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My wife (referenced in post #5) was involved in the Women’s Health Initiative study that you reference concerning HRT. Specifically, she was in the placebo group, and all she received during her participation in the study was annual mammograms and (real) calcium supplements.
The study was terminated early because the results became apparent before the time was over. However, if it had continued, my wife’s breast cancer would have altered that result by a small margin. About 140 women in the placebo (control) group were diagnosed with breast cancer while the study was in progress. My wife was diagnosed at her first mammogram that was NOT part of the study - the first test that she had to arrange for herself, after discovering a lump on her chest wall above her breast.
If the study had included her cancer, it would have shown the statistical association of breast cancer with HRT to have been slightly lower.