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The FReeper Foxhole Remembers The Battle of 73 EASTING - 1991 - Mar. 10th, 2003 ^ | Stephen A. Bourque

Posted on 03/10/2003 5:34:25 AM PST by SAMWolf

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The Tawakalna Mechanized Division of the Republican Guard Forces Command was positioned about 25 miles west of the Kuwait border, located exactly in the center of the US 7th Corps' sector, The Tawakalna was probably the best division in the Iraqi Army. It had fought with distinction during the war with Iran and was one of the lead divisions in Saddam Husayn's invasion of Kuwait in August 1990. Its two mechanized brigades and one armored brigade were equipped with the most advanced equipment available in the Iraqi Army, including 220 T-72 tanks and 278 infantry fighting vehicles. On 25 February it had moved into a blocking position west of the Iraq Petroleum Saudi Arabia (IPSA) pipeline about 80 miles from Kuwait city. In spite of the air campaign, most of this division was in position and ready to fight when the US 7th Corps arrived on 26 February 1991.

The main battle began on the Tawakalna's (18th Mechanized Brigade's sector) left flank. At 3:30 pm on 26 February 1991, the US 2nd Squadron of the 2nd Armored Cavalry Regiment arrived at the edge of the Tawakalna's operation zone and destroyed three T-72 tanks. A few moments later it ran right into a battalion strong point of the 18th Iraqi Mechanized Brigade. Strong points consisted of dug in vehicle and soldier fighting positions, wire, mines and prepared fields of fire. In most cases the Iraqi units were in the right place, but had not developed their positions as well as they should have. In what was later known as the Battle of 73 Easting, the 2nd Squadron attacked. It was a short, but violent battle. Iraqi vehicles exploded as 120mm rounds found their marks. US scout platoons followed the M1 tanks providing "scratching fires" to protect the US tanks from the Iraqi infantry. Just as the 2nd Squadron arrived at the rear of the battalion strong point the Iraqis launched a counterattack. While brave, it was ineffective. In 23 minutes one troop from the US squadron destroyed over half of the Iraqi battalion.

The 3rd Squadron moved just to the south of the 2nd Squadron and attacked the southern portion of the same Iraqi strong point at about 3:30 pm. At 4:45 pm, the Iraqis launched a counter-attack against the US 3rd Squadron with a T-72 tank company. At 2,500 meters, they fired at the Bradley cavalry fighting vehicles. The range was too great and their rounds struck the earth just short of their intended targets. They were unable to get many more rounds off as M1 tanks bounded forward and, at about 2,100 meters, destroyed most of the Iraqi T-72 tanks.

The US attack must have surprised the Iraqi battalion. The Iraqi crews were out of their tanks and infantry fighting vehicles because of the danger of air attacks, although the division commander must have had an idea that he was about to be attacked by a large force because his forward security forces and, one would hope, the Iraqi High Command or Republican Guard Forces Command headquarters would have given him warning. The word, however, did not find its way down to the front-line battalions and, especially, the individual tank and fighting vehicle crews, since no one ordered the Tawakalna battalion to prepare for immediate battle. At best, the Americans' attack speed was faster than the Tawakalna Division's orders process. At worst, no one on the Iraqi staff thought of telling the front-line units to prepare. The US attacked so violently that the Iraqis never had time to get back into their vehicles. The Iraqi battalion, also, did not prepare its positions very well: obstacles were obviously not complete, and it had emplaced only a few of its mines. Based on their experience in the Iran War, Iraqi defensive positions have lots of mines, barbed wire and other obstacles to stop the attacker. They dig in their vehicles deep into the ground, with just the turrets exposed so the guns can acquire targets. Unfortunately, the Tawakalna Division was only able to develop partially its defenses. The reasons may be lack of time, the effect of coalition jet aircraft flying overhead, and/or lack of materials (such as mines or wire).

Franks' orders to Colonel Don Holder, the 2nd Armored Cavalry Regiment commander, were to avoid a decisive engagement. Holder's troops had successfully destroyed one Iraqi battalion strong point, but there were still at least six or seven more battalions waiting for the US regiment, which did not have the combat power to break through the Tawakalna's defenses. Holder, therefore ordered his squadrons to hold at their current positions and prepare to pass the 1st Infantry Division, which had moved behind the Regiment, forward.

The fight in the 2nd Armored Cavalry Regiment's sector, however, was not yet over. Around 6 pm on 26 February, the character of the battle changed as dismounted Iraqi infantry, T-55 tanks and MT-LBs began a series of attacks on 2nd Squadron's positions along the 73 Easting. Iraqi infantry, believing that darkness and poor visibility would protect them, charged towards the US troopers firing their AK assault rifles and RPG anti-tank rockets. The US 2nd Squadron's defensive firepower, however, stopped the Iraqi attacks. US TOW anti-tank missiles destroyed several trucks loaded with Iraqi soldiers. M1 tanks demolished T-55 and T-72 tanks long before they got within their own firing range. The squadron's mortar sections began firing airbursts at the Iraqi infantry causing them either to retreat or dig in. In several hours of combat, the US squadron knocked out at least two companies of Iraqi tanks. Hundreds of Iraqi infantry and their lightly armored transporters lay scattered on the floor of a small wadi, or dry stream bed, nearby.

Shortly before 10:30 pm, it was suddenly quiet across the thirty kilometers in front of the Iraqi 18th Mechanized and 37th Armored Brigades. The 2nd US Armored Cavalry Regiment held its fire as the 1st Infantry Division began its forward passage of lines. Passage lanes are clearly marked routes that the moving unit uses to pass through the stationary unit. These routes may be marked by variouus means, including pyrotechnics, reflective or white tape, and even simple road signs. In most cases, the entry and exit of the lane is manned by members of both the moving and stationary unit to minimize confusion. Because the attack had stopped, the Tawakalna commander probably thought he had stopped the American advance on his left flank. Nothing, however could have been further from the truth. Just as the soldiers of the 2nd Squadron were defending against the Iraqi counter-attacks, the 1st Infantry Division began its final move towards the 73 Easting. American scouts on the forward line fired green star clusters to mark the exact passage lanes. Then, past tired 2nd US Cavalry soldiers and burning Iraqi T-72 tanks, the 1st US Infantry Division resumed the attack.

Now, instead of three armored cavalry squadrons, the 18th and 37th Iraqi Armored Brigades faced six heavy battalions of American tanks and infantry fighting vehicles and another six battalions of 155mm field artillery. The Iraqis, however, did not run. Instead, they manned their vehicles and weapons systems against the US forces. In the 1st US Brigade sector all of the battalions used a single passage lane. Each unit had its own area of operations to keep it from becoming confused with other units and to ensure that each unit achieved the command's common objective. Since these were only imaginary lines on the ground, units often strayed into adjacent sectors. The first battalion (1-34 Armor) that passed through the passage lane ran into a battalion from the Iraqi 18th Mechanized Brigade, and Iraqi gunners were able to indentify two American vehicles and destroy them, killing one soldier and wounding five others. The American commander pulled his scouts back and moved his tank companies forward. The second American battalion (Task Force 2-34 Armor) that passed through the passage lane became momentarily lost because it was dark and the combat equipment (in spite of rumors about super technology) did not have a compass or directional aid built into the vehicle. And the third (Task Force 5-16 Infantry) was not yet through the passage lane.

In the south, the 1st Infantry Division's 3rd Brigade moved through three separate passage lanes, where each battalion almost immediately made contact with the Iraqi defenders and both sides started shooting at each other. The primary fighting force in this sector were two battalions of the 37th Iraqi Armored Brigade, defending the left flank of the Tawakalna. The assault of the 3rd US Brigade also caught many Iraqi tank crews on the ground in their shelters, probably hiding from American air and artillery attacks. Because they had not turned on their engines and were not, therefore, generating heat, the tanks did not show up on the American's vehicle-mounted thermal sights. In many instances, American vehicles simply drove past the Iraqi positions. For the next few hours, bypassed Iraqi RPG equipped anti-tank teams and dismounted Iraqi infantry fired at passing American vehicles, only to be destroyed by other US tanks and fighting vehicles following the initial forces.

As Iraqi RPG teams and T-55 tanks maneuvered to shoot the Americans in their vulnerable rear, some M1 and Bradley turrets swung back to engage their attackers. Responding to apparent enemy fire, friendly crews returned fire. When the confusing mélée was over, the 1st Division tanks discovered that they had destroyed five of their own M1 tanks and four Bradleys. Six brigade soldiers perished in these attacks and thirty others were wounded. Rather than "press the attack" as those at Central Command (General Norman Schwarzkopf's headquarters) were demanding, the brigade commander, Colonel David Weisman, decided to pull the battalions back, consolidate, and use his artillery to destroy the aggressive Iraqi infantry.

The Iraqis had stopped the 1st Infantry Division's initial push into their sector; but not for long. By 12:30 am on 27 February, the two attacking brigades of the 1st Infantry Division were positioned along the 75 Easting, 2,000 meters east of 73 Easting. For the next three hours they methodically crossed the remaining ten kilometers of their objective, called Objective Norfolk. The area encompassed the intersection of the IPSA Pipeline Road and several desert trails, as well as a large Iraqi supply depot. As they slowly advanced, M1 tank commanders acquired the thermal images of the Iraqi tanks, or infantry fighting vehicles, long before they were themselves spotted by the Iraqis. Platoon leaders, team commanders, and even battalion commanders issued unit-wide fire commands, causing the entire command to fire at Iraqi targets simultaneously. By dawn, the 1st US Infantry Division controlled Objective Norfolk. The combined attack of the 2nd Armored Cavalry Regiment's three squadrons and the Big Red One's two leading brigades had destroyed the two Iraqi brigades (18th Mechanized Brigade and 37th Armored Brigade) on the Tawakalna's left flank. Simultaneously with the fighting in the southern portion of its sector, the Tawakalna Division was under assault in the center of its line.

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Soon after the Tawakalna Division Commander's 18th Mechanized Brigade was engaged, the US attack spread to the center of his line. The Iraqi defense in this sector consisted of three mechanized battalions from the Tawakalna 29th Mechanized Brigade, and three armored and one mechanized from the 9th Armored Brigade. In addition, there was at least one battalion of the 46th Mechanized Brigade from the 12th Armored Division. There is also evidence that at least one T-62 tank battalion, most likely from the 10th Armored Division, was also assigned to the Tawakalna in this sector. Approximately nine Iraqi battalions, therefore, faced the attacking 3rd US Armored Division's ten heavy battalions. In a space of only 270 square kilometers, Iraqi defenders massed over 160 tanks, 117 BMPs, and hundreds of other combat vehicle, and fighting systems. Thousands of infantry men dismounted from their combat carriers. Once on the ground, they constructed their dug in company strong points and prepared to use their Saggers and RPGs to engage the attacking Americans. Finally, there were approximately a dozen field artillery batteries arrayed along the rear of the Tawakalna's operations zone in this sector. The Iraqi defenses were very thick and Major General Paul Funk, the 3rd Armored Division commander, had no soft or exposed Iraqi flanks to exploit in his attack. He attacked with his 2nd Brigade in the north, his 1st Brigade in the south, and his 3rd Brigade in the rear trailing the 1st Brigade.

The 1st US Brigade of the 3rd Armored Division moved in the south of the 3rd Armored Division's sector on a relatively narrow zone. At 5:02 pm, 26 February, it ran into a battalion of the 9th Iraqi Armored Brigade. The lead American company team, from Task Force 3-5 Cavalry, established a base of fire as two other company teams moved on line. Not inclined to assault hastily the center of this complex, the entire 3-5 Cavalry moved into firing positions and began to locate and shoot at Iraqi targets. Long-range tank and TOW fires, high explosive and DPICM rounds, and even COPPERHEAD rounds ravaged the Iraqi 9th Armored Brigade's battalion strong points. The Iraqi soldiers, however, continued to fight, preventing this American battalion from advancing any farther for the next 12 hours.

In the dark, around 7:20 pm, a scout platoon from the brigade's left-flank battalion Task Force 4-32 Armor, identified a T-72 tank covered with infantry heading towards them from the southeast. In a short and confused fight, the scouts destroyed the tank and scattered its passenger infantry. Soon, a platoon of Iraqi T-72s supported by dismounted infantry joined the fight. By 9:00 pm, Task-Force 4-32 Armor's fight in this sector came to an end. It had made little progress in its zone and had shot up one of its own Bradley scout vehicles, killing two soldiers and wounding two more. The Iraqi line continued to hold.

Iraqi soldiers surrender to allied forces after fleeing their burning APC, with a mine-plow equipped M1A1 Abrams in the background.

The US 4/7 Cavalry Squadron, a new unit working for the divison commander and acting independently from the 1st Brigade, screened the division's southern flank. Around 6:00 pm it ran into an Iraqi tank unit. Like other Iraqi defenders, the Iraqi unit, most likely a tank unit, was hastily dug in and was waiting for a fight. The 4/7 Cavalry's Bradleys were out of their element in such an engagement against Iraqi tanks. After more than an hour of fighting and making no progress, the 4/7 Cavalry began to pull back from the position where the Iraqis were dug in. In the confusion of the withdrawal, a US tank from an approaching unit fired at one of the Cavalry's Bradleys, killing the gunner. Another 4/7 Cavalry vehicle was engaged by the US 2nd Armored Cavalry in the south. In the middle of this confusion, Iraqi fire hit and damaged nine of 13 M3 Cavalry fighting vehicles in addition to the two hit by friendly fire. Two soldiers of the 4/7 Cavalry were killed and 12 were wounded in the battle. When given the opportunity, the Iraqi Army could inflict serious losses on the attacking American forces.

The Iraqi 9th Armored Brigade had stopped the advance of the US 1st Brigade of the 3rd Armored Division. In 12 hours and despite overwhelming fire power, this American brigade had moved forward only four kilometers. That minor tactical success, however, had little effect on the battle's overall outcome. Before 9:00 pm, Major General Funk determined that his main effort was in the northern portion of his sector of operations, and prepared a deliberate attack to destroy the Iraqi units in the 2d Brigade's zone of operations.

Funk's main effort was in the northern portion of his sector where the 2nd Brigade attacked. Waiting less than ten kilometers behind the 2nd Brigade, was the 3rd Brigade. Its four battalions were eager to get into the fight at the first opportunity. Until 5:20 pm the 2nd Brigade moved in a wedge formation-with Task Force 4-8 Cavalry in the lead, Task Force 4-18 Infantry on the left and TF 3-8 Cavalry on the right-slowly through the Iraqi 29th Mechanized Brigade's security zone, constantly fighting isolated Iraqi vehicles. Like its counterparts in the adjacent sector, this brigade of Iraqis prepared its defenses according to doctrine. Bunkers, dug in vehicles, and pre-planned fires, backed by determined soldiers, made a formidable defense.

Funk now ordered his divisional artillery to pound the Iraqi positions with all the indirect fire he had available. Almost five battalions of artillery fired at identified and suspected targets in a nine square kilometer box. Then Funk ordered the launching of the 2-27 Attack Helicopter Battalion across the forward line of US troops and into the depths of the Iraqi operations zone. At 10:00 pm the 2nd brigade's three battalions and supporting artillery undertook a coordinated combined arms attack. For the next four hours disciplined 2d Brigade tank and Bradley crews moved through the 29th Mechanized Brigade's operations zone.

US tank companies bounded forward by platoons, using their thermal sights and stand-off range to engage Iraqi vehicles on their own terms. Out-ranged and unable to locate the source of the accurate fire they were receiving, the Republican Guard soldiers returned fire without any noticeable effect. Attack helicopters and multiple rocket launchers destroyed Iraqi artillery almost as soon as they fired. As the brigade line moved forward, Iraqi infantry forces emerged from their hiding places and tried to engage US tanks and infantry fighting vehicles from close range. These Iraqi soldiers had little chance of success as a line of infantry fighting vehicles, moving just behind the tanks, killed them with machine-gun fire.

The Iraqi 29th Brigade commander continued to resist the American advance. He directed several counter-attacks by armored and mechanized platoons and companies. Many of those were effectively targeted against the 2nd Brigade's left flank, but concentrated tank, Bradley, and artillery fire stopped these attacks before they could interfere with the 2nd Brigade's progress. It was a confusing mèlée, with rounds flying in all directions. By 2:00 am, 27 February, the 2nd Brigade had fought through the 29th Iraqi Brigade's first defensive echelon. The situation was now right for Funk to order the 3rd Brigade forward. That morning it passed through the 2nd Brigade's front line and started the 3rd Armored Division's attack at the rear of the Tawakalna Division, and beyond.

The 3rd Armored Division's battle against the Tawakalna illustrates that good tactics are just as important as good technology. Had Funk chosen to attack the Iraqi defenses without evaluating the enemy, deciding on a main effort, massing his forces and using his tanks, infantry fighting vehicles, attack helicopters and field artillery as they were designed, the outcome might have been different. At the same time that American units were overwhelming the Tawakalna's left and center, another heavy division assaulted its exposed right flank.
1 posted on 03/10/2003 5:34:25 AM PST by SAMWolf
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To: MistyCA; AntiJen; Victoria Delsoul; SassyMom; bentfeather; GatorGirl; radu; souris; SpookBrat; ...

While most of the Tawakalna Division commander's attention was focused to his division's front, its right flank was about to be attacked by a fourth American unit, the 1st Armored Division. Major General Ron Griffith's primary military target had been the Medina Division about thirty kilometers father east, but one battalion of the Tawakalna's 29th Mechanized Brigade occupied positions in Griffith's 1st Armored Division's zone of operations. That Iraqi battalion lay directly in the path of Colonel Dan Zanini's (one of Griffith's three maneuver brigades) 3rd Brigade, 1st Armored Division.

Colonel Zanini synchronized the fight to maximize his fire power and minimize battlefield confusion. Artillery, Apache attack helicopters and mechanized infantry fired their weapons at the Iraqi defenders in order to prevent them from returning accurate fire as one of his tank battalions (Task Force 1-37 Armor) began moving in the dark towards the Iraqi defenses. This battalion's forty-five M1A1 tanks moved abreast towards the Iraqis at less than ten kilometers per hour. About 1,000 meters behind the tanks moved the battalion's infantry company mounted on its Bradleys, to help destroy any threat to their rear. As the tanks moved forward, the overwatching infantry battalion began firing illumination rounds from its mortar platoon. The brigade commander then turned the fight over to the battalion commander, Lieutenant Colonel Ed Dyer.

As was the case with the entire Tawakalna division, the Iraqi soldiers fought hard. Many Iraqi tanks kept their engines off in order to defeat the American thermal sights. Those vehicles were often located because of the strange white spots, the tank commander's head, seemingly suspended in thin air. The Iraqi tanks that were not hit were able to turn their turrets and attack the M1s in their flanks and rear. Iraqi infantry moved in three to five second rushes in order to get close to attacking vehicles. Burning vehicles and explosions "washed out" the thermal sights and made it difficult for US forces to locate Iraqi tanks. In that confusion, the 29th Iraqi Armored Brigade knocked out four M1 tanks, wounding six US soldiers.

The Iraqi brigade, however, never had a chance. It was attacked by Task Force 1/37 Armor, the tank battalion with the best gunnery skills in the entire US Army.60 When TF 1/37 had completed its assault, the Iraqi unit was in shambles. Because of luck, training, and the effectiveness of the Abrams' enhanced armor, there were no American fatalities. In the sector swept by the 1st Brigade, two Iraqi tank companies and one mechanized infantry company (approximately 24 T-72 tanks and 14 BMP infantry fighting vehicles) had become burning hulks.


At the same time the American ground forces were demolishing the front line of the Tawakalna, US attack helicopters, jet aircraft, and artillery were simultaneously attacking the Iraqi division throughout the depth of its defensive zone. The primary targets included artillery batteries, command posts and supply depots.

Iraqi soldiers with their T62 tanks anxiously await a U.S. officer, to discuss a site for official surrender talks.

As soon as the 2nd Armored Cavalry Regiment made contact with the Tawakalna Division around 4:30 pm, 26 February, the battle began. Artillery from the Regiment's field artillery batteries and the 210 Field Artillery Brigade pounded the second line of Iraqi troops. Those missions destroyed troops and supply installations and interfered with the Tawakalna's command and control. The 2/1 Attack Helicopter Battalion, working for the 2nd Armored Cavalry Regiment, struck at artillery and support areas to the rear of the Iraqi lines. It destroyed at least two artillery batteries and dozens of vehicles and support installations along the IPSA Pipeline road.

This assault continued until the 1st US Infantry Division passed through the 2nd Armored Cavalry Regiment. The 1/1 Attack Helicopter Battalion then attacked the 18th Iraqi Mechanized and 9th Iraqi Armored Brigade's second line of troops at 9:00 pm, on 26 February. The attack prevented the Iraqi artillery from interfering with the 1st Infantry's passage of lines. From the time the 2nd Armored Cavalry Regiment made contact, on the night of 26 February, until the following morning when the 1st Infantry Division cleared Objective Norfolk, the Iraqi soldiers of the 18th and 37th Brigades received no respite from constant ground, artillery, and air attack.

British troops guard captured Iraqi armor and weapons in the Kuwaiti desert.

The situation was the same in the US 3rd Armored Division zone of operations. Its constant pounding of Iraqi combat and combat service support units made Iraqi counterattacks, resupply or reinforcement almost impossible. Those incessant attacks destroyed Iraqi artillery, broke up units assembling for counter-attacks, and thoroughly disrupted Iraqi command and control. When the 3rd Brigade passed through at dawn on 27 February, there were no more Iraqi strong points to slow the attack. The Iraqi commander had no way of countering the effects of these deep attacks. He had no choice but to stand and fight or surrender. Most of the soldiers in this proud division, like its commander, fought and died.
2 posted on 03/10/2003 5:34:55 AM PST by SAMWolf (The French are cordially invited to come to Wisconsin and smell our dairy air)
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To: All

Soon after the 1st Armored Division's attack started at 8 PM on 26 February, the 3rd Armored Division launched an attack just to the south of the 1st Division. One hour later, the 1st Infantry Division passed through the 2nd Armored Cavalry Regiment and captured all of Objective Norfolk. Franks had wanted to slam into the Republican Guards with a "three division fist." That is exactly what he did. Franks defeated the Tawakalna Division by massing six brigades and an armored cavalry regiment against it, and flanking it to the north and south with two more brigades. Attack helicopters and long range artillery systems had bombed the Tawakalna beforehand.

The Tawakalna division commander, who probably perished in the battle, never had an opportunity to maneuver, use reserves, or even use his artillery with any effect. His spirited defense, however, confirmed Frank's concern that the Republican Guard did not enter the battle already defeated. They did not run away, and fought with extreme bravery. American battle reports cite the bravery of the determined Tawakalna defenders. This division had good equipment. Unfortunately, they did not know how to use it fully. For example, they did not know how to employ their equipment to ensure that they had local security, allowing the 2nd Armored Cavalry Regiment to gain contact with them without discovery. The Tawakalna division was unable, regularly, to hit the targets at which they aimed with their tanks and anti-tank guided missiles. Seldom did the Tawakalna division effectively use their artillery or air defense artillery.

More important than problems in using equipment, The Tawakalna division was simply, overwhelmed. It was the application of the US Army's Airland Battle doctrine, executed by well-trained, equipped and motivated soldiers, that defeated the Iraqi forces. By dawn on 27 February 1991, the Tawakalna Mechanized Infantry Division had ceased to exist.

With the destruction of the Tawakalna Division, Franks was able to focus the combat power of the 7th Corps towards the other heavy divisions of the Republican Guard Forces Command. Although part of the Medina Division would stand and fight against the 1st US Armored Division, the Iraqi high command ordered the Hammurabi Division to start moving north, across the Euphrates River and away from the American attack in the west. The Tawakalna Division's defense gave the remainder of the Iraqi Army in Kuwait the time it needed to evacuate most of its mechanized forces to Basra.

3 posted on 03/10/2003 5:35:32 AM PST by SAMWolf (The French are cordially invited to come to Wisconsin and smell our dairy air)
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To: All
The State of the Union is Strong!
Support the Commander in Chief

Click Here to Send a Message to the opposition!

4 posted on 03/10/2003 5:35:53 AM PST by SAMWolf (The French are cordially invited to come to Wisconsin and smell our dairy air)
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To: All

Thanks, Doughty!

5 posted on 03/10/2003 5:36:21 AM PST by SAMWolf (The French are cordially invited to come to Wisconsin and smell our dairy air)
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To: All
Good Morning Everybody.

Chow time!
NG's and ER's to the front of the line.
Standing Operating Procedures state:
Click the Pics

Click here to Contribute to FR: Do It Now! ;-) Love Sun 16 Tons Alley Cat

6 posted on 03/10/2003 5:36:40 AM PST by SAMWolf (The French are cordially invited to come to Wisconsin and smell our dairy air)
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To: SAMWolf; All
Good Morning SAM, everyone!
7 posted on 03/10/2003 5:40:59 AM PST by Soaring Feather (Good Morning Foxhole Residents)
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To: SAMWolf
On This Day In History

Birthdates which occurred on March 10:
1452 Ferdinand II the Catholic, King of Aragon/Sicily (expelled Jews)
1503 Ferdinand I German emperor (1558-64)
1538 Thomas Howard Duke of Norfolk; executed by Queen Elizabeth (1572)
1628 Constantine Huygens Jr Dutch poet/painter/cartoonist
1656 Adolf H van Rechteren Dutch diplomat/politician
1698 Gaetano Maria Schiassi composer
1713 Christian Friedrich Schale composer
1713 Raphael Weiss composer
1748 John Playfair Scotland, clergyman/geologist/mathematician
1755 Philipp Christoph Kayser composer
1771 Georg F Creuzer German philological/historian (Idea und Probe)
1772 Friedrich von Schlegel Germany, romantic writer/critic (Lucinde)
1776 Luise queen of Prussia/wife of Frederik Willem III
1780 Juan Jose Landaeta composer
1787 William Etty English painter (nudes)
1788 Joseph Freiherr von Eichendorff German poet (Das Marmorbild)
1809 William David Porter Commander (Union Navy), died in 1864
1810 John McCloskey US, president of St John's College (Fordham University)
1812 Victor Tesch Belgian lawyer/minister of Justice
1818 George Wythe Randolph Secretary of War (Confederacy), died in 1867
1822 Willem Roelofs Dutch painter/lithographer
1824 Major General Thomas J Churchill Confederate Army/Fought at Wilson's Creek, Red River
1832 William Henry Penrose Brigadier General (Union volunteers), died in 1903
1833 Pedro Antonio de Alarcón Spain, writer (Three-Cornered Hat)
1839 Dudley Buck Hartford CT, organist/church composer
1842 Ina Donna Coolbrith US, poet laureate of California
1844 Pablo Martin M de Sarasate y Navascuez composer (Spanish Dancing)
1845 Alexander III [Romanov] Russian tsar (1881-94)
1850 Mary Mills Patrick US, 1st president of Istanbul Women's College
1865 Pim [Willem JH] Mulier Dutch journalist/writer/sport-organizer
1867 Lillian D Wald US, sociologist/organizer (Visiting Nurses)
1870 Alfred Kastner composer
1872 Felix Borowski composer
1873 Jakob Wassermann Germany, novelist (My Life as German & Jew)
1875 Alexander Borisovich Goldenweiser composer
1877 David Mendes Chumaceiro Curaçao, poet (Crisálidas)
1878 Karel van de Woestijne Flemish writer/poet (God at Sea)
1880 Michael Jacobs New York NY, boxing promoter
1884 Stuart Holmes Chicago IL, actor (Prisoner of Zenda)
1888 Barry Fitzgerald Dublin Ireland, actor (Academy Award-Going My Way)
1888 Krsto Odak composer
1891 Jacob van Gelderen economist/sociologist/Dutch 2nd Chamber (SDAP)
1891 Sam Jaffe New York NY, actor (Gunga Din, Dr Zorba-Ben Casey)
1892 Arthur Oscar Honnegger Le Havre France, composer (King David)
1892 Eva Turner British soprano
1896 Harry Krimer actor (Napoleon)
1896 Nancy Cunard writer
1898 Cy Kendall St Louis MO, actor (Mysteries of Chinatown)
1899 Finn Hoffding composer
19-- Ariane Munker actress (Ryan's Hope, Guiding Light, Doctors)
19-- Kari Kane rocker (Pretty Boy Floyd-Rock & Roll)
19-- Lissette Lima Peru, Spanish singer (Caricatura)
19-- Lupita D'Alessio Mexico, Spanish singer (Soy Autentica... Y Punto)
1900 Sherman Billingsley Enid OK, talk show host (Stork Club)
1903 Bix Beiderbecke jazz cornet player (In a Mist)
1905 Rene Bernier composer
1907 Robert de Roos composer
1908 Carl Albert US speaker of house (1971-77)
1908 Kristian Palusalu Finland, heavyweight wrestler (Olympics-gold-1936)
1909 Gerard Croiset Dutch clairvoyant
1911 Warner Anderson Brooklyn NY, actor (Doctor, Lineup, Matthew-Peyton Place)
1914 Chandler Harper golfer (1950 PGA champion)
1916 James Herriot Scotland, writer (All Creatures Great & Small)
1916 Manuel A "Manny" Greenhill record producer
1918 Heywood Hale Broun journalist
1920 Jethro Burnsburns country singer (Homer & Jethro)
1921 Cec Linder Galica Poland, actor (Goldfinger)
1921 Paul Coates New York NY, columnist (Tonight! America After Dark)
1922 Adam Kennedy Lafayette IN, actor (Dion-Californian)
1922 Pamela Mason London, actress (Navy vs Night Monsters)
1923 Ara Parseghian football coach (Northwestern, Notre Dame)
1923 Kenneth "Jethro" Burns country singer (Homer & Jethro)
1925 Ed van der Elsken movie photographer (Een liefdesgeschiedenis)
1925 M J J A [Sef] Imkamp Dutch politician (D66)
1926 Marques Haynes NBA hall of famer (Harlem Globetrotters)
1927 Claude Laydu actress (Diary of a Country Priest)
1927 Donn Trenner New Haven CT, orchestra leader (ABC's Nightlife)
1927 Paul Wunderlich German lithographer/painter/sculptor
1928 Arthur Milton cricketer (England opening batsman late 50's)
1928 James Earl Ray assassin (Martin Luther King Jr)
1930 Raymond Rasberry pianist/singer
1930 Sandor Iharos athlete
1932 Anatoliy Roschin USSR, super heavyweight wrestler (Olympics-gold-1972)
1933 Bernadetta Matuszczak composer
1934 Judith Jamison artistic director (Alvin Ailey Dance Theater)
1935 Gary Owens announcer (Laugh-in)
1936 Juda Bar-Norwegian Israeli/Dutch mime/actor (King)
1937 Oscar Abrams community organizer
1937 Tamara Press USSR, shot putter (Olympics-gold-1960, 64)
1938 Ijaz Butt cricketer (Pakistani opening batsman in 8 Tests 1958-60)
1938 Marina Vlady Clichy France, actress (Conjugal Bed, The Hunt)
1938 Ron Mix NFL tackle (San Diego Chargers, Oakland Raiders)
1939 Irina Press USSR, 80 meter hurdles/Pentathlete (Olympics-gold-1960, 64)
1940 Chuck [Carlos Ray] Norris Ryan OK, martial arts actor (Walker Texas Ranger, Missing in Action)
1940 David Rabe Dubuque IA, playwright (Streamers)
1940 Dean Torrence Los Angeles CA, surf music singer (Jan & Dean-Little Old Lady from Pasadena)
1940 Francis Schwartz composer
1940 Wayne Dyer psychologist (Universe Within You)
1941 Daniel Kirkland Lentz composer
1941 Piotr Warzecha composer
1941 Sandra Palmer Fort Worth TX, LPGA golfer (1986 Mayflower Classic)
1943 Alfred Whitford Lerdahl composer
1943 Angelique Pettyjohn Los Angeles CA, actress (Body Talk, Star Trek)
1943 Stephen Montague composer
1945 Katharine Houghton Hartford, actress (Guess Who's Coming to Dinner)
1946 Gaylord Birch drummer (Reconstruction, Honey Dripper)
1947 Avril "Kim" Campbell Canada's 1st female premier (1993- )
1947 Laurie Langenbach Dutch author
1947 Tom Scholz rock guitarist/keyboardist (Boston-More Than a Feeling)
1948 Austin Carr NBA star (Cleveland Cavaliers)
1948 Eddie Grundy rocker
1950 Ted McKenna rocker (Alex Harvey Band)
1952 Oupa J Gqozo South African warden/army commandant (Ciskei)
1953 Caroline H "Carolien" van de Berg actress (Havinck)
1955 Bunny DeBarge Grand Rapids MI, rocker (Debarge)
1955 Juliusz Machulski Poland, director/writer/actor (Do It Yourself)
1956 Janet Anderson West Sunbury PA, LPGA golfer (1982 US Women's Open)
1957 Adolfo Horta Camaguey Cuba, heavyweight boxer (Olympics-silver-1980)
1957 Shannon Lee Tweed St Johns Newfoundland, playmate (November 1981) actress (Meatballs 3)
1958 Sharon Stone Meadville PA, actress (Basic Instinct, Sliver, Casino)
1960 Linda Jezek California, backstroke swimmer (Pan Am Gold-1979)
1961 Jesse Sapolu NFL guard (San Francisco 49ers)
1961 Laurel B Clark Ames IA, Lieutenant Commander USN/astronaut
1961 Mitch Gaylord Van Nuys CA, gymnast (Olympics 1984)/actor (American Anthem)
1962 Andre Waters NFL safety (Arizona Cardinals)
1962 Gary Clark rocker (Danny Wilson-Mary's Prayer)
1963 Jasmine Guy Boston MA, actress (Whitley-Different World)
1963 John Cangelosi Brooklyn NY, outfielder (Houston Astros)
1964 Cynthia Brimhall Ogden UT, playmate (October 1985)
1964 Greg Campbell cricketer (Aussie pace-bowler 1989-90)
1964 Neneh Cherry Stockholm Sweden, rocker (Buffalo Stance)
1964 Neneh Cherry Stockholm Sweden, Swedish pop singer (Money Love)
1964 Prince Edward Anthony Richard Louis of Britain
1965 Paul Masotti CFL receiver (Toronto Argonauts)
1965 Rod Woodson NFL cornerback/kick returner (Pittsburgh Steelers, San Francisco 49ers)
1966 Edie Brickell Mrs Paul Simon/rocker (& New Bohemians)
1966 Michael Timlin Midland TX, pitcher (Toronto Blue Jays)
1966 Stephen Mailer New York NY, actor (Red Meat, League of Their Own, War & Love)
1967 Derrick Graham guard (Seattle Seahawks)
1969 Jay Hillmann WLAF running back (Rhein Fire)
1969 Ricky Seagall rocker (Partridge Family)
1969 Stephen Leaney Australia, Canadian Tour golfer (1993 Infinit TPC-7th)
1970 Antonio Edwards NFL defensive end (Seattle Seahawks)
1971 Frank Habermann WLAF defensive linebacker (Rhein Fire)
1971 Morris Unutoa corner (Philadelphia Eagles)
1971 Shad Williams Fresno CA, pitcher (California Angels)
1972 Jack Kellogg WLAF CB (Frankfurt Galaxy)
1973 Eva Herzigova Litvinov Czechoslovakia, model (Guess Jeans, Wonderbra)
1975 Stefan Bergkvist Leksand Sweden, NHL defenseman (Pittsburgh Penguins)
1976 Barbara Schett Innsbruck Austria, tennis star
1977 Shannon Miller Rolla MO, gymnast (Olympics-2 gold/2 silver/3 bronze-92, 96)

Deaths which occurred on March 10:
0037 Tiberius Claudius Nero Roman emperor (14-37), dies at 78
0483 Simplicius Italian Pope (468-83), dies
1546 Thomas Elyot English diplomat (Boke named the Governor), dies at 46
1585 Rembert Dodoens [Rembertus Dodonaeus], physician/botanist, dies at 67
1592 Michiel Coxcie Flemish (court)painter/carpet designer, dies
1597 Petrus Forestus Dutch physician (Willem of Orange), dies
1700 Diogo Diaz Melgaz composer, dies at 61
1701 Johann Schelle composer, dies at 52
1716 Wenzel Ludwig von Radolt composer, dies at 48
1735 Dirk T van Cloon Dutch lawyer/Governor-General of E Indies, dies at about 46
1792 John Stuart 3rd earl of Bute/English premier (1760-63), dies at 78
1819 Friedrich Heinrich Jacobi writer, dies
1826 Johan VI M L J King of Portugal (1816-26), dies at 56
1832 Muzio Clementi Italian composer, dies at 79
1861 Josepf François Snel composer, dies at 67
1864 Maximilian II Jozef King of Bayern (1848-64), dies at 52
1865 William Henry "Little Billy" Chase Whiting Confederate General-Major, dies at 48
1866 Antonio Francesco Gaetano S Pacini composer, dies at 87
1870 Isaak-Ignaz Moscheles composer, dies at 75
1872 Giuseppe Mazzini Italian revolutionary (Giovane Italy), dies at 66
1875 Louis Joseph Daussoigne-Mehul composer, dies at 84
1888 Ciro Pinsuti Italian pianist/composer, dies at 57
1892 Otto van Raised Governor-General of Netherland Indies (1884-88), dies at 69
1897 Teodulo Mabellini composer, dies at 79
1900 Johann Peter Emilius Hartmann composer, dies at 94
1901 Vasily Georgiyevich Wrangell composer, dies at 38
1906 Eugen Richter German MP (Liberal), dies at 67
1910 Carl Heinrich Carsten Reinecke composer, dies at 85
1910 Karl Lueger Austrian anti-semite/mayor of Vienna, dies at 65
1913 Harriet Tubman abolitionist, conductor on Underground RR, dies in New York
1922 Arthur Hervey composer, dies at 67
1922 Horace Wadham Nicholl composer, dies at 73
1935 Barend Barendse actor/director (Broken Lives), dies at 82
1940 Louis de Vries Dutch actor (Merchant of Venice), dies at 68
1943 Tully Marshall actor (Let's Go, Red Dust), dies at 78
1944 David Vogel Ukrainian author, dies in Auschwitz at 52
1948 Jan Masaryk Czechoslovakian Foreign minister, commits suicide or is murdered
1953 Charles Gordon Curtis inventor of (Curtis-steam turbine), dies at 92
1966 Frederik "Frits" Zernike Dutch physicist (Nobel 1953), dies at 77
1966 Mari Sandoz US author (Cheyenne Autumn), dies at 64
1968 Helen Walker actress (Brewster's Million), dies of cancer at 47
1971 Mabel Wheeler Daniels composer, dies at 92
1973 Sir Richard Sharples Governor of Bermuda, is assassinated
1974 June Harrison actress (Land of the Lawless), dies at 48
1974 Quinto Maganini composer, dies at 76
1975 Leopold Samuel composer, dies at 91
1977 E Power Biggs English organist/composer (CBS), dies at 70
1977 Pieter Jan Bouman Dutch sociologist/historian, dies at 74
1977 Willem Schermerhorn Dutch premier (1945-46), dies at 82
1980 Doctor Tarnoff Jean Harris kills Scarsdale diet doctor
1980 Herman Tarnower doctor (Scarsdale Diet), killed by Jean Harris
1984 June Marlowe actress (Pardon US), dies at 81
1985 Konstantin Chernenko party leader/President of USSR (1984-85), dies at 73
1986 Ray Milland actor (Lost Weekend-Academy Award 1945), dies at 81
1988 Andy Gibb singer, dies in Oxford England of an inflammatory heart virus at 30
1988 Glenn Cunningham US world record miler, dies at 78
1988 William Brocklesby Wordsworth composer, dies at 79
1990 Michael Stewart UK Secretary of State (1965-66, 68-70), dies
1992 Roy Holmer Wallack dies of pneumonia at 64
1993 C Northcote Parkinson English historian/sociologist (Law of P), dies
1993 David Gunn abortion doctor, killed by Michael Griffin at 47
1994 Cecil Rolph Hewitt journalist/policeman, dies at 92
1994 Charles Bukowski German/US writer (Barfly, Hollywood), dies at 73
1994 Robert Shea author, dies of cancer
1995 Alexander Hyatt-King Mozart scholar, dies at 84
1995 Carel Birnie ballet producer, dies at 69
1995 Hendrik W van Leeuwen Dutch musician, dies at 79
1995 Richard Baerlein racing writer, dies at 84
1996 Lucius E Burch Jr US civil rights leader, dies at 84
1996 Ross Hunter US producer (Airport, Madame X, Pillow Talk), dies at 75

On this day...
0241 -BC- Battle of Aegusa: Roman fleet sinks 50 Carthagean ships
0418 Jews are excluded from public office in the Roman Empire
0483 St Simplicius ends his reign as Catholic Pope
1526 Emperor Charles V marries princess Isabella of Portugal
1535 Bishop Tomás de Berlanga discovers Galápagos Islands
1578 Queen Elizabeth I gives Johan Casimir £20,000 to aid Dutch rebellion
1624 England declares war on Spain
1629 King Charles I dissolved Parliament; he called it back 11 years later
1661 French King Louis XIV ends office of premier
1681 English Quaker William Penn receives charter from Charles II, making him sole proprietor of colonial American territory Pennsylvania
1734 Spanish army under Don Carlos (III) draws into Naples
1789 Franklin College founded (1787?)
1791 John Stone, Concord MA, patents a pile driver
1791 Pope condemns France's Civil Constitution's treatment of the clergy
1847 1st money minted in Hawaii
1849 Abraham Lincoln applies for a patent; only US President to do so
1862 Great Britain & France recognizes independence of Zanzibar
1862 US issues 1st paper money ($5, $10, $20, $50, $100, $500 & $1000)
1864 Grant is named commander of the Union armies
1864 Red River campaign Louisiana
1865 Battle of Monroe's Crossroads, North Carolina
1874 Purdue University (Indiana) admits its 1st student
1876 1st telephone call made (Alexander Graham Bell to Thomas Watson)
1880 General Wolseley opens new legislative council in Pretoria
1880 Salvation Army of England sets up US welfare & religious activity
1888 1st performance of César Franck's "Psyche"
1888 Heavyweight Boxing champion John L Sullivan draws Charlie Mitchell in 30 rounds
1893 Ivory Coast becomes a French colony
1893 New Mexico State University cancels its 1st graduation ceremony, its only graduate Sam Steele was robbed & killed the night before
1896 After Bob Fitzsimmons KOs much larger Jim Corbett to win world HW championship he says, "The bigger they are, the harder they fall"
1896 Charilaos Vasilakos of Greece wins 1st modern marathon in 3:18
1896 The Bronx acquires O'Brien Square
1900 Battle at Driefontein, South-Africa (Boers vs British army)
1902 Earthquake destroys Turkish city of Tochangri
1903 Harry Gammeter, Cleveland, patents multigraph duplicating machine
1903 Stanley Cup: Ottawa Silver 7 sweep Montréal AAA in 2 games
1905 Japanese Army captures Mukden (Shenyang)
1906 1st performance of Maurice Ravel's "Sonatine"
1906 Coal dust explosion kills 1,060 at Courrieres France
1906 London Underground opens Bakeroo line (Baker Street to Waterloo Line)
1909 Jack Johnson fights Victor McLaglen to no decision in 6 for box title
1910 China ends slavery
1910 Pittsburgh Courier, begins publishing
1913 Stanley Cup: Québec Bulldogs sweep Sydney Miners in 2 games
1913 William Knox, becomes 1st in American Bowling Congress to bowl 300
1914 Suffragettes in London damages painter Rokeby's Venus of Velasquez
1915 British expedition Army in Belgium captures Neuve Chapelle
1920 NHL's Québec Bulldog Jim Malone scores 6 goals vs Ottawa Senators
1922 KLZ-AM in Denver CO begins radio transmissions
1922 State of siege proclaimed during mine strike Johannesburg South Africa
1925 Walter Mittelholzer is 1st to flies over Demawend mountain, Iran
1926 Run on Belgian banks
1927 Albania mobilize by threat of Serbian, Croatian & Slovenes
1927 Bavaria lifts ban on Hitler's speeches
1931 British Labour party removes fascist sir Oswald Mosley
1933 Major earthquake in Long Beach CA
1933 Nevada becomes 1st US state to regulate narcotics
1934 Longest undefeated streak in Toronto Maple Leaf history (18 games)
1934 US Ladies Figure Skating Championship won by Suzanne Davis
1934 US Men's Figure Skating Championship won by Roger Turner
1939 17 villages damaged by hailstones in Hyderabad India
1940 1st US opera telecast, W2XBS, New York NY, I Pagliacci
1941 Larry MacPhail, Dodger GM predicts all players will wear batting helmets
1945 Germany blows-up Wessel Bridge on Rhine
1945 Japan declares Vietnam Independence
1945 Patton's 3rd Army makes contact with Hodge's 1st Army
1945 Tokyo in fire after night time B-29 bombing
1945 US troops lands on Mindanao
1946 Train derailment kills 185 near Aracaju Brazil
1948 1st civilian to exceed speed of sound-Herb H Hoover, Edwards AFB California
1949 Detroit Tiger pitcher Art Houtteman is critically injured in an auto accident but recovers to win 15 games in 1949
1951 "Where's Charley?" closes at Broadway Theater NYC after 56 performances
1951 FBI director J Edgar Hoover declines post of baseball commissioner
1952 Military coup by General Fulgencio Batista in Cuba
1956 General strike in Cyprus protesting exile of archbishop Makarios
1956 Peter Twiss sets new world air record 1,132 mph (1,823 kph)
1957 Thousands of soccer fans riot in Italy
1959 Dorothy Comiskey Rigney, sells 54% of White Sox to Bill Veeck
1959 Tennessee Williams' "Sweet Bird of Youth" premieres in New York NY
1959 Uprising against Chinese occupation force in Lhasa Tibet
1960 USSR agrees to stop nuclear testing
1962 Due to it's no black policy, Phillies leave Jack Tar Harrison Hotel & move to Rocky Point Motel, 20 miles outside Clearwater FL
1963 Pete Rose debuts with hits in his two 1st at bats in spring training
1963 Wilt Chamberlain of NBA San Francisco Warriors scores 70 points vs Syracuse
1964 US reconnaissance plane shot down over East Germany
1965 Dutch Princess Margriet & Pieter van Vollenhoven, get engaged
1966 5 time Horse of the Year, Kelso, retires
1966 Dutch crown princess Beatrix marries Claus von Amsberg
1966 North Vietnamese capture US Green Beret Camp at Ashau Valley
1968 Ferry boat sinks in harbor of Wellington New Zealand (200 killed)
1969 James Earl Ray pleads guilty in murder of Martin Luther King Jr
1970 Barbra Streisand records "The Singer" & "I Can Do It"
1970 South Africa complete 4-0 series drubbing of Australia
1971 Senate approves amendment lowering voting age to 18
1972 1st black US political convention opens (Gary IN)
1972 General Lon Nol becomes President & prince Sirik Matak premier of Cambodia
1972 USSR performs nuclear test at Eastern Kazakhstan/Semipalitinsk USSR
1973 BPAA US Open by Mike McGrath
1973 Morocco adopts constitution
1974 "Sextet" closes at Bijou Theater NYC after 9 performances
1974 Carol Mann wins LPGA S&H Green Stamp Golf Classic
1974 Christian Democrats win Belgium parliamentary election
1974 Lawrence Rowe completes 302 vs England Bridgetown, 36 fours 1 six
1975 "Rocky Horror Picture Show" opens at Belasco Theater NYC for 45 performances
1975 Dog spectacles patented in England
1977 Rings of Uranus discovered during occultation of SAO
1978 Soyuz 28 returns to Earth
1980 Willard Scott becomes the weather forecaster on the Today Show
1982 President Reagan proclaims economic sanctions against Libya
1982 Salim Malik scores 100 in 2nd inning of Test Cricket debut (v SL)
1982 Sygyzy: all 9 planets aligned on same side of Sun
1982 Travis Jackson & Happy Chandler elected to Hall of Fame
1983 Walter Alston, Dodgers manager, elected to Hall of Fame
1984 Heavyweight Tim Witherspoon KOs Greg Page
1985 Bonnie Lauer wins Uniden LPGA Golf Invitational
1985 Dallas Maverick coach Dick Motta is 4th NBA coach to win 700 games
1985 French socialists lose election (National Front 9%)
1985 India beat Pakistan to win "World Championship of Cricket"
1985 World Ice Dance Championship in Tokyo won by Natalia Bestemianova & Andrei Bukin (USSR)
1985 World Ice Pairs Figure Skating Championship in Tokyo won by Elena Valova & Oleg Vasiliev (USSR)
1985 World Ladies Figure Skating Championship in Tokyo won by Katarina Witt (German Democratic Republic)
1985 World Men's Figure Skating Championship in Tokyo won by Alexandr Fadeev (USSR)
1986 Ernie Lombardi, National League MVP in 1938, & Bobby Doerr, elected to Hall of Fame
1987 Vatican formal opposition to test-tube fertilization & embryo transfer
1988 Avalanche at Swiss Ski resort "Klosters" nearly kills Prince Charles
1988 New York Islanders celebrate Mike Bossy night
1990 4th American Comedy Awards: When Harry Met Sally
1990 Lieutenant General Avril resigns as President of Haiti
1990 US performs nuclear test at Nevada Test Site
1990 World Ice Dance Championship in Halifax won by Marina Klimova & Sergei Ponomarenko (USSR)
1990 World Ice Pairs Figure Skating Championship in Halifax won by Ekaterina Gordeeva & Sergei Grinkov (USSR)
1990 World Ladies Figure Skating Championship in Halifax won by Jill Trenary (USA)
1990 World Men's Figure Skating Championship in Halifax won by Kurt Browning (Canada)
1991 Eddie Sutton is 1st NCAA coach to lead 4 schools into playoffs
1991 Laura Davies wins LPGA Inamori Golf Classic
1991 Marc Girardelli of Luxembourg clinches his 4th slalom World Cup
1991 Merlene Ottey runs world record 200 meter indoor (22.24 seconds)
1991 Rico Lieder/Jens Carlowitz/Karsten Just/Thomas Schönlebe walk 4x400 meter indoor world record (3 :3.05)
1992 6th Soul Train Music Awards: Natalie Cole & Color Me Badd win
1992 Sandra Seuser/Katrin Schreiter/Annet Hesselbarth/Grit Breuer walk female indoor world record 4x400 meter (3 :7.22)
1994 1 million Greeks attend Melina Mercouri's funeral
1995 Car bomb explodes in Karachi at shiite mosque, 17+ killed
1995 Chiel Meijering's "St Louis Blues" premieres in Arnhem
1995 Dow-Jones hits record 4035.64
1996 22nd People's Choice Awards: Apollo 13, Tom Hanks win
1996 NYC Mayor Guiliani visits Israel
1998 4th Blockbuster Entertainment Awards

Note: Some Holidays are only applicable on a given "day of the week"

Dominica, St Lucia : Independence Day (1967)
Laos : Teachers' Day
World : World Culture Day (leap years)
Memphis TN : Cotton Carnival (held for 5 days) - - - - - ( Tuesday )
New Mexico : Arbor Day - - - - - ( Friday )

Religious Observances
Roman Catholic : Commemoration of the 40 Holy Martyrs of Sebaste, Armenia
Roman Catholic : Commemoration of St John Ogilvie, Scottish Jesuit

Religious History
1528 Martyrdom of Balthaser Hubmaier, 48, German reformer and chief writer for the Anabaptist movement. Arrested in Moravia, Hubmaier was later condemned at Vienna and burned at the stake.
1681 English Quaker William Penn, 26, received a charter from Charles II, making him sole proprietor of the colonial American territory known today as the state of Pennsylvania.
1748 [O.S.] Slave-ship Captain John Newton, 22, was converted to a saving Christian faith. Newton later became an Anglican clergyman, and (as the author of "Amazing Grace") a greatly respected hymnwriter as well.
1937 English historian Arnold J. Toynbee wrote: 'In this really very brief period of less than 2,000 years Christianity has, in fact, produced greater spiritual effects in the world than have been produced in a comparable space of time by any other spiritual movement that we know of in history.'
1987 The Vatican declared its formal opposition to test-tube fertilization, embryo transfer and most other forms of scientific interference in human procreation.

Thought for the day :
"Depend not on fortune, but on conduct."
8 posted on 03/10/2003 5:44:57 AM PST by Valin (Age and deceit beat youth and skill)
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To: SAMWolf
I'm trying to get a rally for Millington, TN started. Will be speaking with our local GOP bigie today. I'll update with more details as they get laid out.

We have been forgetting an important tool VIDEO TAPING these events so we can send copies to our troops. Many of us have digital cameras..which seems to have replaced the use of camcorders. DIG OUT YOUR CAMCORDERS and start using them.

We gave ours to our son in Indiana so he could video our grandbaby for us.


9 posted on 03/10/2003 5:46:43 AM PST by GailA (THROW AWAY THE KEYS
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To: bentfeather
Morning Feather. Thanks for opening this Monday.
10 posted on 03/10/2003 5:49:29 AM PST by SAMWolf (The French are cordially invited to come to Wisconsin and smell our dairy air)
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To: Valin
19-- Ariane Munker actress (Ryan's Hope, Guiding Light, Doctors)
19-- Kari Kane rocker (Pretty Boy Floyd-Rock & Roll)
19-- Lissette Lima Peru, Spanish singer (Caricatura)
19-- Lupita D'Alessio Mexico, Spanish singer (Soy Autentica... Y Punto)

WOW! talk about a coincidence! What's the chance of these four people all being born on Mar 10th 19--?

11 posted on 03/10/2003 5:52:35 AM PST by SAMWolf (The French are cordially invited to come to Wisconsin and smell our dairy air)
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To: GailA
Good idea Gail.

Thanks for the work you're doing on getting a Rally going in your town.
12 posted on 03/10/2003 5:54:51 AM PST by SAMWolf (The French are cordially invited to come to Wisconsin and smell our dairy air)
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To: SAMWolf; GailA
And, great idea to record the rallies!
Did y'all see the post over the weekend announcing a coordinated effort for rallies over the weekend of 22-23 March?
13 posted on 03/10/2003 6:17:16 AM PST by HiJinx
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To: SAMWolf
Thanks for posting this. Very timely.

That Tawakalna Division stopped American forces for 12hrs. says a lot about their quaility as soldiers.
14 posted on 03/10/2003 6:53:44 AM PST by Valin (Age and deceit beat youth and skill)
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To: Valin
Yep, not all Iraqi units will be a walkover.

And now they know they have everything to lose this time.

If Saddam goes so does their status as the "favoured"
15 posted on 03/10/2003 6:58:47 AM PST by SAMWolf (The French are cordially invited to come to Wisconsin and smell our dairy air)
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To: HiJinx
Good Morning, HiJinx.
16 posted on 03/10/2003 6:59:17 AM PST by SAMWolf (The French are cordially invited to come to Wisconsin and smell our dairy air)
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Comment #17 Removed by Moderator

To: coteblanche
Good Morning, Cote.

Thanks for the Night Stalkers poem.
18 posted on 03/10/2003 7:20:32 AM PST by SAMWolf (The French are cordially invited to come to Wisconsin and smell our dairy air)
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Comment #19 Removed by Moderator

To: coteblanche
You do realize that the Gazelle was a joint British/Italian/ french venture?

Thanks for another good poem.

20 posted on 03/10/2003 8:28:05 AM PST by SAMWolf (The French are cordially invited to come to Wisconsin and smell our dairy air)
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