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Researchers to Build ‘Cat 6’ Hurricane Simulator with 200 mph Winds
Zubu Brothers ^ | 5-18-2022

Posted on 05/18/2022 4:04:09 AM PDT by blam

The Category 6 hurricane’s howling winds accelerate to a startling 200 mph in Miami, mercilessly pummeling a two-story wood-frame house until the roof tears off and the rattling windows explode.

And a towering 20-foot storm surge spawns battering waves, swamping the structure and shoving it off its foundation like a doomed dollhouse.

Sounds like a scene from a sci-fi disaster movie.

But with real-world Atlantic hurricanes pushing the limits of the Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Wind Scale, Florida International University researchers envision a future mega-wind-water simulator that tests how building components would react under Cat 6 conditions.

Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Wind Scale

Structural-damage details of the Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Wind Scale, per the National Hurricane Center:
◾Category 1: 74 to 95 mph. “Well-constructed frame homes could have damage to roof, shingles, vinyl siding and gutters. Large branches of trees will snap and shallowly rooted trees may be toppled. Extensive damage to power lines and poles likely will result in power outages that could last a few to several days.”
◾Category 2: 96 to 110 mph. “Well-constructed frame homes could sustain major roof and siding damage. Many shallowly rooted trees will be snapped or uprooted and block numerous roads. Near-total power loss is expected with outages that could last from several days to weeks.”
◾Category 3: 111 to 129 mph. “Well-built framed homes may incur major damage or removal of roof decking and gable ends. Many trees will be snapped or uprooted, blocking numerous roads. Electricity and water will be unavailable for several days to weeks after the storm passes.”
◾Category 4: 130 to 156 mph. “Well-built framed homes can sustain severe damage with loss of most of the roof structure and/or some exterior walls. Most trees will be snapped or uprooted and power poles downed. Fallen trees and power poles will isolate residential areas. Power outages will last weeks to possibly months. Most of the area will be uninhabitable for weeks or months.”
◾Category 5: 157 mph or higher. “A high percentage of framed homes will be destroyed, with total roof failure and wall collapse. Fallen trees and power poles will isolate residential areas. Power outages will last for weeks to possibly months. Most of the area will be uninhabitable for weeks or months.”

FIU’s Extreme Events Institute already operates the 157-mph Wall of Wind hurricane simulator, where experimental results have been applied to the Florida Building Code. Now, the school is spearheading a $12.8 million National Science Foundation partnership to design a larger national testing facility capable of generating 200 mph winds.

In destructive tandem, this Cat 6 project will incorporate a water basin that can churn up to 20 feet of storm surge.

“We used the 200 mph mark because there are more and more events lately that they call stronger-than-Cat 5,” said Ioannis Zisis, co-director of FIU’s Laboratory for Wind Engineering Research. “This is a very ambitious project in terms of combining different hazards. So we want to do the wind, but we want to add also the storm surge, the water component,” Zisis said.

“So it’s a very complex project, a very complex facility – that is going to be also very expensive,” he said.

FIU’s academic partners on the project: University of Florida, Oregon State University, Stanford University, University of Notre Dame, Georgia Institute of Technology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Colorado State University and Wayne State University. Aerolab, a Maryland wind-tunnel company, is the principal industry partner.

Design work began in January on the future simulator, which is technically named NICHE (National Full-Scale Testing Infrastructure for Community Hardening in Extreme Wind, Surge, and Wave Events).

Zisis said researchers will spend the next four years designing the enormous facility – and it is “critical” that they make a series of key decisions within the first six months. Further details on construction, such as funding sources, remain unknown.

Should we create a Category 6 hurricane?

Richard Olson is director of FIU’s Extreme Events Institute. In a 2019 FLORIDA TODAY guest column, he lobbied for creation of a new Category 6 hurricane – with fearsome sustained wind speeds of 180 mph or higher – atop the five-level Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Wind Scale.

Olson pointed out historical storms such as the 1935 Florida Keys “Great Labor Day Hurricane” (sustained winds of 185 mph), Hurricane Allen in 1980 (190 mph), Hurricane Wilma in 2005 (185 mph), Hurricane Irma in 2017 (180 mph) and Hurricane Dorian in 2018 (185 mph).

“Opening a discussion of at least a Category 6 for Atlantic Basin storms has some urgency. Climate-change scientists are arguing for increasing numbers of more intense storms in coming decades,” Olson said in his 2019 column.

“That is, storms with sustained wind speeds of 180 mph should no longer be viewed as extremely rare,” Olson said.

Federal Emergency Management Agency Administrator Deanne Criswell touted the FIU project during an April 13 National Hurricane Center keynote speech in Orlando.

“What if we could simulate a Category 6 hurricane?” Criswell asked the audience.

“This kind of cutting-edge research, this kind of testing capability, is just what we need to meet the nation’s evolving risks. To help us adapt to future conditions. And to help us protect life and property,” she said.

Criswell said FEMA projects U.S. communities that adopt modern building codes will avoid paying $132 billion in storm damages by the year 2040 – but 65% of counties, cities, and towns have not adopted modern building codes.

FIU’s 157-mph Wall of Wind

FIU’s Wall of Wind is a warehouse-like facility that can create Category 5 hurricane conditions with winds up to 157 mph. Researchers blast sensor-equipped test structures – such as small simulated houses, roofing materials, windows, traffic signals, and solar panels – and create three-dimensional computer models measuring wind forces.

The 8,400-horsepower Wall of Wind is powered by a dozen yellow circular fans, each measuring 6 feet across and weighing 15,000 pounds.

Water outlets also mimic cascading rainfall amounts of up to 8 to 9 inches per hour.

Last year, the NSF awarded FIU a $5.62 million grant to continue Wall of Wind scientific research through September 2025. However, unlike the Wall of Wind, Zisis said the future Cat 6 hurricane simulator will be big enough to accommodate full-sized homes.

“We envision putting in front of the fans a two-story building, on a turntable,” Zisis said.

“Right now, we can test a smaller structure. We can test building components, solar panels, things like that. But the actual structure that we can accommodate in front of the Wall of Wind is like a 10-by-10-by-10 cube,” he said.

“The past 30, 40 years, most of the things that we have in the building code and the wind tunnels came from small-scale studies. And they’re very, very useful. Very scientific, and they’re very important. But when we test at full-scale, we learn even more,” he said.

“Right now, we’re more into component testing in the Wall of Wind because we’re restricted by the size. We can’t see how the wind load is transferred from the exterior of the building down to the foundation. That is something that we envision doing with a new facility,” he said.

So how big would FIU’s Cat 6 simulator have to be? Miami New Times reported it could be comparable in size to a small football stadium, while the Washington Post reported the wave basin may measure 200 feet long.

Nobody knows at this early stage, Zisis said. During the $12.8 million design effort, Zsis said researchers will construct a smaller-scale prototype simulator at FIU to verify and validate their assumptions.

“The small-scale replica of this huge facility is going to be like a similar size to the Wall of Wind, more or less,” he said.

FEMA: Expect extreme climate events

During her National Hurricane Conference speech, Criswell said the United Nations Climate Science Panel fears that unless global greenhouse gas emissions peak by 2025 and are cut 43% by 2030, the world will likely experience extreme climate events.

“Now, does this information cause us to sink back in our seats? Perhaps. But I encourage all of us in this room to embrace this information and not discount it as alarmist,” Criswell told the audience.

“We have the world’s top climate scientists working hand-in-hand, nation-to-nation, to arm us with the best information and the best data available to help us save lives and protect property. So we need to leverage this data and act,” she said.

“Let’s use it to inspire a collective shift to a future-based mindset across all levels of government and all of our communities nationwide. Let’s use it to anticipate, plan for, and mitigate risks that are 10, 20, 30 years in the future,” she said.

Jim Bell is director of operations with the National Storm Shelter Association. A former Fort Lauderdale resident, he was president of the Gold Coast Chapter of the Door and Hardware Institute when he served on a committee that helped strengthen the Florida Building Code after Hurricane Andrew struck in 1992.

“The part that’s very intriguing is the storm surge. Because that’s even more severe than the winds,” Bell said of FIU’s future Cat 6 simulator.

“When we’re talking the wind speeds that they’re looking at, you’re going to have to do more with windows and doors and such. Because once the wind gets inside the building, the building pressurizes _ and it’s popping the roof off or popping windows out,” Bell said.

“As the pressure builds up, it’s looking for another place to push out. That’s what creates the damage, the exploding effect,” he said.

TOPICS: Society
KEYWORDS: cat6; hurricane; simulator; weather
It's Always Something.
1 posted on 05/18/2022 4:04:09 AM PDT by blam
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To: NautiNurse
Guide To The 2022 Hurricane Season In The United States

Hurricane season is June 1, to November 30.

Good Luck To All This Year.

2 posted on 05/18/2022 4:08:16 AM PDT by blam
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To: blam

Could this get loose and devastate a county?

Asking for Amish friend.

3 posted on 05/18/2022 4:12:42 AM PDT by Jonty30 (I did not shoot the burglar. I pointed a laser dot on his head and let the cats do the rest. )
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To: blam

Cat 6 storms presumably now a real geoengineering possibility.

4 posted on 05/18/2022 4:13:56 AM PDT by 9YearLurker
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To: blam
I was in a bunker during super typhoon Pamela on Guam.

There were two sets of blast doors anchored to the three foot thick concrete.

The pressure changes were ripping the doors out by the casings from the concrete. We drilled holes through, fished coat hanger wire through, then up to cables to anchor the doors to the floor. This was in the FAA radar building, so the floor panels came up to get at wiring.

The building was shaking and the wind noise was so great we had to yell at one another to be heard.

We were in teletype communication with technicians in the radar dome on Mount Rota, the most exposed point on the Island. The geodesic dome was built of 1/8th inch fiberglass. It was quiet in there with no evidence of a storm going on. The brick building next to the dome was destroyed.

The thing to be in is Buckminster Fuller's invention, not a bunker during high winds.

BTW, the anemometer blew off the roof at around 200 MPH.

If there are any dumpsters in the area, and cars, trucks, etc., chain them together.

Dumpsters were rolling around destroying stuff, cars and 18 wheeler flatbeds and other trailers blown around and flipped over, metal buildings completely gone to the concrete pad.

No food, running water or electricity when I left the island 2 weeks later.

5 posted on 05/18/2022 4:18:24 AM PDT by Mogger
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To: blam
Climate-change scientists are arguing for increasing numbers of more intense storms...

Of course. I was expecting this. We cannot escape the Global-Warming hoax.

6 posted on 05/18/2022 4:20:00 AM PDT by Blennos ( )
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To: blam

These pinheads don’t know how long it will be before power is restored. That is entirely independent of the amount of damage. Why must they state the duration? Answer is to maximize the fear. That leads to “justification” of more endeavors (money) in the future.

7 posted on 05/18/2022 4:20:41 AM PDT by Nifty
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To: blam
Why not Cat 8?

8 posted on 05/18/2022 4:27:25 AM PDT by frogjerk (I will not do business with fascists)
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To: blam

Hurricane Michael which was officially a cat 4 until insurance claims were mostly settled then upgraded to cat 5 had windspeeds, at least in gusts, in excess of 219 mph. At that speed the instruments at TAFB failed. And it tore off roofs, some at ground level. Many buildings were shattered. There are many vacant tracts in Panama City where buildings or groups of buildings once stood.

9 posted on 05/18/2022 5:32:52 AM PDT by arthurus (covfefe c)
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To: Mogger
Sounds like an experience you'll never forget. Congratulations on your survival.

I remember the exact moment, years ago, in the middle of a hurricane, that I realized I had made a mistake in riding it out.
It was like, oh crap, I'm going to die.

I don't lollygag around anymore.

10 posted on 05/18/2022 5:38:31 AM PDT by blam
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To: Mogger

During Hurricane Michael a five sisters were in the back room of a house our parish had acquired for a mini convent There was already one one broken window pane in the room. The front part of the house exploded probably because all the windows and doors were closed and an included twister dropped the outside pressure suddenly and exploded the house. The nuns were all okay but had to be housed elsewhere. That broken window apparently allowed the pressure to equalize fast enough to keep the back room intact. After the storm I saw that back room still standing
intact with its share of the roof. The rest of the house was small rubble spread around for up to a hundred feet from the house site. forty years ago I would have said, “Lucky for them!” Now I don’t think luck was involved.

11 posted on 05/18/2022 5:45:15 AM PDT by arthurus (covfefe v)
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To: Blennos

Sounds like the “experts” are demanding that God or the government bestow these more numerous and stronger storms on the world.

12 posted on 05/18/2022 5:47:31 AM PDT by arthurus (covfefe o)
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To: blam

When was the last time a “more than Cat 5” hurricane hit Florida? He says “more and more.” But I can’t recall even one.

13 posted on 05/18/2022 6:35:57 AM PDT by hinckley buzzard ( Resist the narrative.)
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To: blam

Just like Covid, they should try to create the real world conditions to make a Cat 6 actually happen......just so they will know what to do if it ever happens.

14 posted on 05/18/2022 6:44:47 AM PDT by nitzy
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To: arthurus
Sounds like the “experts” are demanding that God or the government bestow these more numerous and stronger storms on the world.

Yes, these scientific phonies are praying for disaster as they believe they would be thereby enriched.

15 posted on 05/18/2022 7:07:37 AM PDT by Blennos ( )
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To: hinckley buzzard

Andrew 1992

16 posted on 05/18/2022 9:35:33 AM PDT by Keyhopper (Indians had bad immigration laws)
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To: arthurus

Hurricane Camille in 1969 had winds that were estimated to be excess of 200 mph.

17 posted on 05/18/2022 2:15:18 PM PDT by Ban Draoi Marbh Draoi ( Gen. 12:3: a wnearning to all anti-semites)
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To: Ban Draoi Marbh Draoi

I remember that one. It seemed to be a 40 mile wide tornado. Most of the folks it killed were in West Virginia and Pennsylvania.

18 posted on 05/18/2022 2:58:42 PM PDT by arthurus (covfefe l|)
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To: arthurus

Where did this happen?

19 posted on 05/18/2022 3:41:57 PM PDT by Jacquerie (
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