jackal, Julia)
1908 Jack [Stewart] Williamson US, sci-fi author (Firechild, Golden Blood, Cometeers)
1909 Tom Ewell [S Yewell Tompkins] Owensboro KY, actor (Tom Ewell Show, 7 Year Itch, Adam's Rib)
1915 Donald Mills singer (Mills Brothers)
1919 Celeste Holm New York NY, actress (Gentleman's Agreement, All About Eve)
1922 George Allen football coach (Los Angeles Rams, Washington Redskins)
1922 Toots [Jean] Thielemans Belgian/US jazz musician/composer
1928 Carl Gardner Tyler TX, rock vocalist (Coasters-Searchin)
1931 Aleksei Aleksandrovich Gubarev USSR, cosmonaut (Soyuz 17, 28)
1932 Alexei A Gubarev cosmonaut (Soyuz 17, 28)
1932 Yevgeni Alekseyevich Zaikin Russian cosmonaut (Voshkod 2 backup)
1936 Richard Lynch actor (Xavier-Battlestar Galactica)
1936 Zubin Mehta Bombay India, conductor (New York Philharmonic)
1936 Jacob Rothschild English banker/multi-millionaire
1943 Duane Allen Taylortown TX, country singer (Oak Ridge Boys-Elvira)
1946 John Waters Baltimore MD, director (Hairspray)
1947 Tommy James singer(?) (cri-im-son & clo-o-ver o-o-ver & o-o-ver)
1951 [Ralph] Dale Earnhardt Kannapolis NC, NASCAR driver/"The Intimidator"
1953 Nikolai Nikolayevich Budarin Kirya Russia, cosmonaut (STS 71, TM-27)
1954 Bill Paxon (Representative-Republican-NY)
1955 Kate Mulgrew Dubuque IA, actress (Captain Janeway-Star Trek Voyager, Heartbeat, Kate Loves a Mystery)
1955 Jerry Seinfeld comedian/actor (Seinfeld)
1958 Michelle Pfeiffer Santa Ana CA, actress (What Lies Beneath, Up Close & Personal, Ladyhawke, Married to the Mob, Grease 2)
1967 Rachel Williams Greenwich Village NY, model (Absolut Vodka, Elle)
1970 Uma Thurman Boston MA, actress (Baron Munchausen, Pulp Fiction)

Deaths which occurred on April 29:
1699 Samuel Apostool vicar/theologist (Zonisten), dies at 50
1864 Charles-Julien Brianchon math (Brianchon's theorem), dies at 80
1918 Gavrilo Princip Bosnian murderer of arch duke Ferdinand, dies at 22
1943 Joseph Achron Latvian violinist/composer (Golem suite), dies at 56
1951 Ludwig J J Wittgenstein Austria/English philosopher, dies at 62
1967 Anthony Mann US director (El Cid, Last Frontier), dies at 60
1968 Frankie Lymon rocker (& Teenagers), dies of a drug overdose at 25
1975 Charles McMahon Jr US USMC lance corporal, killed in Vietnam
1975 Darwin Judge USMC-corporal, 1 of last US soldiers killed in Viet
1975 Michael John Shea USMC-Lieutenant/pilot, 1 of last soldiers killed in Vietnam
1975 William Craig Nystul USMC Captain, 1 of last US soldiers killed in Viet
1980 Alfred Joseph Hitchcock British director (Psycho, Birds), dies at 80
1984 Marvin Gaye rocker (Sexual Healing), shot dead by his father at 45
1986 Seamus McElwaine Irish IRA-terrorist, killed at 25
1993 Mick Ronson English guitarist/producer (Mott the Hoople), dies at 46
1995 Robert Gibb zoo/theme park creator, dies at 57
1997 Keith Ferguson blues (Fabulous Thunderbirds), dies of overdose at 50
1997 Mike Royko columnist, dies of stroke at 64



POW / MIA Data & Bios supplied by
the P.O.W. NETWORK. Skidmore, MO. USA.

On this day...
1091 Battle at Monte Levunium Emperor Alexius I beats Petshegenes
1429 Joan of Arc leads Orleans France, to victory over English
1522 Emperor Charles V names Frans van Holly inquisitor-General of Netherlands
1550 Emperor Charles V gives inquisiters additional authority
1553 Flemish woman introduces practice of starching linen into England
1628 Sweden & Denmark sign defense treaty against Duke of Wallenstein
1661 Chinese Ming dynasty occupies Taiwan
1670 Pope Clemens X elected
1706 Emperor Jozef I becomes monarch of Cologne/Bavaria
1707 English/Scottish parliament accept Act of Union, form Great Britain
1715 John Flamsteed observes Uranus for 6th time
1781 French fleet stops Britain from seizing the Cape of Good Hope
1784 Premiere of Mozart's Sonata in B flat, K454 (Vienna)
1813 Rubber is patented
1852 1st edition of Peter Roget's Thesaurus published
1853 Comet C/1853 G1 (Schweizer) approaches within 0.0839 astronomical units (AUs) of Earth
1856 End of Crimean War
1857 US Army, Pacific Division HQ is permanently established at Presidio (San Francisco)
1861 Maryland's House of Delegates votes against seceding from Union
1862 100,000 federal troops prepare to march into Corinth MS
1862 New Orleans falls to Union forces during Civil War
1863 Battle of Chancellorville VA (Fredericksburg, Wilderness Tavern)
1864 Skirmish at Jenkins' Ferry AR begins
1892 Charlie Reilly is baseball's 1st pinch hitter
1894 Commonwealth of Christ (Coxey's Army) arrives in Washington DC 500 strong to protest unemployment; Coxey arrested for trespassing at Capitol
1901 27th Kentucky Derby Jimmy Winkfield on His Eminence wins in 2:07.75
1901 Anti semitic riot in Budapest
1905 2" rain falls in 10 minutes in Taylor TX
1912 108º F (42º C), Tuguegarao Philippines (Oceania record)
1913 Swedish engineer Gideon Sundback of Hoboken patents all-purpose zipper
1916 Irish nationalists set post office on fire in Dublin
1918 Tris Speaker ties career outfield record of 4 unassisted double plays
1922 1st official International Weightlifting Federation Champion (Tallinn Estonia)
1926 France & US reach accord on repayment of WWI
1927 Construction of the Spirit of St Louis is completed
1934 Pittsburgh is last major league city to play a home game on a Sunday
1936 1st pro baseball game in Japan is played Nagoya defeats Daitokyo, 8-5
1939 Whitestone Bridge connecting Bronx & Queens opens
1940 1st radio broadcast of "Young Dr Malone" on CBS
1940 Norwegian King Haakon & government flees to England
1942 Japanese troops march into Lashio, cut off Burma Road
1942 Jews forced to wear a Jewish Star in Netherlands & Vichy-France
1943 Dietrich Bonhöffer arrested by Nazi's
1943 US 34th Division occupies Hill 609, North Tunisia
1945 1st food drop by RAF above nazi-occupied Holland (operation Manna)
1945 Adolf Hitler marries Eva Braun
1945 Japanese army evacuates Rangoon
1945 Terms of surrender of German armies in Italy signed
1945 US liberates 31,601 in Nazi concentration camp in Dachau Germany
1946 28 former Japanese leaders indicted in Tokyo as war criminals
1956 WSPA TV channel 7 in G'ville-Spartanburg SC (CBS) begins broadcasting
1957 1st military nuclear power plant dedicated, Fort Belvoir VA
1961 ABC's "Wide World of Sports, debuts
1965 Earthquake hits Seattle; 5 die
1965 Australian government announces it will send troops to Vietnam
1967 Aretha Franklin releases "Respect"
1970 50,000 US & South Vietnamese troops invade Cambodia
1971 Bill Graham closes down the Fillmore & Fillmore East
1971 Boeing receives contract for Mariner 10, Mercury exploration
1974 President Richard Nixon said he will release edited tapes made in White House
1975 US Forces pull out of Vietnam
1981 Peter Sutcliffe admits he is the Yorkshire Ripper (murdered 13 women)
1981 Philadelphia Phillie Steve Carlton is 1st lefty to strike out 3,000 batters
1983 Harold Washington sworn in as Chicago's 1st black mayor
1986 Boston Red Sox Roger Clemens strikes out 20 Seattle Mariners
1986 800,000 books destroyed by fire in Los Angeles Central Library
1987 Chicago Cub Andre Dawson hits for the cycle
1990 STS-31 (Discovery 10) lands
1990 Wrecking cranes began tearing down Berlin Wall at Brandenburg Gate
1991 Croatia declares independence
1991 Cyclone strikes Bangladesh, 139,000 die/10 million homeless
1992 Jury acquits Los Angeles police officers of beating Rodney King, riots begin
1994 Israel & PLO sign economic accord
1996 Former CIA Director William Colby was missing and presumed drowned in Maryland after an apparent boating accident; his body was later recovered.
1997 A worldwide treaty to ban chemical weapons went into effect.(Sleep well, there's a treaty)
1997 Astronaut Jerry Linenger and cosmonaut Vasily Tsibliyev went on the first U.S.-Russian space walk.

Note: Some Holidays are only applicable on a given "day of the week"

Japan : Emperor Hirohito's Birthday
Alabama, Florida, Mississippi : Confederate Memorial Day (1868) (Monday)
US-Utah : Arbor Day-plant a tree (1872) (Friday)
US : Dancers Day
America's Heartland Development Month

Religious Observances
Bahá'í : 9th day of Ridván-festival
Roman Catholic : Commemoration of St Peter of Verona, martyr
Anglican : Commemoration of St Catherine of Siena, patron of Italy/virgin/doctor
Bahá'í : 9th day of Ridván (Bahá'í festival); Jamál 2, 20

Religious History
1607 The first Anglican (Episcopal) church in the American colonies was established at Cape Henry, Virginia.
1834 Birth of Joseph H. Gilmore, American Baptist clergyman and Hebrew instructor. He is better remembered today, however, as author of the hymn: "He Leadeth Me, O Blessed Thought."
1933 The Navigators trace their origin to this date, when founder Dawson Trotman began the work in San Pedro, CA. In 1943, this evangelical mission was formally incorporated, and is headquartered today in Colorado Springs, CO.
1945 U.S. troops liberated the oldest of the Nazi concentration camps -- Dachau -- in Bavaria, West Germany. It is estimated that nearly 32,000 prisoners (mostly Jews) perished at Dachau during its 12-year existence as a Nazi detention camp.
1952 Death of Samuel M. Zwemer, 85, American Dutch Reformed missionary. Serving in Egypt between 1890-1905, Zwemer helped found the Arabian Mission in 1888 and authored over 50 volumes during his life -- many in Arabic.

Source: William D. Blake. ALMANAC OF THE CHRISTIAN CHURCH. Minneapolis: Bethany House, 1987.

Thought for the day :
"We're fools whether we dance or not, so we might as well dance."

Actual Newspaper Headlines...
Police Begin Campaign to Run Down Jaywalkers

Why did the Chicken cross the Road...
DR. SEUSS: Did the chicken cross the road?
Did he cross it with a toad?
Yes! The chicken crossed the road,
But why it crossed, I've not been told!

Female Language Patterns...
"Did you say something? Oh well, whatever it was it must not have been that important."

Male Language Patterns...
"Good idea." REALLY MEANS,
"It'll never work. And I'll spend the rest of the day gloating."
14 posted on 04/29/2004 6:57:06 AM PDT by Valin (Hating people is like burning down your house to kill a rat)
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To: radu
Good Morning Radu. Decided to wait that half hour huh? :-)
15 posted on 04/29/2004 6:58:24 AM PDT by SAMWolf (War is God's way of teaching us geography)
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To: E.G.C.
Good Morning E.G.C. Predicting a bunch of good days in arow here. Upper 70's, mid 80's.
16 posted on 04/29/2004 6:59:14 AM PDT by SAMWolf (War is God's way of teaching us geography)
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To: Tax-chick
Good Morning Tax-chick. Lot of history back East. Some day I'll get to see some of it.
17 posted on 04/29/2004 7:01:05 AM PDT by SAMWolf (War is God's way of teaching us geography)
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To: Professional Engineer; SAMWolf; snippy_about_it; Darksheare; radu; PhilDragoo; Samwise

Good morning everyone.
PE thank you so much for today's Flag-o-Gram.
I love everything about going into space.

18 posted on 04/29/2004 7:15:48 AM PDT by Soaring Feather (~The Dragon Flies' Lair~ Poetry and Prose~)
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To: snippy_about_it; All

Yesterday was the first anniversary of Snippy's first thread at the Foxhole.

I had asked her earlier in the month if she'd be willing to help me by doing one thread a week. It turned out to be one of the best decisions I've ever made.

The Foxhole has evolved into what it is today because of Snippy, who works hard on research, posting threads, building relationships with our readers, keeping me in line and making the Foxhole the "Home away from Home" it has become for me. I am proud to be able to call her my partner and honored to be able to call her my friend.

Thank you Snippy for all you've done over this last year.

19 posted on 04/29/2004 7:16:23 AM PDT by SAMWolf (War is God's way of teaching us geography)
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To: The Mayor
Morning Mayor. Looks like we're gonna be in the same temperature range today.
20 posted on 04/29/2004 7:16:56 AM PDT by SAMWolf (War is God's way of teaching us geography)
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