Skip to comments.St. Andrew, the First Called
Posted on 06/14/2006 7:37:05 PM PDT by ELS
St. Andrew, the First Called
"Considered as the Apostle of the Greeks"
VATICAN CITY, JUNE 14, 2006 (Zenit.org).- Here is a translation of Benedict XVI's address at today's general audience, which he dedicated to meditate on "Andrew, the Protoklitos."
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Dear Brothers and Sisters:
In the last two catecheses we have spoken about the figure of St. Peter. Now, in the measure the sources allow us, we want to know the other 11 apostles a bit better. Therefore, today we speak of Simon Peter's brother, St. Andrew, who was also one of the Twelve.
What first impresses one about Andrew is his name: It is not Hebrew, as one would expect, but Greek, indicative of a certain cultural openness of his family. We find ourselves in Galilee, where the Greek language and culture are quite present.
In the lists of the Twelve, Andrew is in second place in Matthew (10:1-4) and in Luke (6:13-16), or in the fourth place, in Mark (3:13-18) and in the Acts of the Apostles (1:13-14). In any case, without a doubt he had great prestige within the early Christian communities.
The blood tie between Peter and Andrew, as well as the joint call addressed to them by Jesus, are mentioned expressly in the Gospels. One reads: "As he walked by the Sea of Galilee, he saw two brothers, Simon who is called Peter and Andrew his brother, casting a net into the sea; for they were fishermen. And he said to them, 'Follow me, and I will make you fishers of men'" (Matthew 4:18-19; Mark 1:16-17).
From the fourth Gospel we know another important detail: At first, Andrew was a disciple of John the Baptist; and this shows us that he was a man who was searching, who shared Israel's hope, who wanted to know better the word of the Lord, the presence of the Lord.
He was truly a man of faith and hope; and one day he heard that John the Baptist was proclaiming Jesus as "the Lamb of God" (John 1:36); then, he moved, and together with another disciple, whose name is not mentioned, followed Jesus, he who was called by John "Lamb of God." The evangelist says: "They saw where he was staying; and they stayed with him" (John 1:40-43), demonstrating immediately an uncommon apostolic spirit. Andrew, therefore, was the first apostle who received the call and followed Jesus.
For this reason the liturgy of the Byzantine Church honors him with the nickname "Protoklitos," which means the "first called."
Because of the fraternal relationship between Peter and Andrew, the Church of Rome and the Church of Constantinople regard themselves as sister Churches. To underline this relationship, my predecessor, Pope Paul VI, in 1964 returned the famous relic of St. Andrew, until then kept in the Vatican basilica, to the Orthodox metropolitan bishop of the city of Patras, in Greece, where, according to tradition, the apostle was crucified.
The Gospel traditions mention Andrew's name particularly on three other occasions, allowing us to know something more about this man. The first is the multiplication of the loaves in Galilee. On that occasion, Andrew pointed out to Jesus the presence of a young boy who had five barley loaves and two fish: very little, he said, for all the people that had gathered in that place (cf. John 6:8-9).
It is worthwhile to underline Andrew's realism. He had seen the boy, that is, he had already asked him: "But, what is this for all these people?" (ibid.) and he became aware of the lack of resources. Jesus, however, was able to make them be sufficient for the multitude of people that had gone to hear him.
The second occasion was in Jerusalem. Leaving the city, a disciple showed him the spectacle of the powerful walls that supported the temple. The Master's response was astonishing: He said that of those walls not one stone would remain upon another. Then Andrew, along with Peter, James and John, asked him: "Tell us, when this will be, and what will be the sign when these things are all to be accomplished?" (Mark 13:1-4).
As a response to this question, Jesus pronounced an important discourse on the destruction of Jerusalem and the end of the world, inviting his disciples to read with care the signs of the times and to always maintain a vigilant attitude. From this episode we may deduce that we do not have to be afraid to ask Jesus questions, but at the same time, we must be ready to accept the teachings, also astonishing and difficult, which he offers us.
Recorded in the Gospels, finally, is a third initiative of Andrew. The setting continues to be Jerusalem, shortly before the Passion. On the occasion of the feast of Passover, John recounts, some Greeks had come to the Holy City, perhaps proselytes or God-fearing men, to worship the God of Israel during the feast of Passover.
Andrew and Philip, the two apostles with Greek names, were the interpreters and mediators for Jesus of this small group of Greeks. The Lord's answer to his question seems enigmatic, as often happens in John's Gospel, but precisely in this way it is revealed full of meaning. Jesus says to his disciples and, through their mediation, to the Greek world: "The hour has come for the Son of man to be glorified. Truly, truly, I say to you, unless a grain of wheat falls into the earth and dies, it remains alone; but if it dies, it bears much fruit" (John 12:23-24).
What do these words mean in this context? Jesus wishes to say: Yes, my meeting with the Greeks will take place, but mine will not be a simple and brief talk with some persons, moved above all by curiosity. With my death, comparable to the fall into the earth of a grain of wheat, the hour of my glorification will come. From my death on the cross great fruitfulness will stem. The "dead grain of wheat" -- symbol of my crucifixion -- will become, in the Resurrection, bread of life for the world: It will be light for peoples and cultures.
Yes, the encounter with the Greek soul, with the Greek world, will take place in that profundity to which the grain of wheat refers, which attracts to itself the forces of the earth and of heaven and becomes bread. In other words, Jesus prophesies the Church of the Greeks, the Church of pagans, the Church of the world as fruit of his Pasch.
Very ancient traditions believe that Andrew, who transmitted these words to the Greeks, not only is the interpreter of some Greeks at the meeting with Christ, which we have just recalled, but he is considered as the Apostle of the Greeks in the years that followed Pentecost; they tell us that for the rest of his life he was the herald and interpreter of Jesus for the Greek world.
Peter, his brother, arrived in Rome from Jerusalem, passing through Antioch, to exercise his universal mission; Andrew, on the contrary, was the Apostle of the Greek world. In this way, both in life as in death, they appear as authentic brothers, a fraternity that is expressed symbolically in the special relationship of the sees of Rome and Constantinople, Churches that are truly sisters.
A subsequent tradition, as I was saying, recounts the death of Andrew in Patras, where he also suffered the torture of crucifixion. However, in that supreme moment, as his brother Peter, he asked to be placed on a cross different from that of Jesus. In his case, it was a cross in the shape of an X, that is, with the two beams crossed diagonally, which for this reason is called "St. Andrew's cross."
This is what he would have said on that occasion, according to an ancient narrative (of the beginning of the sixth century), entitled "Passion of Andrew": "Hail, O cross, inaugurated by the body of Christ, which has become adornment of his members, as if they were precious pearls. Before the Lord mounted you, you caused an earthly terror. However, now, gifted with a celestial love, you have become a gift. Believers know how much joy you possess, how many gifts you offer. Confident, therefore, and full of joy, I come so that you will also receive me exultant as disciple of him who hanged from you. Blessed cross, which received the majesty and beauty of the members of the Lord , take me and lead me far from men and hand me to my Master so that, through you, he will receive me who through you has redeemed me. Hail, O cross, yes, truly, hail!"
As we can see, we are before an extremely profound Christian spirituality, which sees in the cross, beyond an instrument of torture, the incomparable means of a full assimilation with the Redeemer, with the grain of wheat fallen into the earth. We must learn a very important lesson: Our crosses have value if they are considered and welcomed as part of the cross of Christ, if they are touched by the reflection of his light. Only through that cross our sufferings are also ennobled and attain their true meaning.
May the Apostle Andrew teach us to follow Jesus with promptness (cf. Matthew 4:20; Mark 1:18), to speak with enthusiasm of him to all those with whom we meet and, above all, to cultivate a relationship of authentic familiarity with him, conscious that only in him can we find the ultimate meaning of our life and death.
[Translation by ZENIT]
[At the end of the audience, the Pope greeted pilgrims in several languages. In English, he said:]
Dear Brothers and Sisters,
Continuing our weekly catechesis on the Church's apostolic ministry, today we consider the figure of the Apostle Andrew. According to John's Gospel, Andrew was the first apostle to be called by Jesus; he then brought his brother, Simon Peter, to the Lord. The fraternal relationship of these two great apostles is reflected in the special relationship between the sister Churches of Rome and Constantinople.
The name "Andrew" is Greek, and in the Gospel of John, when some Greeks wish to see Jesus, it is Andrew, with Philip, who brings their request to the Lord. Jesus' response, with its reference to the grain of wheat which dies and then produces much fruit (cf. John 12:23-24), is a prophecy of the Church of the Gentiles, which would spread throughout the Greek world after the Lord's resurrection and the outpouring of the Holy Spirit.
According to some ancient traditions, Andrew preached the Gospel among the Greeks until he met his death by crucifixion. His example inspires us to be zealous disciples of Christ, to bring others to the Lord, and to embrace the mystery of his cross, both in life and in death.
I welcome all the English-speaking visitors present, including groups from England, Ireland, Japan, Malaysia, Taiwan, South Africa and the United States. I greet in particular the Felician Sisters gathered in Rome for the general chapter. Upon all of you and your families, I invoke God's abundant blessing of peace and joy!
Please let me know if you want to be on or off of this ping list.
Profound thoughts on the Eve of Corpus Christi. Thank you for the post.
somewhat related: (Pope visiting Constantinople for Feast of St. Andrew)
Papal visit to Turkey set for 2006-- probably November
Vatican, Jan. 30 (CWNews.com) - The date for a visit by Pope Benedict XVI (bio - news) to Turkey has been fixed, with the accord of the Turkish government, informed Vatican sources report.
Although the Vatican has not yet officially announced plans for the trip, it is generally believed that the Pope will be in Istanbul on November 30, to join with the Orthodox Patriarch Bartholomew I of Constantinople in celebrating the feast of St. Andrew, the patron of the patriarchate.
Shortly after his election last April, Pope Benedict received an invitation from the Ecumenical Patriarch to travel to Istanbul for the feast day. The Pope accepted that invitation, but the voyage was delayed when the Turkish government declined to issue its own invitation. The Ankara regime-- apparently displeased with the Pope's remarks questioning Turkey's bid for membership in the European Union-- pointedly suggested that the Pope could visit in 2006 rather than 2005.
Confirmation that the dates for the trip had been set emerged after the Pope's meeting on January 28 with Greek President Karolos Papoulias. Although the Vatican typically does not confirm plans for papal travel until a few weeks before the trip takes place, it would seem likely that the Pope and the visiting Greek leader spoke about the Pontiff's plans to visit a neighboring country.
Bless you, ELS.
Saint Andrew, Apostle
Saint Andrew - El Greco
1606 - Oil on Canvas
Museo del Greco - Toledo
Venite post me, faciam vos fieri piscatores hominum.
Come and follow me, and I will make you fishers of men.
- Matthew 4:19
We humbly entreat thy majesty, O Lord,
that the blessed apostle Andrew may be as constant an advocate for us in Thy court as he was eminent in preaching and ruling over Thy Church. Amen.
- Collect for the Feast of Saint Andrew
The Church celebrates the feast of Saint Andrew on November 30, an important date in the annual liturgical calendar, because it determines the date of the First Sunday of Advent, which is the Sunday nearest this Feast. Saint Andrew is the patron saint fishermen, and of both Scotland and Russia.
Andrew, the first Apostle called by Jesus, was a fisherman from Bethsaida and the brother of Simon Peter. A follower of John the Baptist, Andrew recognized Jesus as the Messiah when John baptized Our Lord in the Jordan River, and he introduced his brother Simon to Jesus. The two brothers continued as fishermen until Jesus called them as Apostles.
After Pentecost, it is believed that Andrew went to Greece to preach the Gospel of Christ Jesus.
Saint Andrew, called the "Protoclet" (or "first called") by the Greeks, was crucified at Achaia by order of Roman Governor Aegeas during the reign of Nero. He was bound, not nailed, to the X-shaped cross in order to prolong his sufferings. According to tradition, he preached from the cross for two days, and died on the third day.
This saint is the patron of Greece and Scotland. Below is a replica of the Great Seal of Saint Andrew, Scotland. The Cross of Saint Andrew, an X shaped cross, is visible in the center.
We read of the first encounter of the future apostle with Christ in John 1:35-42:
The next day again John was standing with two of his disciples; and he looked at Jesus as He walked, and said, "Behold, the Lamb of God!" The two disciples heard him say this, and they followed Jesus. Jesus turned, and saw them following, and said to them, "What do you seek?" And they said to Him "Rabbi" (which means Teacher), "where are you staying?" He said to them, "Come and see". They came and saw where He was staying; and they stayed with Him that day, for it was about the tenth hour. One of the two who heard John speak, and followed Him was Andrew, Simon Peter's brother. He first found his brother Simon, and said to him, "We have found the Messiah" (which means Christ).
He brought him to Jesus. Jesus looked at him, and said, "So you are Simon the son of John? You shall be called Cephas "(which means Peter).
(Revised Standard Version - Catholic edition)
Readings for Mass:
in your kindness hear our petitions.
You called Andrew the apostle
to preach the gospel and guide your Church in faith.
May he always be our friend in your presence
to help us with his prayers.
We ask this through our Lord Jesus Christ, Your Son,
who lives and reigns with You and the Holy Spirit.
First Reading: Romans 10:9-18
If you confess with your lips that Jesus is Lord and believe in your heart that God raised Him from the dead, you will be saved. For man believes with his heart and so is justified, and he confesses with his lips and so is saved. The scripture says, "No one who believes in Him will be put to shame." For there is no distinction between Jew and Greek; the same Lord is Lord of all and bestows His riches upon all who call upon Him. For, "every one who calls upon the name of the Lord will be saved."
But how are men to call upon Him in whom they have not believed? And how are they to believe in Him of whom they have never heard? And how are they to hear without a preacher? And how can men preach unless they are sent? As it is written, "How beautiful are the feet of those who preach good news!" But they have not all obeyed the gospel; for Isaiah says, "Lord, who has believed what he has heard from us?" So faith comes from what is heard, and what is heard comes by the preaching of Christ.
But I ask, have they not heard? Indeed they have; for "Their voice has gone out to all the earth, and their words to the ends of the world."
Gospel reading: Matthew 4:18-22
As He walked by the Sea of Galilee, He saw two brothers, Simon who is called Peter and Andrew his brother, casting a net into the sea; for they were fisherman. And He said to them, "Follow me, and I will make you fishers of men." Immediately they left their nets and followed Him. And going on from there He saw two other brothers, James the son of Zebedee and John his brother, in the boat with Zebedee their father, mending their nets, and he called them. Immediately t they left the boat and their father, and followed Him.
Prayer for Fishermen
O God, who brought our fathers through the Red Sea and carried them safely through the deep as they sang the praises of Thy name, we humbly beseech Thee to guard Thy servants aboard ship and having repelled all adversities, bring them to the desired port after a calm voyage.
Through Our Lord Jesus Christ, Thy Son, who lives and reigns with Thee in unity of the Holy Spirit, world without end. Amen.
Sacred Heart of Jesus have mercy upon all seafarers.
Our Father....Hail Mary...
Our Lady, Star of the Sea, pray for us.
St. Peter, Pray for us.
St Andrew, pray for us.
Lord save us or we perish.
(This traditional prayer came to us from Lafitte, Louisiana. It was published in the St. Anthony Catholic Church Parish Bulletin, Aug.4, 1991)
Family Celebration of the Feast of Saint Andrew
A Biblical Dinner
Saint Andrew is the patron saint of fishermen. An appropriate way to celebrate his feast is with a fish dinner. This can be as simple as buying fried fish carryout, or as special as the menu (below, with recipes) that appears in A Continual Feast by Evelyn Birge Vitz, originally published by Harper & Row in 1995, now available in paperback from Ignatius Press.
At the blessing, it would be good to add the collect for the feast printed above.
"A Biblical Dinner"
from A Continual Feast
Broiled Fish, Biblical Style
Lentils with Cumin and Coriander
Cucumbers with Cumin and Yogurt
Wheat and Barley Loaves, Flavored with Mint and Olive Oil
Broiled fish, biblical style
2 pounds fresh or defrosted fish: any small fish, fish fillets, fish steaks or larger fish split
4 cloves garlic, chopped
Red Wine Vinegar or Lemon Juice
Greek Olives or other strongly flavored olives
Optional: 1/2 cup chopped fresh mint leaves.
Clean, rinse, and salt the fish. Rub with garlic, and brush with oil. Preheat the broiler. Place the fish in an oiled pan. Broil small fish about 3 inches from the flame, larger fish about 5 inches away. Broil split fish skin side down. During the cooking, baste generously with olive oil and a little vinegar or lemon juice.
Serve the fish on a bed of lettuce, surrounded by Greek olives. Sprinkle with mint leaves, if you wish. Yield 4-6 servings
Cucumber with cumin and yogurt
2 cucumbers, peeled and grated
1 medium onion, finely chopped
1 teaspoon cumin seed, heated briefly in a dry skillet, or 1 teaspoon ground cumin
3 cups plain yogurt, lightly whipped
Salt to taste
Freshly ground pepper to taste
Combine all ingredients and chill for 1 hour or more. Yield 6-8 servings
Lentils with cumin and coriander
1 cup dried lentils
5 cups water
2 medium onions, chopped
2 cloves garlic, chopped
1/4 cup olive oil
1 teaspoon ground cumin
1 teaspoon ground coriander
1/2 teaspoon salt
Freshly ground pepper
Rinse the lentils and carefully pick over to remove any pebbles. Bring 5 cups of water to boil in a large saucepan. Add lentils, and boil for 2 minutes, then remove them from the heat and set aside for 1 hour. In the meantime, sauté onions and garlic in olive oil. When the lentils have soaked for 1 hour, add the onions, garlic, cumin, and coriander to the pan with the lentils. Cook, partly covered, for 1 hour or more, stirring occasionally, until the lentils are quite soft and the water is mostly absorbed. Add more water if necessary to keep dish from drying out too much, but the mixture should be very thick. Add salt and freshly ground pepper; taste for seasoning. Yield 4-6 servings
Wheat and barley loaves
1 teaspoon honey
2 cups warm water (100-110 °F)
1 envelope dry yeast
1 cup barley flour
2 teaspoons salt
about 5 cups flour
1/4 cup olive oil
2-3 teaspoons crushed dried mint leaves
Mix the honey with the water in a large bowl. Sprinkle in the yeast and let sit until foamy.
Stir in the barley flour and the salt. Gradually add the all purpose flour, mixing well between additions. Add the olive oil and the mint. Mix thoroughly.
Place the dough on a lightly floured work surface. knead it for about 15 minutes, or until it is shiny and elastic. Add more flour, while you are kneading, if the dough is too sticky.
Form the dough into a ball, and place it in a greased bowl. Cover with oiled wax paper and a towel, let the dough rise until approximately doubled in volume-1 1/2 to 2 hours. When a finger inserted into the dough leaves a hole that remains, the dough is ready.
Punch the dough down with your fist. Put the dough on your work surface and cut in half with a knife. Knead each half into a ball. Cover the balls, and allow them to rise for 15 minutes.
Form each ball into a large flattish loaf and place on an oiled pan. Make several slashes or a cross with a very sharp knife on the top of each loaf.
Bake for 45 minutes at 350 °F. The loaves are done if they sound hollow when tapped on the bottom. (These loaves won't brown as much as regular bread.)
Yields 2 eight inch flattish loaves.
Variations: For a more pronounced barley flavor, increase the proportion of barley flour. Just remember that the bread won't rise as much. Substitute cinnamon or coriander for the mint.
1 cup coarsely chopped dried figs
1 cup coarsely chopped pitted dates
1/2 cup honey
1/2 teaspoon cinnamon
2 cups chopped walnuts
Mix the fruits, the honey, and the cinnamon. Form the fruit mixture into small cakes (about 2 inches across) or into little balls. Roll the balls or press the cakes onto the chopped nuts, coating them well.
Yields about 12 cakes or 20 balls.
Variations: Use chopped toasted almonds instead of the walnuts; substitute dried apricots for one of the other fruits.
Saint Andrew is revered by Catholics in Scotland as their patron, and the saint's X-shaped cross appears as an emblem on the Scottish arms.
The following recipes for scones (the Scottish "ancestor" of American biscuits) -- both traditional and simplified -- are variations adapted for the saint's feast.
2 cups flour
1/3 cup butter or margarine
1/4 cup sugar
3 teaspoons baking powder
1/2 cup dried currants
1 egg, slightly beaten (optional, reserving about 1 tablespoon for glaze)
3/4 cup milk
2 tablespoons granulated sugar (for sprinkling on scones)
Cut the butter into the flour with a pastry blender (or two knives) until mixture looks like very coarse meal. Add the sugar and the baking powder and stir well. (Follow the remaining directions.)
2 cups prepared biscuit baking mix
1/4 cup sugar
1/2 cup dried currants
1 egg (optional)
3/4 cup milk
2 tablespoons granulated sugar (for sprinkling on scones)
Combine the egg with the milk and add to the dry ingredients; then add the dried currants and mix well. The dough should be fairly stiff.
Turn the dough out onto a well floured pastry board, and knead about ten times, adding more flour if necessary, to keep the dough from sticking. Reflour the surface, and roll the dough into a circle about 3/4" thick. Cut with a round biscuit cutter about 3" in diameter. Place the scones about an inch on a baking sheet, greased or sprayed with cooking spray.
Cut a large "X" in the top of each scone (to represent Saint Andrew's cross) and brush them all with the reserved beaten egg (or with milk) and sprinkle them generously with granulated sugar.
Bake the scones in a 350º oven for about 20 minutes, or until golden. Serve hot, with butter and honey or jam.
The fish is a symbol of the Christian faith because the letters of the Greek word for fish, "ichthys" form an acronym for the Greek phrase, "Jesus Christ, Son of God, Savior". Early Christians, during the time of persecutions when it was not safe to be a known as a Christian, drew a fish in the ground in order to secretly identify themselves to other believers. Even today one sees this fish symbol, often containing the Greek letters spelling "fish", on religious articles and even on bumper stickers.
Our project for children for the Feast of Saint Andrew -- especially appropriate for the patron of fishermen -- is to make a sun catcher of the Christian fish symbol.. (The fish might also simply be colored by children, or used as a pattern to decorate a cake or large cookie to celebrate this feast.)
To make the sun catcher, you will need paper, colored markers, colored pencils or crayons, scissors, cooking oil, paper towel, yarn or ribbon for hanging.
Click on the fish image above for the full-size picture to color.
1. Print out copies of the fish design on plain white paper (even better, use white card or cover stock).
2. Have the children color the fish with markers or crayons. Markers are brighter, but crayon will work. (Note: While they are coloring the fish, explain to them the meaning of the Greek letters on the side of the drawing, and tell the children what Jesus meant when he said to Saint Andew and Saint Peter, "I will make you fishers of men" -- and that all Christians are called to withess, to spread message of salvation through Jesus Christ to others, as the apostles and disciples did.)
3. Wad up the paper towel and dip it in a saucer containing a small amount of oil, and apply the oil all over the colored drawing generously (but not dripping), letting it soak into the paper. Use a dry paper towel to remove excess oil. The oil will make the paper translucent, giving it a stained-glass effect.
4. Cut out the fish and make a small hole about half an inch from the top. Cut the yarn or ribbon about 12" long and thread it through the hole, then tie it to make a hanging loop.
5. Hang the Christian fish in a window so the light can shine through it, where it will be a daily reminder during the season of Advent of our life as Christians permeated by the Light of Christ.
Thank you for bumping this thread.
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