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Keyword: volcanoes

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  • 'Pompeii-Like' Excavations Tell Us More About Toba Super-Eruption

    03/04/2010 7:13:24 PM PST · by SunkenCiv · 17 replies · 666+ views
    ScienceDaily ^ | March 3, 2010 | University of Oxford
    Newly discovered archaeological sites in southern and northern India have revealed how people lived before and after the colossal Toba volcanic eruption 74,000 years ago... The seven-year project examines the environment that humans lived in, their stone tools, as well as the plants and animal bones of the time. The team has concluded that many forms of life survived the super-eruption, contrary to other research which has suggested significant animal extinctions and genetic bottlenecks. According to the team, a potentially ground-breaking implication of the new work is that the species responsible for making the stone tools in India was Homo...
  • No Volcanic Winter In East Africa From Ancient Toba (Super-Volcano) Eruption

    02/13/2018 10:06:52 AM PST · by blam · 7 replies
    UNIVERSITY OF ARIZONA—The massive Toba volcanic eruption on the island of Sumatra about 74,000 years ago did not cause a six-year-long "volcanic winter" in East Africa and thereby cause the human population in the region to plummet, according to new University of Arizona-led research. The new findings disagree with the Toba catastrophe hypothesis, which says the eruption and its aftermath caused drastic, multi-year cooling and severe ecological disruption in East Africa. "This is the first research that provides direct evidence for the effects of the Toba eruption on vegetation just before and just after the eruption," said lead author Chad...
  • Modern Humans in India Earlier Than Previously Thought?

    09/15/2013 4:57:07 PM PDT · by SunkenCiv · 18 replies
    Popular Archaeology ^ | Sat, Sep 14, 2013 | editors
    "We found the very first evidence for archaeological assemblages in association with the Toba ash", says Petraglia. "We found Middle Palaeolithic assemblages below and above the ash indicating the technologies being used at the time of the event. When the stone tool assemblages were analyzed from contexts above and below the ash, we found that they were very similar........We therefore concluded that the Middle Palaeolithic hominins survived the eruption and there was population continuity. This is not what would have been expected based on general theories that the Toba super-eruption decimated populations." Moreover, similar findings published by Christine Lane, et...
  • Archaeogenetic research refutes earlier findings

    06/13/2013 7:27:12 PM PDT · by SunkenCiv · 25 replies
    University of Huddersfield ^ | Monday, June 10, 2013 | unattributed (press release)
    ...a team of archaeologists excavating in India then claimed to have found evidence that modern humans were there before the eruption possibly as early as 120,000 years ago, much earlier than Europe or the Near East were colonised. These findings, based on the discovery of stone tools below a layer of Toba ash, were published in Science in 2007. Now Professor Richards working principally with the archaeologist Professor Sir Paul Mellars, of the University of Cambridge and the University of Edinburgh, with a team including Huddersfield University s Dr Martin Carr and colleagues from York and Porto has published his...
  • Toba super-volcano catastrophe idea 'dismissed'

    05/02/2013 7:34:42 PM PDT · by SunkenCiv · 19 replies
    BBC News ^ | Jonathan Amos
    The idea that humans nearly became extinct 75,000 ago because of a super-volcano eruption is not supported by new data from Africa, scientists say. In the past, it has been proposed that the so-called Toba event plunged the world into a volcanic winter, killing animal and plant life and squeezing our species to a few thousand individuals. An Oxford University-led team examined ancient sediments in Lake Malawi for traces of this climate catastrophe. It could find none... Researchers estimate some 2,000-3,000 cubic kilometres of rock and ash were thrown from the volcano when it blew its top on what is...
  • Super-Eruption: No Problem (Toba)

    07/06/2007 9:02:21 AM PDT · by blam · 22 replies · 1,327+ views
    Nature ^ | 7-6-2007 | Katherine Sanderson
    Super-eruption: no problem?Tools found before and after a massive eruption hint at a hardy population. Katharine Sanderson Massive eruptions make it tough for life living under the ash cloud. A stash of ancient tools in India hints that life carried on as usual for humans living in the fall-out of a massive volcanic eruption 74,000 years ago. Michael Petraglia, from the University of Cambridge, UK, and his colleagues found the stone tools at a site called Jwalapuram, in Andhra Pradesh, southern India, above and below a thick layer of ash from the eruption of the Toba volcano in Indonesia —...
  • Raikoke volcano news & activity updates:

    06/27/2019 9:02:47 AM PDT · by BenLurkin · 11 replies
    volcanodiscovery.com ^ | Thursday Jun 27, 2019 05:54 AM
    The activity at the small island volcano itself seems to have decreased a lot or even ceased - there are no more new ash alerts issued that mention new emissions at the volcano itself, and no significant heat signals can be found. However, VAAC Anchorage continues to alert about the possible remaining ash clouds from the main phase of the eruption during 21-22 June. On the other hand, most of this ash must by now have been dispersed sufficiently to fall below direct detection by satellite-based sensors. What is still clearly being detected is the significant SO2 gas plume: in...
  • Yellowstone volcano: Earthquake swarm hits deadly caldera which could be sign of ERUPTION

    05/02/2019 5:51:47 PM PDT · by SJackson · 137 replies
    Express ^ | Sean Martin
    YELLOWSTONE volcano could be about to erupt and challenge humanity’s existence as a spate of mini-quakes have been felt around the fearsome caldera. During the month of April, a total of 63 earthquakes struck around the Wyoming based supervolcano. All of the tremors were relatively small, with the largest registering at 2.6 on the Richter scale, hitting on April 29. But experts have warned that it is not necessarily about the strength of an earthquake around a volcano, but more the quantity of them. Some scientists believe that tremors around a volcano could be a sign that it might blow....
  • Geologists discover a new hotspot in Yellowstone supervolcano that's killing off trees

    04/06/2019 9:10:36 AM PDT · by rktman · 82 replies
    dailymail.co.uk ^ | 4/5/2019 | Cheyenne Macdonald
    Full Header: Geologists discover a new hotspot in Yellowstone supervolcano that's killing off trees in a patch of warm land the size of FOUR soccer fields A new thermal area has popped up in Yellowstone National Park, in yet another sign of the ever-changing magma activity beneath the surface. Satellite images have revealed an expanse of about eight acres – or the equivalent of four soccer fields – where the ground is warmer than its surroundings, causing the trees and vegetation in that patch to die off. While scientists have only just confirmed its existence, the United State Geological Survey...
  • A supervolcano caused the largest eruption in European history. Now it’s stirring again.

    12/22/2016 7:41:58 PM PST · by JimSEA · 31 replies
    Washington Post ^ | 12/21/2016 | Sarah Kaplan
    The Italian name for the caldera — Campi Flegrei, or “burning fields”— is apt. The 7.5-mile-wide cauldron is the collapsed top of an ancient volcano, formed when the magma within finally blew. Though half of it is obscured beneath the crystal blue waters of the Mediterranean, the other half is studded with cinder cones and calderas from smaller eruptions. And the whole area seethes with hydrothermal activity: Sulfuric acid spews from active fumaroles; geysers spout water and steam and the ground froths with boiling mud; and earthquake swarms shudder through the region, 125 miles south of Rome. And things seem...
  • Dating the Uluzzian

    02/15/2014 6:08:44 PM PST · by SunkenCiv · 25 replies
    Popular Archaeology ^ | February 09, 2014 | Journal of Human Evolution
    Researchers have securely dated a prehistoric human stone tool industry that is thought to have been used by early modern humans, or possibly late Neanderthals, around the time when early modern humans were beginning to emerge in Europe, arguably sometime between 40,000 to 50,000 years B.P... The Uluzzian, a prehistoric stone tool techno-tradition represented by lithic artifacts unearthed by archaeologists at cave locations primarily in Italy and Greece, has been a central contender as a possible "transitional" industry between the typical stone tool types (the Mousterian) used by late European Neanderthals and those (Aurignacian, Châtelperronian) of the earliest modern human...
  • Ground Rises Near Ancient Italian Volcano

    02/25/2007 1:47:41 PM PST · by Strategerist · 30 replies · 1,098+ views
    LiveScience ^ | February 23, 2007 | Andrea Thompson
    The ground on the western edges of Naples, Italy is rising, spurring worries of a possible volcanic eruption, but scientists now think they know exactly what is causing the uplift and may be able to better predict any potential eruption. Using GPS measurements, a group of scientists at the National Institute of Geophysics and Vulcanology in Italy monitored the ground’s motions for several years, and based on the patterns they observed, they believe the uplifting is caused by magma intruding from a shallow chamber. The rising motions of the ground reached a peak rate of about three feet per year...
  • Volcanoes Killed Off Neanderthals, Study Suggests

    09/24/2010 8:52:38 PM PDT · by SunkenCiv · 37 replies
    National Geographic News ^ | September 22, 2010 | Ker Than
    The Neanderthals were a hardy species that lived through multiple ice ages and would have been familiar with volcanoes and other natural calamities. But the eruptions 40,000 years ago were unlike anything Neanderthals had faced before, Cleghorn and company say. For one thing, all the volcanoes apparently erupted around the same time. And one of those blasts, the Campanian Ignimbrite, is thought to have been the most powerful eruption in Europe in the last 200,000 years... The researchers acknowledge that there are gaps in the volcanoes theory. For instance, the time line needs to be better defined -- did...
  • Family of three die after falling into boiling mud as sink hole opens up in volcanic area in Italy

    09/12/2017 9:20:16 AM PDT · by BenLurkin · 49 replies
    telegraph.co.uk ^ | 12 September 2017 • 4:18pm | Nick Squires, Rome
    An Italian couple and their 11-year-old son died in a freak accident on Tuesday when they fell into a 10ft-deep hole that suddenly opened up in a highly active volcanic area near Naples. Police said the child strayed beyond safety barriers and was swallowed up by the pit, plunging into boiling hot mud at the Solfatara Crater in Pozzuoli, part of a huge volcanic area known as the Campi Flegrei or Phlegrean Fields. His father, 45, reportedly rushed to his rescue but also fell into the sink-hole. The boy’s mother, 42, then went to their aid, but she too was...
  • Europe’s Most Dangerous Supervolcano Is Waking Up; 500,000 Lives At Risk

    01/10/2017 5:16:20 AM PST · by gaggs · 49 replies
    When Mount Vesuvius erupted and buried the Italian city of Pompeii in ash, killing 2,000 people, it was regarded as one of the most catastrophic natural disasters and is still studied heavily today. By comparison, a nearby supervolcano called Campi Flegrei, which means “burning fields,” would put the lives of 500,000 Italians at risk and cause damage that would extend to the surrounding nations.
  • Massive Volcano Near Naples Begins Rumbling

    12/23/2016 2:45:57 PM PST · by marshmallow · 45 replies
    A volcanic field off the shore of Sicily, near Naples, has become active, scientists report. The Campi Flegrei volcano is much larger than nearby Mt. Vesuvius, the volcano whose eruption destroyed the ancient city of Pompei. An eruption of this “supervolcano” could endanger much of Europe. News of the volcanic activity was made public less than a week after the blood of St. Januarius failed to liquefy when displayed in the Naples cathedral. Sicilians have long believed that when the miracle of St. Januarius does not occur, disaster will follow for the people of Naples. A supervolcano caused the largest...
  • The Supervolcano That Caused One Of The Biggest Eruptions In History Has Started To Stir

    12/22/2016 11:17:19 AM PST · by blam · 56 replies
    Science Alert ^ | 12-22-2016 | BEC Crew
    BEC CREW 22 DEC 2016 It's dangerously close to hitting a critical pressure point. A 12-km wide cauldron that forms a vast supervolcano on the coast of Italy is showing signs of reawakening after almost 500 years of inactivity. Not only is this site rumoured to be responsible for the extinction of the Neanderthals, it’s got 500,000 people living around it right now, and researchers say it appears to be approaching a critical pressure point that could lead to an eruption. You might imagine a supervolcano as like a regular volcano, only supersized, rising up out of the ground and...
  • Naples astride a rumbling mega-volcano

    12/21/2016 7:32:05 AM PST · by BenLurkin · 27 replies
    phys.org ^ | 12/20/2016
    A slumbering Campi Flegrei volcano under the Italian city of Naples shows signs of "reawakening" and may be nearing a critical pressure point, according to a study published Tuesday. Italian and French scientists have for the first time identified a threshold beyond which rising magma under the Earth's surface could trigger the release of fluids and gases at a 10-fold increased rate. This would cause the injection of high-temperature steam into surrounding rocks, said lead author Giovanni Chiodini, a researcher at Italy's National Institute of Geophysics and Volcanology in Bologna. "Hydrothermal rocks, if heated, can ultimately lose their mechanical resistance,...
  • Volcanic eruption near Naples may have killed Neanderthals

    02/16/2014 8:28:50 PM PST · by SunkenCiv · 17 replies
    Gazetta Delsud ^ | 3/06/2013 | unattributed
    'Catastrophic' event at Campi Flegrei 39,000 years ago Volcanic eruption near Naples may have killed Neanderthals Some researchers are suggesting that Neanderthals were driven to extinction by a massive volcanic eruption near Naples. The suggestion is one of the topics under debate this week at a conference at London's British Museum examining what forces led to the destruction of the Neanderthals and what led to the triumph of the homo sapiens. One new theory holds that a gigantic eruption of the volcano in the Campi Flegrei area near Naples 39,000 years ago was catastrophic for the Neanderthals. That was the...
  • Volcanic Evidence Opens New Maya Mystery

    01/05/2016 12:43:59 AM PST · by SunkenCiv · 23 replies
    LiveScience ^ | May 30, 2014 | Becky Oskin
    Potters at Maya cities on the Caribbean side of Central America fused volcanic ash with local limestone to form household and ceremonial pottery, because the ash made their ceramics easier to fire. The distinctive recipe was a hallmark of the Late Classic Period from A.D. 600 to 900, Ford said. With thousands of people living in cities such as El Pilar and Tikal, the Mayan potters burned through several tons of volcanic ash every year, Ford has estimated. But no one can figure out where the ash came from. The mystery begins with the fact that there just aren't any...