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Eerie Rapatronic Nuclear Photographs:Taken Within 10 Nano-Seconds of Detonation

Posted on 12/22/2013 1:39:29 PM PST by lbryce

Rapatronic Nuclear Photographs-Images Taken Within 10 Nano-Seconds of Nuclear Detonation

Click Here:The Camera That Captured the First Millisecond of a Nuclear Bomb Blast

Wikipedia:Rapatronic Camera

From Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia
Nuclear explosion photographed by rapatronic camera less than 1 millisecond after detonation. From the Tumbler-Snapper test series in Nevada, 1952. The fireball is about 20 meters in diameter in this shot. The spikes at the bottom of the fireball are known as the rope trick effect.

The rapatronic camera (a contraction of rapid action electronic) is a high-speed camera capable of recording a still image with an exposure time as brief as 10 nanoseconds (100 million frames per second).

The camera was developed by Harold Edgerton in the 1940s and was first used to photograph the rapidly changing matter in nuclear explosions within milliseconds of ignition. To overcome the speed limitation of a conventional camera's mechanical shutter, the rapatronic camera uses two polarizing filters and a Faraday cell (or in some variants a Kerr cell). The two filters are mounted with their polarization angles at 90° to each other, to block all incoming light. The Faraday cell sits between the filters, which changes the polarization plane of light passing through it depending on the level of magnetic field applied, acts as a shutter when it is energized at the right time for a very short amount of time, allowing the film to be properly exposed.

In magneto-optical shutters, the active material of the Faraday cell (e.g. dense flint glass, which reacts well to strong magnetic field[2]) is located inside an electromagnet coil, formed by few loops of thick wire. The coil is powered through a pulse forming network, by a discharge of a high-voltage capacitor (e.g. 2 microfarads at 1000 volts), switched into the coil by a trigatron or a thyratron. In electro-optical shutters, the active material is a liquid, typically nitrobenzene, located in a cell between two electrodes. A brief impulse of high voltage is applied to rotate the polarization of the passing light.

For a film-like sequence of high-speed photographs, as used in the photography of nuclear and thermonuclear tests, arrays of up to 12 cameras were deployed, with each camera carefully timed to record a different time frame. Each camera was capable of recording only one exposure on a single sheet of film. Therefore, in order to create time-lapse sequences, banks of four to ten cameras were set up to take photos in rapid succession. The average exposure time used was three microseconds.

This links to the Web Page As Illustrated Below:Damn Interesting:Rapatronic Nuclear Photographs


CLIC HERE:Raptronic Photographs

16 seconds After Detonation

There is a wealth of information regarding rapatronic nuclear photographs that was much too overwhelming for me to post. For those who want to explore this subject, I suggest the following.
Step 1-Do a search for rapatronic nuclear photographs.
Step 2-Click on the photogrpah that interests you
Step 3-Visit the page the image is located.



TOPICS: Arts/Photography; History; Military/Veterans; Science
KEYWORDS: nucleardetonation; stringtheory
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1 posted on 12/22/2013 1:39:29 PM PST by lbryce
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To: lbryce

Slow motion of an underwater nuke test.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ggH-ObiUWEE


2 posted on 12/22/2013 1:41:55 PM PST by cripplecreek (REMEMBER THE RIVER RAISIN!)
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To: lbryce

Looks like a cat’s tummy 2p nanosecs after it has bad cheeseburger. Cool.


3 posted on 12/22/2013 1:42:26 PM PST by NormsRevenge (Semper Fi)
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To: lbryce

How was the camera not destroyed in the blast?


4 posted on 12/22/2013 1:42:40 PM PST by Black Agnes
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To: lbryce
That's one of the coolest things I've seen in a while. Thanks for posting it.

/johnny

5 posted on 12/22/2013 1:43:38 PM PST by JRandomFreeper (Gone Galt)
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To: Black Agnes

According to one of the articles I camne across in my search, the camera was located seven miles away.


6 posted on 12/22/2013 1:45:34 PM PST by lbryce (Obama:The Worst is Yet To Come)
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To: Black Agnes

According to one of the articles I camne across in my search, the camera was located seven miles away.


7 posted on 12/22/2013 1:45:34 PM PST by lbryce (Obama:The Worst is Yet To Come)
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To: lbryce

Very cool. Thanks for posting this.


8 posted on 12/22/2013 1:48:43 PM PST by Flotsam_Jetsome (One true thing about "Obama": No one's madder than he is.)
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To: lbryce

Fascinating, thanks for posting.


9 posted on 12/22/2013 1:56:32 PM PST by CARTOUCHE (I will not comply !!!! I'm non-compliant now and forever.)
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To: lbryce

My Father worked with Edgerton, at NACA during WWll.


10 posted on 12/22/2013 1:57:29 PM PST by Dr. Bogus Pachysandra ( Ya can't pick up a turd by the clean end!)
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To: Black Agnes

The camera was kilometers away.


11 posted on 12/22/2013 1:57:39 PM PST by lepton ("It is useless to attempt to reason a man out of a thing he was never reasoned into"--Jonathan Swift)
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To: lbryce

Scary images!


12 posted on 12/22/2013 1:58:10 PM PST by Red_Devil 232 (VietVet - USMC All Ready On The Right? All Ready On The Left? All Ready On The Firing Line!)
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To: lbryce; lepton

That’s amazing.


13 posted on 12/22/2013 2:00:35 PM PST by Black Agnes
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To: lbryce
"Now I am become Death, the destroyer of worlds."

J. Robert Oppenheimer
14 posted on 12/22/2013 2:05:37 PM PST by AnAmericanInEngland
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To: AnAmericanInEngland
Before changing to my current tagline, my previous tagline was Obama:Now I am become Death, the destroyer of worlds.
15 posted on 12/22/2013 2:12:20 PM PST by lbryce (Obama:The Worst is Yet To Come)
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To: lbryce

Interesting, I wonder if the actual primary detonation that sets off the Chain Reaction photos are classified. You could probably deduce the physical formation of the primary explosive to the critical mass.


16 posted on 12/22/2013 2:15:36 PM PST by Usagi_yo
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To: AnAmericanInEngland
This is what came to mind:



2 Peter 3:10

King James Version (KJV)

10 But the day of the Lord will come as a thief in the night;
in the which the heavens shall pass away with a great noise,
and the elements shall melt with fervent heat,
the earth also and the works that are therein shall be burned up.
17 posted on 12/22/2013 2:19:57 PM PST by F15Eagle (1Jn4:15;5:4-5,11-13;Mt27:50-54;Mk15:33-34;Jn3:17-18,6:69,11:25,14:6,20:31;Ro10:8-11;1Tm2:5-6;Ti3:4-7)
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Zechariah 14:12

King James Version (KJV)

12 And this shall be the plague wherewith the Lord will smite all the people that have fought against Jerusalem;
Their flesh shall consume away while they stand upon their feet,
and their eyes shall consume away in their holes,
and their tongue shall consume away in their mouth.
18 posted on 12/22/2013 2:24:05 PM PST by F15Eagle (1Jn4:15;5:4-5,11-13;Mt27:50-54;Mk15:33-34;Jn3:17-18,6:69,11:25,14:6,20:31;Ro10:8-11;1Tm2:5-6;Ti3:4-7)
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To: lbryce

19 posted on 12/22/2013 2:31:18 PM PST by Chode (Stand UP and Be Counted, or line up and be numbered - *DTOM* -vvv- NO Pity for the LAZY - 86-44)
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To: Chode; struwwelpeter

There are some amazing video stories out there of people who lived near the Russian Chelyabinsk sites.

Very disturbing what happened to some of those people.


20 posted on 12/22/2013 2:39:10 PM PST by F15Eagle (1Jn4:15;5:4-5,11-13;Mt27:50-54;Mk15:33-34;Jn3:17-18,6:69,11:25,14:6,20:31;Ro10:8-11;1Tm2:5-6;Ti3:4-7)
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To: lbryce

How did they trigger the shutter at just the precise instant?

Have you found that in your reading?

The Kerr effect allows for very fast shutter speed but how is the time to trigger it controlled?


21 posted on 12/22/2013 2:43:00 PM PST by Sequoyah101
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To: Chode
I wished my photoshop skills were proficient enough to create one of the eerie shapes reminiscent of the Destoyer of Worlds probably teeing off just about now.
22 posted on 12/22/2013 2:44:56 PM PST by lbryce (Obama:The Worst is Yet To Come)
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To: cripplecreek

Some of the photos remind of viruses or diatoms.


23 posted on 12/22/2013 2:45:22 PM PST by Jack Hydrazine (Pubbies = national collectivists; Dems = international collectivists; me = independent conservative)
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To: lbryce

Several of them are eerie looking, like some sort of giant parasite giving birth. Others look like skull x-rays of an unknown species of hominid, hence the image of human skulls mixed in.


24 posted on 12/22/2013 2:49:09 PM PST by RegulatorCountry
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To: Sequoyah101
Excellent question. Here's how it was done.

Click Here:Ghost Story:Rapatronic Cameras Capture Nuclear Explosion At Instant Of Detonation

Way back in the 40s when the US was experimenting with atomic bombs there were many problems to overcome. One of which was studying fireball growth at the moment of detonation.

Although photographic technology was growing quickly, even the fastest cameras of the time could not handle the speed at which these fireballs expanded and typically ended up with blurred images at best.

These problems continued until Harold Eugene “Doc” Edgerton a professor from MIT invented the “rapatronic Camera“. So advanced were these cameras, they could capture motion one ten-millionth of a second after detonation and from seven miles away, no less. Exposure time was a mere ten nanoseconds to boot.

Amazingly a fireball could still grow to 100 feet in diameter at such an instant but the cameras were fast enough to enable vital research into one of the many mysteries of an atomic explosion.

It’s still a bit mind bending to many that we had such technology at that time, but humans have developed some technology without the help of space aliens.

Here’s more on this very interesting and groundbreaking photographic technology:
During the early days of atomic bomb experiments in the 1940s, nuclear weapons scientists had some difficulty studying the growth of nuclear fireballs in test detonations. These fireballs expanded so rapidly that even the best cameras of that time were unable to capture anything more than a blurry, over-exposed frame for the first several seconds of the explosion.

Before long a professor of electrical engineering from MIT named Harold Eugene “Doc” Edgerton invented the rapatronic camera, a device capable of capturing images from the fleeting instant directly following a nuclear explosion. These single-use cameras were able to snap a photo one ten-millionth of a second after detonation from about seven miles away, with an exposure time of as little as ten nanoseconds. At that instant, a typical fireball had already reached about 100 feet in diameter, with temperatures three times hotter than the surface of the sun.

Edgerton was a pioneer in high-speed photography, receiving a bronze medal from the Royal Photographic Society in 1934 for his work in strobe photography. He used the technique to photograph many events that typical cameras were much too slow to capture, such as the instant of a balloon bursting, and bullets impacting various materials. He developed the rapatronic camera about ten years later, for the specific purpose of photographing nuclear explosions for the government.

In a typical setup at a nuclear test site, a series of ten or so rapatronic cameras were necessary, because each was able to take only one photograph… no mechanical film advance system was anywhere neat fast enough to allow for a second photo. Another mechanical limitation which had to be overcome was the shutter mechanism. Mechanical shutters were incapable of moving quickly enough to capture the instant one ten-millionth of a second after detonation, so Edgerton’s ingenious cameras used a unique non-mechanical shutter which utilized the polarization of light.

As you’ve probably noticed, if one takes two pieces of polarized glass (such as the lenses from polarized sunglasses) and lays them atop one another at 90° angles, no light is able to pass through. This is because each one filters out light which is not polarized to its polarization axis, so the combination of the two lenses filters out 100% of the light. Edgerton ‘s rapatronic camera appears to have used this property in combination with a Kerr cell– a nifty and obscure optical element which rotates light’s plane of polarization when a high-voltage field is applied.

The rapatronic camera lens included two perpendicular polarizers, which prevented any light from entering… but sandwiched in between them was a Kerr cell. When the Kerr cell was energized, it affected all of the light which passed through the first polarizer by rotating its plane of polarization by 90°, realigning the light to match the second polarizer. This allowed the light to pass through both polarizers whenever the Kerr cell was provided with electricity, which is exactly what was done for 10 nanoseconds at the critical moment. This assembly provided an extremely fast non-mechanical shutter, exposing the film to the light for a minuscule fraction of time.

The resulting extraordinary photographs revealed intricate details of the first instant of an atomic explosion, including a few surprises such as irregular “mottling” caused primarily by variations in the density of the bomb’s casing. It also showed the detail of the “rope trick effect,” where the rapid vaporization of support cables caused curious lines to emanate from the bottom of an explosion. But even aside from the scientific utility of the images, they certainly show that these fantastically destructive nuclear fireballs have a hauntingly beautiful side, even if it only lasts for one ten-millionth of a second.

25 posted on 12/22/2013 2:54:50 PM PST by lbryce (Obama:The Worst is Yet To Come)
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To: lbryce

This is how the shutter works not when the electrical current is applied. How is the timing of the application of the current decided and how is it executed?

I read all this and more b4 asking.

As you’ve probably noticed, if one takes two pieces of polarized glass (such as the lenses from polarized sunglasses) and lays them atop one another at 90° angles, no light is able to pass through. This is because each one filters out light which is not polarized to its polarization axis, so the combination of the two lenses filters out 100% of the light. Edgerton ‘s rapatronic camera appears to have used this property in combination with a Kerr cell– a nifty and obscure optical element which rotates light’s plane of polarization when a high-voltage field is applied.

The rapatronic camera lens included two perpendicular polarizers, which prevented any light from entering… but sandwiched in between them was a Kerr cell. When the Kerr cell was energized, it affected all of the light which passed through the first polarizer by rotating its plane of polarization by 90°, realigning the light to match the second polarizer. This allowed the light to pass through both polarizers whenever the Kerr cell was provided with electricity, which is exactly what was done for 10 nanoseconds at the critical moment. This assembly provided an extremely fast non-mechanical shutter, exposing the film to the light for a minuscule fraction of time.


26 posted on 12/22/2013 3:01:25 PM PST by Sequoyah101
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To: AnAmericanInEngland

Oppenheimer speaking in a 1965 television broadcast about the moments following the Trinity test: “We knew the world would not be the same. A few people laughed, a few people cried. Most people were silent. I remembered the line from the Hindu scripture, the Bhagavad-Gita. Vishnu is trying to persuade the Prince that he should do his duty, and, to impress him, takes on his multi-armed form and says, ‘Now I am become Death, the destroyer of worlds.’ I suppose we all thought that, one way or another.”


27 posted on 12/22/2013 3:07:37 PM PST by Mr. K (If you like your constitution, you can keep it. Period.)
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To: Sequoyah101

I suppose, if he had a patent on it, you could probably find the solution you’re seeking by going to the US Patent Offce web site.


28 posted on 12/22/2013 3:09:28 PM PST by lbryce (Obama:The Worst is Yet To Come)
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To: Mr. K
A few people laughed, a few people cried. Most people were silent.....

Some were thinking about how the heck they were going to get this to Stalin.

29 posted on 12/22/2013 3:12:21 PM PST by lbryce (Obama:The Worst is Yet To Come)
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To: lbryce

“We’ll meet again....don’t know where....don’t know when.....”


30 posted on 12/22/2013 3:12:51 PM PST by dfwgator
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To: lbryce

Bizarre.


31 posted on 12/22/2013 3:14:17 PM PST by TigersEye (Stupid is a Progressive disease.)
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To: dfwgator

Truman was stymied for sure by Stalin’s nonchalant, practically apathetic reaction having made ambiguous reference to events at Trinity.


32 posted on 12/22/2013 3:19:24 PM PST by lbryce (Obama:The Worst is Yet To Come)
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To: lbryce

Whoa! Bump!


33 posted on 12/22/2013 3:21:14 PM PST by JDoutrider
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To: Sequoyah101
One Trillion frames a second
makes light travel in slow motion.

34 posted on 12/22/2013 3:26:45 PM PST by itsahoot (It is not so much that history repeats, but that human nature does not change.)
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To: Sequoyah101
The description of how the camera managed to photograph the images by using a bank of four to ten camera arranged at tests to record different moments of early fireball growth is probably as good an answer as you're ever going to get.

It's called trial and error.

Click Here:http://simplethinking.com/home/rapatronic_photographs.htm


35 posted on 12/22/2013 3:30:43 PM PST by lbryce (Obama:The Worst is Yet To Come)
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To: Sequoyah101
The Kerr effect allows for very fast shutter speed but how is the time to trigger it controlled?

All of these explosions were tests. With the exception of air dropped tests, the explosions were triggered electrically from a manned blockhouse, not from the bomb itself.

You simply trigger the cameras simultaneously with the explosion, plus the desired delay for each camera.

The cameras were not responding to the explosion of the bomb.

36 posted on 12/22/2013 3:31:16 PM PST by rmh47 (Go Kats! - Got eight? NRA Life Member])
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To: JRandomFreeper; lbryce

Yes these are eerie and fascinating.
From past research I recall that:
The spikey projections coming out from the bottom of many of the blasts are the explosive vaporization of the coating/galvanize of the tower guy-wires. The wires are visible in some of the photos.

Endless information here:

http://nuclearweaponarchive.org/


37 posted on 12/22/2013 4:02:10 PM PST by loungitude (The truth hurts.)
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To: 6SJ7; AdmSmith; AFPhys; Arkinsaw; allmost; aristotleman; autumnraine; backwoods-engineer; ...
Watch the birdie! Thanks lbryce.


· List topics · post a topic · subscribe · Google ·

38 posted on 12/22/2013 4:03:04 PM PST by SunkenCiv (http://www.freerepublic.com/~mestamachine/)
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To: Sequoyah101

One possible way:
I know that optical fibers would be placed inside the nuke (or perhaps the explosive that initiates the nuke reaction). The light pulse would outrun the destruction of the fiber, and arrive at distant instrumentation.


39 posted on 12/22/2013 4:08:38 PM PST by loungitude (The truth hurts.)
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To: loungitude

No, the radiation wavefront of soft X-rays advances in front of the visible light (it is what vaporizes the tower guy wires creating the “spikes” in some of these photos). It would destroy the fiber cable before the visible light was transmitted. Radiation also darkens fibers, which leads to it being of limited use in long term radiation environments. Also atmospheric tests were ended well before practical fibers were developed.


40 posted on 12/22/2013 4:18:56 PM PST by Tijeras_Slim
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To: lbryce
Sick looking, not something I want to spend much time looking at.

In the early 70s I was interested in developing a camera to photograph guided artillery rounds leaving the muzzle and shedding protective devices around their guide vanes. The idea I worked with was a first generation image intensifier, which employed 45 KV DC between the photocathode stage and the third intensifier photoscreen. The EEs were able to switch this HV on and off very quickly, on the order of a few microseconds. By simply photographing the screen with an ordinary film camera (before digital cameras) I could get a usable photograph. We found that the pulse from the grid current caused undesirable distortion in the image intensifier. Didn't have time or funds to pursue that problem. Just some hardware we had on hand.

Years earlier I had worked with an EG&G microflash strobe and Speed Graphic camera to study the formation of molten ammonium nitrate fertilizer pellets being sprayed into a cooling tower. Learned that Lord Rayleigh had done pretty much the same experiments peeking through holes in a spinning disk, 80 or 90 years earlier.

41 posted on 12/22/2013 4:32:53 PM PST by 19th LA Inf
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To: loungitude

I had figured that the detonation was electrically initiated but wondered if the pulse would be fast enough to do that and trigger the camera. They didn’t have diodes but I guess they had capacitors to build delayed signals.

Pretty neat what can be done analog. Many hydraulic circuits have a high degree of programming in them with delays based on pressure pulses as event triggers.


42 posted on 12/22/2013 5:06:58 PM PST by Sequoyah101
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To: Tijeras_Slim

Can’t argue with that, however if the fiber reads detonation of the high explosive, there will be negligable x-ray production at that time.


43 posted on 12/22/2013 5:12:14 PM PST by loungitude (The truth hurts.)
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To: Sequoyah101

I’m just remembering this off the top of my head, so it might be somewhat inaccurate... Here goes:

One of the trickiest things that they had to develop to make the implosion device was a way to reliably trigger the spherical explosives at the right time and in the right sequence, so that the needed spherical implosion wave had the proper configuration. In the early bombs they had 32 points of detonation to trigger, making this a non-trivial task. They needed to coordinate the triggers within 10 nanoseconds (I think).

Anyway, this was way beyond what was commercially available at the time, so they developed their own triggering mechanism. They did so in the time needed (I think the triggers were only available mere weeks prior to the first test). The method used was an exploding bridgewire detonator, and was one of the most top secret parts of the whole endeavor. The work was done by Luis Alvarez and Lawrence Johnston.

I got most of this from the book by Richard Rhodes. Also, here is a link to a wikipedia article: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Exploding-bridgewire_detonator


44 posted on 12/22/2013 5:29:23 PM PST by LaRueLaDue
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To: lbryce

Ping


45 posted on 12/22/2013 5:30:39 PM PST by rlmorel ("A nation, despicable by its weakness, forfeits even the privilege of being neutral." A. Hamilton)
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To: loungitude

The time scale at which things occur in a nuke is amazing. Triggering of various data collection systems is calculated very precisely, and it doesn’t always work out perfectly.

I worked in the Nuclear test field in the early 90’s when we were conducting the final tests. There was one fiberoptic instrument that I was aware of (having worked on it a bit), but it was never fielded prior to the end of testing.


46 posted on 12/22/2013 5:54:24 PM PST by Tijeras_Slim
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To: LaRueLaDue

The entire story is absolutely astounding isn’t it?

The story also goes that development of the B-29 was an undertaking of similar magnitude though I find that hard to believe.

Hanford works alone had 50,000 laborers at one time and most had no idea what they were building.

I knew a guy from a town in Western Oklahoma that was nabbed right after he graduated as an electrical engineer from OAMC. They put him on the group responsible for provision of electrical power grids at Los Alamos and told them if the power ever went out they would all be dead. Probably a little drama there.


47 posted on 12/22/2013 6:07:49 PM PST by Sequoyah101
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To: Tijeras_Slim

Not arguing, but always curious, see:
The United States has been the world leader in HEMP technology since the first articles on the subject appeared in the early 1960’s. These scientific papers appeared in the open literature, which allowed the Soviet Union to become active in the field. The general consensus is that Soviet (now Russian) capabilities lag years behind those of the United States. Nonetheless, Soviet interest in pulsed-power, which began under A.D. Sakharov, should call attention to the possibility that some of the Soviet HEMP program was very closely held. HEMP capabilities have been acquired by the European nations, including Sweden and Switzerland. Many of these countries have developed active programs that include the use of simulators operating nearly at the threat level. Papers presented at recent unclassified conferences by participants from the countries of the former Warsaw Pact indicate that they lag significantly behind the West in both simulation and theoretical understanding. Several foreign vendors produce equipment comparable to that available from U.S. sources. France manufactures pulse generators, field sensors, fiber-optic links, transient digitizers, and measurement systems; England manufactures 1-GHz band-width fiber-optic links used mainly in HEMP and conducts high-power microwave research. Switzerland and Israel have also developed test/simulation equipment of high quality.
Source:
http://www.fas.org/nuke/intro/nuke/test.htm

Yup the stuff goes fast. Please see

http://nuclearweaponarchive.org/

If you are not already familiar with it.

Thanks for the input!


48 posted on 12/22/2013 6:13:34 PM PST by loungitude (The truth hurts.)
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To: lbryce

Hey, those are some very interesting pictures. I’ve long been interested in nuclear phenomenology.

I do need to point out, though, that those are 10 nanosecond exposures, not images taken 10 nanoseconds after detonation. At 10 ns. after detonation, the fireballs could have been no larger than about 10 feet in diameter. Those are considerably larger. :-)


49 posted on 12/22/2013 6:18:28 PM PST by PreciousLiberty
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To: lbryce

almost looks alien


50 posted on 12/22/2013 6:25:35 PM PST by GeronL (Extra Large Cheesy Over-Stuffed Hobbit)
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