Skip to comments.Spring comes a day early in northern hemisphere (GLOBAL WARMING ALERT!)
Posted on 03/22/2005 1:07:36 PM PST by ProtectOurFreedom
Spring officially started a day ahead of schedule in the northern hemisphere, with the equinox occurring on Sunday rather than Monday, the Paris observatory said.
March 21 is generally held to be the date of the spring equinox -- or correspondingly the autumn equinox in the southern hemisphere -- but this year day and night were of equal length on Sunday, March 20.
The observatory said that since the adoption of the Gregorian calendar in 1582, the spring equinox can fall on either March 19, 20, or 21.
The last time it fell on March 19 was in 1796, and it is due to do so again in 2044.
The spring equinox is the day when the sun rises precisely in the east, travels for 12 hours through the sky and then sets directly in the west.
It is celebrated as the ancient pagan festival of the New Year or Newroz in Afghanistan (news - web sites), Turkey and Iran (news - web sites).
Damned corporate media! LOL
Somehow it must be our fault.
Our first day of spring here in NW Wa, the 20th started with 50+mph winds, trees and limbs down. I ran on generator power for 5 hours....had to tivo the nascar race.
This darned global warming is coming down in the form of rain, sleet and snow here in western Missouri.
Don't laugh. Notice the graph on my #4. One academic actually noted that a lot of the "evidence" for global warming was merely an artifact of the Gregorian calendar. Spring arrives about 5 hours and 49 minutes later every year (with repect to calendar date) than the previous, except on leap years when it arrives 18 hours and 11 minutes sooner. (24 hr - 5 hr 49 min). The little green diamonds on the graph represent a normal century, which ends on a non-leap year and hence the discontinuity which separates these centuries. The longer green swatches are two centuries long and represent quadracentenial centuries, ones which end in a year divisible by 400 (like the 20th.) On this plot the 20th century and 21st are joined in the long swath begining just above the "7" in 1752. Spring has been coming early all during the 20th century and will continue to drift early until the year 2100, (the end of the swath) when we go eight years between leap years. (2096-2104, 2100 not a leap year.)
The Gregorian Calendar is designed to prevent (or at least mitigate) the gradual drift of the seasons with respect to dates that is evident in the Julian calendar.
The link to global warming is that "researchers" have published "findings" showing that things like ice clearing from ponds and budding of plants is creeping every earlier in the year all during the 20th century. Problem is, the effect observed is no greater than what would be explained by the drift of the Gregorian calendar with respect to the Vernal Equinox date, starting with the swatch over the "7".
More evidence that Global Warming is the unfalsifiable hypothesis. All observations confirm it with certainity 1.0000.
Frequently Asked Questions
1. What years are leap years?
Canada uses the "Gregorian" calendar through the heritage of the British Act of 1750:
First introduced in 1582 by Pope Gregory XIII as a replacement for the Julian calendar, this calendar is now in worldwide use for civil purposes. The Gregorian calendar's rules for leap years have three parts:
These three rules are trying to keep the seasons near fixed dates on the calendar, with the first day of spring (the vernal equinox) near March 21. The dates of the vernal equinox in the Gregorian and Julian calendars are compared below over some 4000 years.
UT: Universal Time, or UT, is the generic name given to mean solar time on the Greenwich meridian. Often UT is used for civil purposes when it is not necessary to specify the method of averaging. Note that clocks keeping UT (or any of its family members listed below) are not ever adjusted for Daylight Saving Time.
UT0: This was the earliest averaging method and simply corrected for the seasonal variation due to the Earth's orbital eccentricity and inclination, using "the equation of time". UT0 is pronounced "U-T-zero" and is the modern way to refer to the first correction method used historically for Greenwich Mean Time.
UT1: Adding the polar wander correction to UT0 gives UT1, the time scale needed for the most accurate celestial navigation and surveying. It was the second method used historically for GMT.
UT2: If the seasonal variation of UT1 is averaged out, UT2 results. It was used briefly as a method for GMT and for predicting the rate of UTC before 1972.
UTC: If the rate and time are coordinated through international comparisons organized under the Convention of the Metre, UTC results. UTC was used as the final method for GMT by the last time experts at the Royal Greenwich Observatory. UTC, or Coordinated Universal Time is the modern implementation of GMT and is used as the basis for official time around the world.
Until 1972, the duration of the second for each of these time scales varied slightly (but in different ways) to keep in step with variations of Earth's rotation.
The International Earth Rotation Service (IERS) in Paris is charged with predicting when the next leap second will be needed. It then informs national time laboratories, such as the National Research Council, of the impending leap second. The leap second can be inserted in (or - if it were ever necessary - removed from) the last second (UTC) of the day, of June 30 or December 31. Clocks which take advantage of the leap second prediction facility, disseminated by the time laboratories, will then have a minute with 61 (or 59) seconds. With a positive leap second, the normal pattern of times changes from
Up-to-date information on leap seconds may be found in our BULLETIN TF-B.
There are four traditional seasons on Earth, marked by the movement of the sun in the sky. For the northern hemisphere:
NRC's Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics maintains a web page giving sunrise and sunset times for Canadian cities or latitude/longitude positions. Here you will also find other related information.
NRC's Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics maintains a web page giving moonrise and moonset times for Canadian cities or latitude/longitude positions. Here you will also find other related information.
Daylight saving time in Canada is determined by provincial legislation. Exceptions may exist in certain municipalities. The time zone maps and the start time listed below have been in effect since 1988. (This has been denoted as serial number #04, as is transmitted in CHU code.)
Copies of Canada's time zone maps, found here, are available in postscript format for insertion into your document using a word processor or document editor that supports Adobe postscript. Click on the selection, and respond with Save File (or equivalent) when prompted by Netscape or other browsers. These files are approximately 0.25 to 0.5 Mbytes in size.
In Canada, Easter is a moveable holiday defined in the 1750 legislation:
The commonly stated rule, that Easter Day is the first Sunday after the Full Moon that occurs next after the vernal equinox, is somewhat misleading because it is not a precise statement of the Act. Easter is determined by the "ecclesiastical moon" defined by tables, which differ somewhat from the real Moon. In addition, the vernal equinox is fixed at March 21, not by the actual position of the sun.
The dates of Easter given here are from the Act, the common date used historically by the western Christian churches since the adoption of the Gregorian calendar.
Canadian Standard CAN Z234-4 specifies numeric representations of date and time. The recommended full format is of the form 2001-12-31 23:59:28.73 UTC. It is compatible with International Standard ISO 8601. This standard notation helps to avoid confusion in international communication caused by the many different national notations. In addition, these formats have several important advantages for computer usage compared to other traditional date and time notations. The time notation described in ISO 8601 is already the de-facto standard in almost all countries and the date notation is becoming increasingly popular.
A millennium is an interval of 1000 years and a century is an interval of 100 years. Because there is no year zero, an interval of 1 year has only elapsed since the start of the era, at the end of the year named 1AD. By a similar argument 100 years will only have elapsed at the end of the year 100AD. It is therefore clear that 2000 years had not elapsed until midnight on 31 December 2000. So the 3rd Millennium and the 21st Century began at the same moment, namely zero hours on January 1st 2001.
Since the 1950's, NRC has used cesium atomic clocks, which are the world's best timekeepers. They use the exquisite reproducibility of spinning atoms of the element cesium. Pure cesium is a beautiful silver-gold coloured metal that melts just above room temperature. It is uncommon only because it combines so easily with other common elements.
The glass vial in this picture contains a gram of cesium: one year's supply for a typical atomic clock, which does not recirculate the cesium atoms. A gram of cesium could be found in about a cubic foot of ordinary granite. Natural cesium is pure cesium-133 (55 protons and 78 neutrons in the nucleus, 55+78=133): it is non-radioactive.
How does it all work?
Cesium is evaporated at the cesium source to form a beam of well-separated cesium atoms that travel without collisions at about 250 m/s, through a vacuum maintained by the vacuum pump.
The A magnet selects cesium atoms with their atomic magnets pointing one way (those in the F=3 level of the ground state of the cesium-133 atom), and sends other atoms to be absorbed by a carbon getter.
Some atoms have their magnets set spinning by microwaves in the Ramsey cavity. Allowing for tiny corrections, their magnetization spins at 9 192 631 770 rotations per second in a very uniform magnetic field, the C field of less than 1/10 the Earth's magnetic field. Magnetic shielding isolates the atoms from outside magnetic fields. (Quantum mechanics describe these cesium-133 atoms as an oscillating combination of the two hyperfine levels, F=4 and F=3.)
The spinning is stopped by the microwaves at the other end of the Ramsey cavity.
The B magnet collects the cesium atoms that stayed in step with the microwaves, and which now have their magnetization pointing the other way (the cesium-133 atoms in the F=4 level). The B magnet deflects the in-step atoms towards a detector, the hot wire cesium ionizer and ion collector. The other atoms are absorbed by another carbon getter.
The quartz oscillator is adjusted automatically by the servo control to maximize the number of cesium ions collected, keeping the microwaves in step with the spinning of the cesium atoms. After the small remaining biases are measured and eliminated, the output frequency is a very accurate 10 000 000 Hz, accurate to about 5 parts in one hundred thousand billion when averaged over a day. This is a frequency standard, suitable for use in metrology, communications, and many other applications in engineering or science.
A cesium atomic clock needs a few other parts. Simple electronics counts the output cycles of the quartz oscillator, and issues a pulse every 10 million cycles - exactly 1 second apart. When first started, the atomic clock's time is set with respect to International Atomic Time (TAI, Temps Atomique International) - which has been kept by generations of atomic clocks since 1958 when it was set relative to astronomical time. Other circuits count the atomic clock's minutes, hours, days, years, decades, centuries, millennia...
Disclaimer: Opinions posted on Free Republic are those of the individual posters and do not necessarily represent the opinion of Free Republic or its management. All materials posted herein are protected by copyright law and the exemption for fair use of copyrighted works.