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Catholic Caucus: Sunday Mass Readings, 12-08-19 Second Sunday of Advent ^ | 12-08-19 | Revised New American Bible

Posted on 12/07/2019 9:38:25 PM PST by Salvation

December 8 2019

Second Sunday of Advent

Reading 1 Is 11:1-10

On that day, a shoot shall sprout from the stump of Jesse,
and from his roots a bud shall blossom.
The spirit of the LORD shall rest upon him:
a spirit of wisdom and of understanding,
a spirit of counsel and of strength,
a spirit of knowledge and of fear of the LORD,
and his delight shall be the fear of the LORD.
Not by appearance shall he judge,
nor by hearsay shall he decide,
but he shall judge the poor with justice,
and decide aright for the land's afflicted.
He shall strike the ruthless with the rod of his mouth,
and with the breath of his lips he shall slay the wicked.
Justice shall be the band around his waist,
and faithfulness a belt upon his hips.
Then the wolf shall be a guest of the lamb,
and the leopard shall lie down with the kid;
the calf and the young lion shall browse together,
with a little child to guide them.
The cow and the bear shall be neighbors,
together their young shall rest;
the lion shall eat hay like the ox.
The baby shall play by the cobra's den,
and the child lay his hand on the adder's lair.
There shall be no harm or ruin on all my holy mountain;
for the earth shall be filled with knowledge of the LORD,
as water covers the sea.
On that day, the root of Jesse,
set up as a signal for the nations,
the Gentiles shall seek out,
for his dwelling shall be glorious.

Responsorial Psalm Ps 72:1-2, 7-8, 12-13, 17

R. (cf. 7) Justice shall flourish in his time, and fullness of peace for ever.
O God, with your judgment endow the king,
and with your justice, the king's son;
he shall govern your people with justice
and your afflicted ones with judgment.
R. Justice shall flourish in his time, and fullness of peace for ever.
Justice shall flower in his days,
and profound peace, till the moon be no more.
May he rule from sea to sea,
and from the River to the ends of the earth.
R. Justice shall flourish in his time, and fullness of peace for ever.
For he shall rescue the poor when he cries out,
and the afflicted when he has no one to help him.
He shall have pity for the lowly and the poor;
the lives of the poor he shall save.
R. Justice shall flourish in his time, and fullness of peace for ever.
May his name be blessed forever;
as long as the sun his name shall remain.
In him shall all the tribes of the earth be blessed;
all the nations shall proclaim his happiness.
R. Justice shall flourish in his time, and fullness of peace for ever.

Reading 2 Rom 15:4-9

Brothers and sisters:
Whatever was written previously was written for our instruction,
that by endurance and by the encouragement of the Scriptures
we might have hope.
May the God of endurance and encouragement
grant you to think in harmony with one another,
in keeping with Christ Jesus,
that with one accord you may with one voice
glorify the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ.

Welcome one another, then, as Christ welcomed you,
for the glory of God.
For I say that Christ became a minister of the circumcised
to show God's truthfulness,
to confirm the promises to the patriarchs,
but so that the Gentiles might glorify God for his mercy.
As it is written:
Therefore, I will praise you among the Gentiles
and sing praises to your name.

Alleluia Lk 3:4, 6

R. Alleluia, alleluia.
Prepare the way of the Lord, make straight his paths:
all flesh shall see the salvation of God.
R. Alleluia, alleluia.

Gospel Mt 3:1-12

John the Baptist appeared, preaching in the desert of Judea
and saying, "Repent, for the kingdom of heaven is at hand!"
It was of him that the prophet Isaiah had spoken when he said:
A voice of one crying out in the desert,
Prepare the way of the Lord,
make straight his paths.

John wore clothing made of camel's hair
and had a leather belt around his waist.
His food was locusts and wild honey.
At that time Jerusalem, all Judea,
and the whole region around the Jordan
were going out to him
and were being baptized by him in the Jordan River
as they acknowledged their sins.

When he saw many of the Pharisees and Sadducees
coming to his baptism, he said to them, "You brood of vipers!
Who warned you to flee from the coming wrath?
Produce good fruit as evidence of your repentance.
And do not presume to say to yourselves,
'We have Abraham as our father.'
For I tell you,
God can raise up children to Abraham from these stones.
Even now the ax lies at the root of the trees.
Therefore every tree that does not bear good fruit
will be cut down and thrown into the fire.
I am baptizing you with water, for repentance,
but the one who is coming after me is mightier than I.
I am not worthy to carry his sandals.
He will baptize you with the Holy Spirit and fire.
His winnowing fan is in his hand.
He will clear his threshing floor
and gather his wheat into his barn,
but the chaff he will burn with unquenchable fire."

TOPICS: Catholic; General Discusssion; Prayer; Worship
KEYWORDS: advent; catholic; mt3; prayer
For your reading, reflection, faith-sharing, comments, questions, discussion.

1 posted on 12/07/2019 9:38:25 PM PST by Salvation
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To: All

KEYWORDS: advent; catholic; mt3; prayer;

2 posted on 12/07/2019 9:39:51 PM PST by Salvation ("With God all things are possible." Matthew 19:26)
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To: Admin Moderator; Religion Moderator

I believe that the moderators are here to help us.

Could you please add the words

Second Sunday of Advent to the title?

Thank you.

cc: Admin moderator, religion moderator

3 posted on 12/07/2019 9:43:29 PM PST by Salvation ("With God all things are possible." Matthew 19:26)
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To: nickcarraway; NYer; ELS; Pyro7480; livius; ArrogantBustard; Catholicguy; RobbyS; marshmallow; ...
Alleluia Ping

Please FReepmail me to get on/off the Alleluia Ping List.

4 posted on 12/07/2019 9:44:49 PM PST by Salvation ("With God all things are possible." Matthew 19:26)
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To: All

From: Isaiah 11:1-10

The New Descendant of David

[1] There shall come forth a shoot from the stump of Jesse,
and a branch shall grow out of his roots.
[2] And the Spirit of the Lord shall rest upon him,
the spirit of wisdom and understanding,
the spirit of counsel and might,
the spirit of knowledge and the fear of the Lord.
[3] And his delight shall be in the fear of the Lord.

He shall not judge by what his eyes see,
or decide by what his ears hear;
[4] but with righteousness he shall judge the poor,
and decide with equity for the meek of the earth;
and he shall smite the earth with the rod of his mouth,
and with the breath of his lips he shall slay the wicked.
[5] Righteousness shall be the girdle of his waist,
and faithfulness the girdle of his loins.
[6] The wolf shall dwell with the lamb,
and the leopard shall lie down with the kid,
and the calf and the lion and the failing together,
and a little child shall lead them.
[7] The cow and the bear shall feed;
their young shall lie down together;
and the lion shall eat straw like the ox.
[8] The sucking child shall play over the hole of the asp,
and the weaned child shall put his hand on the adders den.
[9] They shall not hurt or destroy
in all my holy mountain;
for the earth shall be full of the knowledge of the Lord
as the waters cover the sea.

The Return of the Exiles

[10] In that day the root of Jesse shall stand as an ensign to the peoples;
him shall the nations seek, and his dwellings shall be glorious.


11:1-9. This passage, which is regarded as the third Immanuel oracle, has
two parts to it. The first (vv.1-5) announces that the shoot will spring from the
stump of Jesse (David’s father) at some future date. The second (vv. 6-9) de-
scribes the good things associated with his reign, using imagery to do with
messianic peace: creation will be restored to its state of original justice.

The first part is a formal announcement of the accession of a new king in the
line of David — humble, because he comes from a tree that has been pruned
yet has all the vitality of a tender shoot. It refers to a future king (”there shall
come ...”) and not the reigning monarch. The new king will be endowed with
exceptional qualities that equip him to rule, thanks to the Holy Spirit who will
descend upon him. The divine Spirit is an inner strength, a gift that God gives
to key figures in salvation history to enable them to accomplish a difficult and
dangerous mission — Moses (cf. Num 11:17), the judges (cf. 3:10; 6:34) and
David (1 Sam 16:13). The new descendant of David will rule over the people
not in a heavy-handed way like the kings of the time, but with a charismatic
dynamism that comes from God. Six gifts of the Spirit are mentioned, in pairs
— wisdom and understanding, referring to the skill and prudence that ensure
that he will judge rightly; counsel and fortitude, the characteristics of an astute
strategist like David; knowledge and the fear of the Lord, which have to do with
the religious sphere, for the king must not forget that he is God’s representa-

The second part describes very beautifully the messianic peace that will flower
with this new “shoot”. It paints a panorama of the harmony that reigned at the
dawn of creation, only to be broken by sin. Even among wild beasts violence
will disappear. No longer will man in his pride desire to be “like God, knowing
good and evil” (Gen 3:5); instead he will be filled with the divine gift of the
“knowledge of the Lord” (v. 9). The “child”, mentioned twice (vv. 6, 8), is not
directly connected with the child-king of the oracle found in 9:6 or with the Im-
manuel (7:14); however, in the mind of the prophet they must have had many
points of contact, given the reference to the child having a leadership role (v.

The image of the “shoot” from the royal line who will bring peace has been in-
terpreted in Christian tradition as finding fulfillment in Jesus Christ. St Thomas
Aquinas read this passage as referring to Christ, who brought about the restor-
ation of mankind; he points out: “First, the birth of Christ the ‘restorer’, is spo-
ken of (v. 1); then, his holiness (vv. 2-9) and his dignity (v. 10) are described”
(”Expositio Super lsaiam”, 11). And Bl. John Paul II comments: “Alluding to
the coming of a mysterious personage, which the New Testament revelation
will identify with Jesus, Isaiah connects his person and mission with a parti-
cular action of the Spirit of God — the Spirit of the Lord.

“These are the words of the prophet: ‘There shall come forth a shoot from the
stump of Jesse, and a branch shall grow out of his roots. And “the Spirit of
the Lord shall rest upon him,” the spirit of wisdom and understanding, the spi-
rit of counsel and might, the spirit of knowledge and the fear of the Lord. And
his delight shall be the fear of the Lord’ (Is 11:1-3). This text is important for
the whole pneumatology of the Old Testament, because it constitutes a kind
of bridge between the ancient biblical concept of ‘spirit’, understood primarily
as a ‘charismatic breath of wind’, and the ‘Spirit’ as a person and as a gift, a
gift for the person. The Messiah of the lineage of David (’from the stump of
Jesse’) is precisely that person upon whom the Spirit of the Lord ‘shall rest.’
It is obvious that in this case one cannot yet speak of a revelation of the Pa-
raclete. However, with this veiled reference to the figure of the future Messiah
there begins, so to speak, the path towards the full revelation of the Holy Spi-
rit in the unity of the Trinitarian mystery, a mystery which will finally be mani-
fested in the New Covenant” (”Dominum Et Vivificantem”, 15).

A Christian reading of these words finds in them a reference to the action of
the Holy Spirit in souls; the “spirits” that repose in the Messiah; are stable
“gifts” through which the Holy Spirit acts. There are six of these gifts, accor-
ding to the Hebrew text (which the New Vulgate and the RSV follow). The
Greek translation of the Septuagint and the Vulgate divide the gift of fear into
two — piety and fear of the Lord. That is why catechesis and theology speak
of there being seven gifts: “The seven ‘gifts’ of the Holy Spirit are wisdom, un-
derstanding, counsel, fortitude, knowledge, piety and fear of the Lord. They
belong in their fullness to Christ, Son of David (cf. Is 11:1-2). They complete
and perfect the virtues of those who receive them. They make the faithful do-
cile in readily obeying divine inspirations” (”Catechism of the Catholic Church”,

Source: “The Navarre Bible: Text and Commentaries”. Biblical text from the
Revised Standard Version and New Vulgate. Commentaries by members of
the Faculty of Theology, University of Navarre, Spain.

Published by Four Courts Press, Kill Lane, Blackrock, Co. Dublin, Ireland, and
by Scepter Publishers in the United States.

5 posted on 12/07/2019 9:47:00 PM PST by Salvation ("With God all things are possible." Matthew 19:26)
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To: All

From: Romans 15:4-9

The Example of Christ (Continuation)

[4] For whatever was written in former days was written for our instruction, that
by steadfastness and by the encouragement of the scriptures we might have
hope. [5] May the God of steadfastness and encouragement grant you to live in
such harmony with one another, in accord with Christ Jesus, [6] that together
you may with one voice glorify the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ.

[7] Welcome one another, therefore, as Christ has welcomed you, for the glory
of God. [8] For I tell you that Christ became a servant to the circumcised to show
God’s truthfulness, in order to confirm the promises given to the patriarchs, [9]
and in order that the Gentiles might glorify God for his mercy. As it is written,
“Therefore I will praise thee among the Gentiles, and sing to thy name”.


4. The excellence of Scripture and its sacred character derive from the fact that
God is its author. This means that there is a consistency and unity running right
through Sacred Scripture, a coherence which integrates both Testaments, Old
and New: the Old Testament contains — prophetically and by way of prefigure-
ment — what happens in the New; and in the New the prophecy and prefigure-
ment of the Old are fulfilled. Since Scripture is the word of God, it is of the high-
est order: “All scripture is inspired by God and profitable for teaching, for reproof,
for correction, and for training in righteousness, that the man of God may be
complete, equipped for every good work” (2 Tim 3:16). This strength and authori-
ty of Scripture is useful not only for instruction in the faith but also for enlivening
our hope and consoling us in every kind of trial, interior and exterior: the exam-
ples which we find in Scripture encourage us to be patient and also spur us on
to fight. By reflecting on those examples we become convinced that if God asks
sacrifice of “his own”, he does so because he has a greater reward in store for

These truths led the Second Vatican Council to teach that in “the sacred books
the Father who is in heaven comes lovingly to meet his children, and talks with
them. And such is the force and power of the word of God that it can serve the
Church as her support and vigor, and the children of the Church as strength for
their faith, food for the soul, and a pure and lasting fount of spiritual life” (”Dei
Verbum”, 21).

8-13. “It was necessary that the word of God should be spoken first to you.
Since you thrust it from you, and judge yourselves unworthy of eternal life, be-
hold, we turn to the Gentiles. For so the Lord has commanded us” (Acts 13:46-
47): this is what Paul and Barnabas said to Jews who opposed their preaching.
Christ himself said that he had been sent only to seek out the lost sheep of the
house of Israel, and that was the scope of the Apostles’ first mission (cf. Mt 15:
24; 10:5). However, God’s plans never discriminated in favor of the Jews: they,
once converted, were to preach the Good News to the Gentiles. After the Resur-
rection, Jesus sent his disciples to all nations (cf. Mt 28:18ff). Those who pro-
claimed the Gospel were Jews who had accepted Christ, and they addressed
their preaching first to Jews and then to Gentiles.

This present passage refers to the fulfillment of God’s designs through Christ.
By becoming man God made good his promises to the Jews, keeping faith with
them. By the entry of the Gentiles into the Church his mercy towards all men
is revealed, for his blessings are thereby extended to those who do not belong
to Israel according to the flesh. Our Lord explained this very graphically in the
parable of the two sons (Mt 21:28-32). He first calls the older son (the Gentiles),
who refuses to obey him and afterwards repents and accepts his father’s invita-
tion and goes to work in the vineyard. The younger son (most of the Jewish peo-
ple), on the other hand, seems to be ready to do his father’s bidding but in fact
does not. Many Jews were so hard of heart that not even the repentance and
conversion of the Gentiles moved them to repent.

Source: “The Navarre Bible: Text and Commentaries”. Biblical text from the
Revised Standard Version and New Vulgate. Commentaries by members of
the Faculty of Theology, University of Navarre, Spain.

Published by Four Courts Press, Kill Lane, Blackrock, Co. Dublin, Ireland, and
by Scepter Publishers in the United States.

6 posted on 12/07/2019 9:49:48 PM PST by Salvation ("With God all things are possible." Matthew 19:26)
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To: Salvation
  English: Douay-Rheims Latin: Vulgata Clementina Greek NT: Byzantine/Majority Text (2000)
  Matthew 3
1 AND in those days cometh John the Baptist preaching in the desert of Judea. In diebus autem illis venit Joannes Baptista prædicans in deserto Judææ, εν δε ταις ημεραις εκειναις παραγινεται ιωαννης ο βαπτιστης κηρυσσων εν τη ερημω της ιουδαιας
2 And saying: Do penance: for the kingdom of heaven is at hand. et dicens : Pœnitentiam agite : appropinquavit enim regnum cælorum. και λεγων μετανοειτε ηγγικεν γαρ η βασιλεια των ουρανων
3 For this is he that was spoken of by Isaias the prophet, saying: A voice of one crying in the desert, Prepare ye the way of the Lord, make straight his paths. Hic est enim, qui dictus est per Isaiam prophetam dicentem : Vox clamantis in deserto : Parate viam Domini : rectas facite semitas ejus. ουτος γαρ εστιν ο ρηθεις υπο ησαιου του προφητου λεγοντος φωνη βοωντος εν τη ερημω ετοιμασατε την οδον κυριου ευθειας ποιειτε τας τριβους αυτου
4 And the same John had his garment of camels' hair, and a leathern girdle about his loins: and his meat was locusts and wild honey. Ipse autem Joannes habebat vestimentum de pilis camelorum, et zonam pelliceam circa lumbos suos : esca autem ejus erat locustæ, et mel silvestre. αυτος δε ο ιωαννης ειχεν το ενδυμα αυτου απο τριχων καμηλου και ζωνην δερματινην περι την οσφυν αυτου η δε τροφη αυτου ην ακριδες και μελι αγριον
5 Then went out to him Jerusalem and all Judea, and all the country about Jordan: Tunc exibat ad eum Jerosolyma, et omnis Judæa, et omnis regio circa Jordanem ; τοτε εξεπορευετο προς αυτον ιεροσολυμα και πασα η ιουδαια και πασα η περιχωρος του ιορδανου
6 And were baptized by him in the Jordan, confessing their sins. et baptizabantur ab eo in Jordane, confitentes peccata sua. και εβαπτιζοντο εν τω ιορδανη υπ αυτου εξομολογουμενοι τας αμαρτιας αυτων
7 And seeing many of the Pharisees and Sadducees coming to his baptism, he said to them: Ye brood of vipers, who hath shewed you to flee from the wrath to come? Videns autem multos pharisæorum, et sadducæorum, venientes ad baptismum suum, dixit eis : Progenies viperarum, quis demonstravit vobis fugere a ventura ira ? ιδων δε πολλους των φαρισαιων και σαδδουκαιων ερχομενους επι το βαπτισμα αυτου ειπεν αυτοις γεννηματα εχιδνων τις υπεδειξεν υμιν φυγειν απο της μελλουσης οργης
8 Bring forth therefore fruit worthy of penance. Facite ergo fructum dignum pœnitentiæ. ποιησατε ουν καρπον αξιον της μετανοιας
9 And think not to say within yourselves, We have Abraham for our father. For I tell you that God is able of these stones to raise up children to Abraham. Et ne velitis dicere intra vos : Patrem habemus Abraham. Dico enim vobis quoniam potens est Deus de lapidibus istis suscitare filios Abrahæ. και μη δοξητε λεγειν εν εαυτοις πατερα εχομεν τον αβρααμ λεγω γαρ υμιν οτι δυναται ο θεος εκ των λιθων τουτων εγειραι τεκνα τω αβρααμ
10 For now the axe is laid to the root of the trees. Every tree therefore that doth not yield good fruit, shall be cut down, and cast into the fire. Jam enim securis ad radicem arborum posita est. Omnis ergo arbor, quæ non facit fructum bonum, excidetur, et in ignem mittetur. ηδη δε και η αξινη προς την ριζαν των δενδρων κειται παν ουν δενδρον μη ποιουν καρπον καλον εκκοπτεται και εις πυρ βαλλεται
11 I indeed baptize you in the water unto penance, but he that shall come after me, is mightier than I, whose shoes I am not worthy to bear; he shall baptize you in the Holy Ghost and fire. Ego quidem baptizo vos in aqua in pœnitentiam : qui autem post me venturus est, fortior me est, cujus non sum dignus calceamenta portare : ipse vos baptizabit in Spiritu Sancto, et igni. εγω μεν βαπτιζω υμας εν υδατι εις μετανοιαν ο δε οπισω μου ερχομενος ισχυροτερος μου εστιν ου ουκ ειμι ικανος τα υποδηματα βαστασαι αυτος υμας βαπτισει εν πνευματι αγιω
12 Whose fan is in his hand, and he will thoroughly cleanse his floor and gather his wheat into the barn; but the chaff he will burn with unquenchable fire. Cujus ventilabrum in manu sua : et permundabit aream suam : et congregabit triticum suum in horreum, paleas autem comburet igni inextinguibili. ου το πτυον εν τη χειρι αυτου και διακαθαριει την αλωνα αυτου και συναξει τον σιτον αυτου εις την αποθηκην το δε αχυρον κατακαυσει πυρι ασβεστω

7 posted on 12/08/2019 4:29:18 AM PST by annalex (fear them not)
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To: annalex
1. In those days came John the Baptist, preaching in the wilderness of Judea,
2. And saying, Repent; for the kingdom of heaven is at hand.
3. For this is he that was spoken of by the Prophet Esaias, saying, The voice of one crying in the wilderness, Prepare you the way of the Lord, make His paths straight.

PSEUDO-CHRYS.The Sun as he approaches the horizon, and before he is yet visible, sends out his rays and makes the eastern sky to glow with light, that Aurora going before may herald the coming day. Thus the Lord at His birth in this earth, and before He shows Himself, enlightens John by the rays of His Spirit's teaching, that he might go before and announce the Savior that was to come. Therefore after having related the birth of Christ, before proceeding to His teaching and baptism (wherein he received such testimony) he first premises somewhat of the Baptist and forerunner of the Lord. In those days, &c.

REMIG. In these words we have not only time, place, and person, respecting St. John, but also his office and employment. First the time, generally: In those days.

AUG. Luke describes the time by the reigning sovereigns. But Matthew must be understood to speak of a wider space of time by the phrase 'those days,' than the fifteenth year of Tiberius. Having related Christ's return from Egypt, which must be placed in early boyhood or even infancy, to make it agree with what Luke has told of His being in the temple at twelve years old, he adds directly, In those days, not intending thereby only the days of His childhood, but all the days from His birth to the preaching of John.

REMIG. The man is mentioned in the words came John, that is, showed himself having abode so long in obscurity.

CHRYS. But why must John thus go before Christ with a witness of deeds preaching Him? First, that we might hence learn Christ's dignity, that he also, as the Father has, has prophets, in the words of Zacharias And you, Child, shall be called the Prophet of the Highest (Luke 1:76). Secondly, that the Jews might have no cause for offense; as he declared, John came neither eating nor drinking, and they say, He has a devil. The Son of Man came eating and drinking, and they say, Behold a gluttonous man (Luke 7:33). It needs moreover that the things concerning Christ should be told by some other first, and not by Himself; or what would the Jews have said, who after the witness of John made complaint, You bear witness of yourself; your witness is not true (John 8:13).

REMIG. His office: the Baptist; in this he prepared the way of the Lord, for had not men been used to being baptized, they would have shunned Christ's baptism. His employment: Preaching;

RABAN. For because Christ was to preach, as soon as it seemed the fit time, that is, about thirty years of age, he began by his preaching to make ready the way for the Lord.

REM. The place: the desert of Judea.

MAXIMUS; Where neither a noisy mob would interrupt his preaching, and where no unbelieving hearer would retire; but those only would hear, who sought to his preaching from motives of divine worship.

JEROME; Consider how the salvation of God, and the glory of the Lord, is preached not in Jerusalem, but in the solitude of the Church, in the wilderness to multitudes.

HILARY; Or, he came to Judea, desert by the absence of God, not of population, that the place of preaching might witness the few to whom the preaching was sent.

GLOSS. The desert typically means a life removed from the temptations of the world, such as befits the penitent.

AUG. Unless one repent him of his former life, he cannot begin a new life.

HILARY; He therefore preaches repentance when the Kingdom of Heaven approaches, by which we return from error, we escape from sin, and after shame for our faults, we make profession of forsaking them.

PSEUDO-CHRYS. In the very commencement he shows himself the messenger of a merciful Prince; he comes not with threats to the offender, but with offers of mercy. It is a custom with kings to proclaim a general pardon on the birth of a son, but first they send throughout their kingdom officers to exact severe fines. But God willing at the birth of His Son to give pardon of sins, first sends His officer proclaiming, Repent you. O exaction which leaves none poor, but makes many rich! For even when we pay our just debt of righteousness we do God no service, but only gain our own salvation. Repentance cleanses the heart, enlightens the sense, and prepares the human soul for the reception of Christ, as he immediately adds, For the Kingdom of Heaven is at hand.

JEROME; John Baptist is the first to preach the Kingdom of Heaven, that the forerunner of the Lord may have this honorable privilege.

CHRYS. And he preaches what the Jews had never heard, not even from the Prophets: Heaven, namely, and the Kingdom that is there, and of the kingdoms of the earth he says nothing. Thus by the novelty of those things of which he speaks, he gains their attention to Him whom he preaches.

REMIG. The Kingdom of Heaven has a fourfold meaning. It is said, of Christ, as The Kingdom of God is within you (Luke 17:21). Of Holy Scripture, as, The Kingdom of God shall be taken from you, and shall he given to a nation bringing forth the fruits thereof (Mat 21:43). Of the Holy Church, as, The Kingdom of Heaven is like to ten virgins (Mat 25). Of the abode above, as, Many shall come from the East and the West, and shall sit down in the Kingdom of Heaven (Mat 8:11). And all these significations may be here understood.

GLOSS.The Kingdom of Heaven shall come nigh you; for if it approached not, none would be able to gain it; for weak and blind they had not the way, which was Christ.

AUG. The other Evangelists omit these words of John. What follows, This is He, &c. it is not clear whether the Evangelist speaks them in his own person, or whether they are part of John's preaching, and the whole from Repent, to Esaias the Prophet, is to be assigned to John. It is of no importance that he says, This is he, and not, I am he; for Matthew speaking of himself says, He found a man sitting at the toll-office (Mat 9:9); not He found me. Though when asked what he said of himself, he answered, as is related by John the Evangelist, I am the voice of one crying in the wilderness.

GREG. It is well known that the Only-begotten Son is called the Word of the Father; as in John, in the beginning was the Word (John 1:1). But it is by our own speech that we are known; the voice sounds that the words may be heard. Thus John the forerunner of the Lord's coming is called, The voice, because by his ministry the voice of the Father is heard by men.

PSEUDO-CHRYS. The voice is a confused sound, discovering no secret of the heart, only signifying that he who utters it desires to say somewhat; it is the word that is the speech that opens the mystery of the heart. Voice is common to men and other animals, word peculiar to man. John then is called the voice and not the word, because God did not discover His counsels through him, but only signified that he was about to do something among men; but afterwards by His Son He fully opened the mystery of His will.

RABANUS. He is rightly called, The voice of one crying, on account of the loud sound of his preaching. Three things cause a man to speak loud: when the person he speaks to is at a distance, or is deaf, or if the speaker be angry; and all these three were then found in the human race.

GLOSS. John then is, as it were, the voice of the word crying. The word is heard by the voice, that is, Christ by John.

BEDE. In like manner has He cried from the beginning through the voice of all who have spoken by inspiration. And yet is John only called, The voice; because that Word which others showed afar off, he declares as nigh.

GREG. Crying in the desert, because he shows to deserted and forlorn Judea the approaching consolation of her Redeemer.

REMIG. Though as far as historical fact is concerned, he chose the desert, to be removed from the crowds of people. What the purport of his cry was is insinuated when he adds, Make ready the way of the Lord.

PSEUDO-CHRYS. As a great King going on a progress is preceded by couriers to cleanse what is foul, repair what is broken down, so John preceded the Lord to cleanse the human heart from the filth of sin, by the bosom of repentance, and to gather by an ordinance of spiritual precepts those things which had been scattered abroad.

GREG. Everyone who preaches right faith and good works, prepares the Lord's way to the hearts of the hearers, and makes His paths straight, in cleansing the thoughts by the word of good preaching.

GLOSS. Or, faith is the way by which the word reaches the heart; when the life is amended the paths are made straight.

4. And the same John had his raiment of camel's hair, and a leather girdle about his loins; and his meat was locusts and wild honey.

PSEUDO-CHRYS. Having said that he is the voice of one crying in the desert, the Evangelist well adds, John had his clothing of camel's hair; thus showing what his life was; for he indeed testified of Christ, but his life testified of himself. No one is fit to be another's witness till he has first been his own.

HILARY.For the preaching of John no place more suitable, no clothing more useful, no food more fitted.

JEROME; His raiment of camel's hair, not of wool - the one the mark of austerity in dress, the other of a delicate luxury.

PSEUDO-CHRYS. It becomes the servants of God to use a dress not for elegant appearance, or for cherishing of the body, but for a covering of the nakedness. Thus John wears a garment not soft and delicate, but hairy, heavy, rough, rather wounding the skin than cherishing it, that even the very clothing of his body told of the virtue of his mind. It was the custom of the Jews to wear girdles of wool; so he desiring something less indulgent wore one of skin.

JEROME; Food moreover suited to a dweller in the desert, no choice viands, but such as satisfied the necessities of the body.

RABANUS.Content with poor fare: to wit, small insects and honey gathered from the trunks of trees. In the sayings of Arnulphus, Bishop of Gaul, we find that there was a very small kind of locust in the deserts of Judea, with bodies about the thickness of a finger and short; they are easily taken among the grass, and when cooked in oil form a poor kind of food. He also relates that in the same desert there is a kind of tree, with a large round leaf, of the color of milk and taste of honey, so friable as to rub to powder in the hand, and this is what is intended by wild honey.

REMIG. In this clothing and this poor food, he shows that he sorrows for the sins of the whole human race.

RABANUS.His dress and diet express the quality of his inward conversation. His garment was of an austere quality, because he rebuked the sinner's life.

JEROME; His girdle of skin, which Elias also bare, is the mark of mortification.

RABAN. He ate locusts and honey, because his preaching was sweet to the multitude, but was of short continuance; and honey has sweetness, locusts a swift fight but soon fall to the ground.

REMIG. In John (which name is interpreted 'the grace of God') is figured Christ who brought grace into the world - in his clothing, the Gentile Church.

HILARY; The preacher of Christ is clad in the skins of unclean beasts, to which the Gentiles are compared, and so by the Prophets' dress is sanctified whatever in them was useless or unclean. The girdle is a thing of much efficacy to every good work, that we may he girt for every ministry of Christ. For his food are chosen locusts, which fly the face of man, and escape from every approach, signifying ourselves who were borne away from every word or speech of good by a spontaneous motion of the body, weak in will, barren in works, fretful in speech, foreign in abode, are now become the food of the Saints, chosen to fill the Prophets' desire, furnishing our most sweet food not from the hives of the law, but from the trunks of wild trees.

5. Then went out to him Jerusalem, and all Judea, and all the region round about Jordan,
6. And were baptized of him in Jordan, confessing their sins.

PSEUDO-CHRYS. Having described the preaching of John, he goes on to say, There went out to him, for his severe life preached yet more loudly in the desert than the voice of his crying.

CHRYS. For it was wonderful to see such fortitude in a human body; this it was that chiefly attracted the Jews, seeing in him the great Elias. It also contributed to fill them with wonder that the grace of Prophecy had long failed among them, and now seemed to have at length revived. Also the manner of his preaching being other than that of the old prophets had much effect; for now they heard not such things as they were wont to hear, such as wars, and conquests of the king of Babylon, or of Persia; but of Heaven and the Kingdom there, and the punishment of hell.

GLOSS. This baptism was only a fore-running of that to come, and did not forgive sins.

REMIG. The baptism of John bare a figure of the catechumens. As children are only catechized that they may become meet for the sacrament of Baptism; so John baptized that they who were thus baptized might afterwards by a holy life become worthy of coming to Christ's baptism. He baptized in Jordan, that the door of the Kingdom of Heaven might be there opened, where an entrance had been given to time children of Israel into the earthly kingdom of promise.

PSEUDO-CHRYS. Compared with the holiness of John, who is there that can think himself righteous? As a white garment if placed near snow would seem foul by the contrast; so compared with John every man would seem impure; therefore they confessed their sins. Confession of sin is the testimony of a conscience fearing God. And perfect fear takes away all shame. But there is seen the shame of confession where there is no fear of the judgment to come. But as shame itself is a heavy punishment, God therefore bids us confess our sins that we may suffer this shame as punishment; for that itself is a part of the judgment.

RABANUS; Rightly are they who are to be baptized said to go out to the Prophet; for unless one depart from sin, and renounce the pomp of the Devil, and the temptations of the world, he cannot receive a healing baptism. Rightly also in Jordan, which means their descent, because they descended from the pride of life to the humility of an honest confession. Thus early was an example given to them that are to be baptized of confessing their sins and professing amendment.

7. But when he saw many of the Pharisees and Sadducees come to his baptism, he said to them, O generation of vipers, who has warned you to flee from the wrath to come?
8. Bring forth therefore fruits meet for repentance;
9. And think not to say within yourselves, We have Abraham to our father; for I say to you, that God is able of these stones to raise up children to Abraham.
10. And now also the ax is laid to the root of the trees; therefore every tree which brings not forth good fruit is hewn down, and cast into the fire.

GREG. The words of the teachers should be fitted to the quality of the hearers, that in each particular it should agree, with itself and yet never depart from the fortress of general edification.

GLOSS. It was necessary that after the teaching which he used to the common people, the Evangelist should give an example of the doctrine he delivered to the more advanced; therefore he says, Seeing many of the Pharisees, &c.

ISID. The Pharisees and Sadducees opposed to one another; Pharisee in the Hebrew signifies 'divided,' because choosing the justification of traditions and observances they were 'divided' or 'separated' from the people by this righteousness. Sadducee in the Hebrew means 'just'; for these laid clam to be what they were not, denied the resurrection of the body, and taught that the soul perished with the body; they only received the Pentateuch, and rejected the Prophets.

GLOSS. When John saw those who seemed to be of great consideration among the Jews come to his baptism, he said to them, O generation of vipers, &c.

REMIG. The manner of Scripture is to give names from the imitation of deeds, according to that of Ezekiel, Your father was an Amorite (Ezek 16:3); so these from following vipers are called generation of vipers.

PSEUDO-CHRYS. As a skillful physician from the color of the skin infers the sick man's disease, so John understood the evil thoughts of the Pharisees who came to him. They thought perhaps, We go, and confess our sins; he imposes no burden on us, we will be baptized, and get indulgence for sin. Fools! if you have eaten of impurity, must you not needs take physic? So after confession and baptism, a man needs much diligence to heal the wound of sin; therefore he Says, Generation of vipers. It is the nature of the viper as soon as it has bitten a man to fly to the water, which, if it cannot find, it straightway dies; so this progeny of vipers, after having committed deadly sin, ran to baptism, that, like vipers, they might escape death by means of water. Moreover it is the nature of vipers to burst the insides of their mothers, and so to be born. The Jews then are therefore called progeny of vipers, because by continual persecution of the prophets they had corrupted their mother the Synagogue. Also vipers have a beautiful and speckled outside, but are filled with poison within. So these men's countenances wore a holy appearance.

REMIG. When then he asks, who will show you to flee from the wrath to come, - 'except God' must be understood.

PSEUDO-CHRYS. Or who has shown you? Was it Esaias? Surely no; had he taught you, you would not put your trust in water only, but also in good works; he thus speaks, Wash you, and be clean; put your wickedness away from in your souls, learn to do well. Was it then David? who says, You shall wash me, and I shall be whiter than snow; surely not, for he adds immediately, The sacrifice of God is a broken spirit. If then you had been the disciples of David, you would have come to baptism with mournings.

REMIG. But if we read, shall show, in the future, this is the meaning, 'What teacher, what preacher, shall be able to give you such counsel, as that you may escape the wrath of everlasting damnation?'

AUG. God is described in Scripture, from some likeness of effects, not from being subject to such weakness, not as being angry, and yet is He never moved by any passion. The word 'wrath' is applied to the effects of his vengeance, not that God suffers any disturbing affection.

GLOSS. If then you would escape this wrath, Bring forth fruits meet for repentance.

GREG. Observe, he says not merely fruits of repentance, but fruits meet for repentance. For he who has never fallen into things unlawful, is of right allowed the use of all things lawful; but if any have fallen into sin, he ought so far to put away from him even things lawful, as far as he is conscious of having used unlawful things. It is left then to such man's conscience to seek so much the greater gains of good works by repentance, the greater loss he has brought on himself by sin. The Jews who gloried in their race, would not own themselves sinners because they were Abraham's seed. Say not among yourselves we are Abraham's seed.

CHRYS. He does not forbid them to say they are his, but to trust in that, neglecting virtues of the soul.

PSEUDO-CHRYS. What avails noble birth to him whose life is disgraceful? Or, on the other hand, what hurt is a low origin to him who has the luster of virtue? It is fitter that the parents of such a son should rejoice over him, than he over his parents. So do not you pride yourselves on having Abraham for your father, rather blush that you inherit his blood, but not his holiness. He who has no resemblance to his father is possibly the offspring of adultery. These words then only exclude boasting on account of birth.

RABANUS. Because as a preacher of truth he wished to stir them up, to bring forth fruit meet for repentance, he invites them to humility, without which no one can repent.

REMIG. There is a tradition, that John preached at that place of the Jordan, where the twelve stones taken from the bed of the river had been set up by command of God. He might then be pointing to these, when he said, Of these stones.

JEROME. He intimates God's great power, who, as He made all things out of nothing, can make men out of the hardest stone.

GLOSS. It is faith's first lesson to believe that God is able to do whatever He will.

CHRYSOST. That men should be made out of stones, is like Isaac coming from Sarah's womb; Look into the rock, says Isaiah, whence you were hewn. Reminding them thus of this prophecy, he shows that it is possible that the like might even now happen.

RABANUS;Otherwise, the Gentiles may be meant who worshipped stones.

PSEUDO-CHRYS. Stone is hard to work, but when wrought to some shape, it loses it not; so the Gentiles were hardly brought to the faith, but once brought they abide in it forever.

JEROME. These stones signify the Gentiles because of their hardness of heart. See Ezekiel, I will take away from you the heart of stone, and give you the heart of flesh. Stone is emblematic of hardness, flesh of softness.

RABAN. Of stones there were sons raised up to Abraham; forasmuch as the Gentiles by believing in Christ, who is Abraham's seed, became his sons to whose seed they were united.

PSEUDO-CHRYS. The ax is that most sharp fury of the consummation of all things, that is to hew down the whole world. But if it be already laid, how has it not yet cut down? Because these trees have reason and free power to do good, or leave undone; so that when they see the ax laid to their root, they may fear and bring forth fruit. This denunciation of wrath then, which is meant by the having of the ax to the root, though it have no effect on the bad, yet will sever the good from the bad.

JEROME. Or, the preaching of the Gospel is meant, as the Prophet Jeremiah also compares the Word of the Lord to an ax cleaving the rock.

GREG. Or, the ax signifies the Redeemer, who as an ax of haft and blade, so consisting of the Divine and human nature, is held by His human, but cuts by His Divine nature. And though this ax be laid at the root of the tree waiting in patience, it is yet seen what it will do; for each obstinate sinner who here neglects the fruit of good works, finds the fire of hell ready for him. Observe, the ax is laid to the root, not to the branches; for that when the children of wickedness are removed, the branches only of the unfruitful tree are cut away. But when the whole offspring with their parent is carried off, the unfruitful tree is cut down by the root, that there remain not whence the evil shoots should spring up again.

CHRYS. By saying Every, he cuts off all privilege of nobility, as much as to say, Though you be the son of Abraham, if you abide fruitless you shall suffer the punishment.

RABANUS. There are four sorts of trees: the first totally withered, to which the Pagans may be likened; the second green but unfruitful, as the hypocrites; the third, green and fruitful, but poisonous, such are heretics; the fourth, green and bringing forth good fruit, to which are like the good Catholics.

GREG. Therefore every tree that brings not forth good fruit shall be cut down and cast into the fire, because he who here neglects to bring forth the fruit of good works finds a fire in hell prepared for him.

11. I indeed baptize you with water to repentance; but He that comes after me is mightier than I, Whose shoes I am not worthy to bear; He shall baptize you with the Holy Ghost, and with fire;
12. Whose fan is in His hand, and He will thoroughly purge His floor, and gather His wheat into the garner; but He will burn up the chaff with unquenchable fire.

GLOSS. As in the preceding words John had explained more at length what he had shortly preached in the words, Repent you, so now fellows a more full enlargement of the words, The kingdom of heaven is at hand.

GREG. John baptizes not with the Spirit but with water, because he had no power to forgive sins; he washes the body with water, but not at time same time the soul with pardon of sin.

CHRYSOST. For while as yet the sacrifice had not been offered, nor remission of sin sent, nor the Spirit had descended on the water, how could sin be forgiven? But since the Jews never perceived their own sin, and this was the cause of all their evils, John came to bring them to a sense of them by calling them to repentance.

GREG. Why then does he baptize who could not remit sin, but that he may preserve in all things the office of forerunner? As his birth had preceded Christ's birth, so his baptism should precede the Lord's baptism.

PSEUDO-CHRYS. Or, John was sent to baptize, that to such as came to his baptism he might announce the presence among them of the Lord in the flesh, as he testifies in another place, That He might be manifested to Israel, therefore am I come to baptize with water (John 1:31).

AUG. Or, he baptizes, because it was fitting Christ to be baptized. But if indeed John was sent only to baptize Christ, why was not He alone baptized by John? Because had the Lord alone been baptized by John, there would not have lacked who should insist that John's baptism was greater than Christ's, inasmuch as Christ alone had the merit to be baptized by it.

RABANUS;Or, by this sign of baptism he separates the penitent from the impenitent, and directs them to the baptism of Christ.

PSEUDO-CHRYS. Because then he baptized on account of Christ, therefore to them who came to him for baptism he preached that Christ should come, signifying the eminence of His power in the words, He who comes after me is mightier than I.

REMIG. There are five points in which Christ comes after John: His birth, preaching, baptism, death, and descent into hell. A beautiful expression is that, mightier than I, because he is mere man, the other is God and man.

RABAN. As though he had said, I indeed am mighty to invite to repentance, He to forgive sins; I to preach the kingdom of heaven, He to bestow it; I to baptize with water, He with the Spirit.

CHRYS.When you hear for He is mightier than I, do not Suppose this to be said by way of comparison, for I am not worthy to be numbered among his servants, that I might undertake the lowest office.

HILARY. Leaving to the Apostles the glory of bearing about the Gospel, to whose beautiful feet was due the carrying the tidings of God's peace.

PSEUDO-CHRYS. Or, by the feet of Christ we may understand Christians, especially the Apostles, and other preachers, among whom was John Baptist; and the shoes are the infirmities with which he loads the preachers. These shoes all Christ's preachers wear; and John also wore them, but declares himself unworthy, that he might show the grace of Christ, and be greater than his deserts.

JEROME; In the other Gospels it is, whose shoe latchet I am not worthy to loose. Here his humility, there his ministry is intended; Christ is the Bridegroom, and John is not worthy to loose the Bridegroom's shoe, that his house be not called according to the Law of Moses and the example of Ruth, The house of him that has his shoe loosed (Deut 25:10).

PSEUDO-CHRYS. But since no one can give a benefit more worthy than he himself is, nor to make another what himself is not, he adds, He shall baptize you with the Holy Ghost and with fire. John who is carnal cannot give spiritual baptism; he baptizes with water, which is matter; so that he baptizes matter with matter. Christ is Spirit, because He is God; the Holy Ghost is Spirit, the soul is spirit; so that Spirit with Spirit baptizes our spirit. The baptism of the Spirit profits as the Spirit enters and embraces the mind, and surrounds it as it were with an impregnable wall, not suffering fleshly lusts to prevail against it. It does not indeed prevail that the flesh should not lust, but holds the will that it should not consent with it. And as Christ is Judge, He baptizes in fire, i.e. temptation; mere man cannot baptize in fire; he alone is free to tempt, who is strong to reward. This baptism of tribulation burns up the flesh that it does not generate lust, for the flesh does not fear spiritual punishment, but only such as is carnal. The Lord therefore sends carnal tribulation on his servants, that the flesh fearing its own pains, may not lust after evil. See then how the Spirit drives away lust, and suffers it not to prevail, and the fire burns up its very roots.

JEROME; Either the Holy Ghost Himself is a fire, as we learn from the Acts, when there sat as it were fire on the tongues of the believers; and thus the word of the Lord was fulfilled who said, I am come to send fire on the earth, I will that it burn (Luke 12:49). Or, we are baptized now with the Spirit, hereafter with fire; as the Apostle speaks, Fire shall try every man's work, of what sort it is.

CHRYS. He does not say, shall give you the Holy Ghost, but shall baptize you in the Holy Ghost, showing in metaphor the abundance of the grace. This further shows, that even under the faith there is need of the will alone for justification, not of labors and toilings; and even as easy a thing as it is to be baptized, even so easy a thing it is to be changed and made better. By fire he signifies the strength of grace which cannot be overcome, and that it may be understood that he makes His own people at once like to the great and old prophets, most of the prophetic visions were by fire.

PSEUDO-CHRYS. It is plain then that the baptisms of Christ does not undo the baptism of John, but includes it in itself; he who is baptized in Christ's name has both baptisms, that of water and that of the Spirit. For Christ is Spirit, and has taken to Him the body that He might give both bodily and spiritual baptism. John's baptism does not include in it the baptism of Christ, because the less cannot include the greater. Thus the Apostle having found certain Ephesians baptized with John's baptism, baptized them again in the name of Christ, because they had not been baptized in the Spirit; thus Christ baptized a second time those who bad been baptized by John, as John himself declared he should, I baptize you with water; but He shall baptize you with the Spirit. And yet they were not baptized twice but once; for as the baptism of Christ was more than that of John, it was a new one given, not the same repeated.

HILARY; He marks the time of our salvation and judgment in the Lord; those who are baptized in the Holy Ghost it remains that they be consummated by the fire of judgment.

RABANUS; By the fan is signified the separation of a just trial; that it is in the Lord's hand means, 'in His power,' as it is written, the Father has committed all judgment to the Son.

PSEUDO-CHRYS. The floor is the Church; the barn, is the kingdom of heaven, the field, is the world. The Lord sends forth His Apostles and other teachers, as reapers to reap all nations of the earth, and gather them into the floor of the Church. Here we must be threshed and winnowed, for all men are delighted in carnal things as grain delights in the husk. But whoever is faithful and has the marrow of a good heart, as soon as he has a light tribulation, neglecting carnal things runs to the Lord; but if his faith be feeble, hardly with heavy sorrow; and he who is altogether void of faith, however he may be troubled, passes not over to God. The wheat when first thrashed lies in one heap with chaff and straw, and is after winnowed to separate it; so the faithful are mixed up in one Church with the unfaithful; butt persecution comes as a wind, that, tossed by Christ's fan, they whose hearts were separate before, may be also now separated in place. He shall not merely cleanse, but thoroughly cleanse; therefore the Church must needs be tried in many ways till this be accomplished. And first the Jews winnowed it, then the Gentiles, now the heretics, and after a time shall Antichrist thoroughly winnow it. For as when the blast is gentle, only the lighter chaff is carried off; but the heavier remains; so a slight wind of temptation carries off the worst characters only; but should a greater storm arise, even those who seem steadfast will depart. There is need then of heavier persecution that the Church should be cleansed.

REMIG. This His floor, to wit, the Church, the Lord cleanses in this life, both when by the sentence of the Priests the bad are put out of the Church, and when they are cut off by death.

RABAN. The cleansing of the floor will then be finally accomplished, when the Son of Man shall send His Angels, and shall gather all offenses out of His kingdom.

GREG. After the threshing is finished in this life, in which the grain now groans under the burden of the chaff, the fan of the last judgment shall so separate between them, that neither shall any chaff pass into the granary, nor shall the grain fall into the fire which consumes the chaff.

HILARY; The wheat, i.e the full and perfect fruit of the believer, he declares, shall be laid up in heavenly barns; by the chaff he means the emptiness of the unfruitful.

RABAN. There is this difference between the chaff and the tares, that the chaff is produced of the same seed as the wheat, but the tares from one of another kind. The chaff therefore are those who enjoy the sacraments of the faith, but are not solid; the tares are those who in profession as well as in works are separated from the lot of the good.

REMIG. The unquenchable fire is the punishment of eternal damnation, either because it never totally destroys or consumes those it has once seized on, but torments them eternally, or to distinguish it from purgatorial fire which is kindled for a time and again extinguished.

AUG. If any asks which were the actual words spoken by John, whether those reported by Matthew, or by Luke, or by Mark, it may be shown, that there is no difficulty here to him who rightly understands that the sense is essential to our knowledge of the truth, but the words indifferent. And it is clear we ought not to deem any testimony false, because the same fact is related by several persons who were present in different words and different ways. Whoever thinks that the Evangelists might have been so inspired by the Holy Ghost that they should have differed among themselves neither in the choice, nor the number, nor the order of their words, he does not see that by how much the authority of the Evangelists is preeminent, so much the more is to be by them established the veracity of other men in the same circumstances. But the discrepancy may seem to be in the thing, and not only in words, between, I am not worthy to bear His shoes, and, to loose His shoe-latchet. Which of these two expressions did John use? He who has reported the very words will seem to have spoken truth; he who has given other words, though he has not hid, or been forgetful, yet has he said one thing for another. But the Evangelists should be clear of every kind of falseness, not only that of lying, but also that of forgetfulness. If then this discrepancy be important, we may suppose John to have used both expressions, either at different times, or both at the same time. But if he only meant to express the Lord's greatness and his own humility, whether he used one or the other the sense is preserved, though any one should in his own words repeat the same profession of humility using the figure of the shoes; their will and intention does not differ. This then is a useful rule and one to be remembered, that it is no lie, when one fairly represents his meaning whose speech one is recounting, though one uses other words; if only one shows our meaning to be the same with his. Thus understood it is a wholesome direction, that we are to inquire only after the meaning of the speaker.

Catena Aurea Matthew 3
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To: annalex

John the Baptist

Yaroslavl, 16 c.

9 posted on 12/08/2019 4:31:06 AM PST by annalex (fear them not)
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To: Admin Moderator; Religion Moderator

Thank you.

10 posted on 12/08/2019 9:38:49 AM PST by Salvation ("With God all things are possible." Matthew 19:26)
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Pray for Pope Francis.

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It's time to kneel down and pray for our nation (Sacramental Marriage)
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Perpetual Novena for the Nation (Ecumenical)
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Prayers for The Religion Forum (Ecumenical)
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7 Powerful Ways to Pray for Christians Suffering in the Middle East
15 posted on 12/08/2019 6:03:20 PM PST by Salvation ("With God all things are possible." Matthew 19:26)
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Pray the Rosary!

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16 posted on 12/08/2019 6:04:02 PM PST by Salvation ("With God all things are possible." Matthew 19:26)
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