Skip to comments.Catholic Caucus: Daily Mass Readings 26-November-2023
Posted on 11/26/2023 11:18:32 AM PST by annalex
Christ the King
Christ the King, Ann Arbor, Michigan
Readings at Mass
Liturgical Colour: White. Year: A(I).
The Lord will judge between sheep and sheep
The Lord says this: I am going to look after my flock myself and keep all of it in view. As a shepherd keeps all his flock in view when he stands up in the middle of his scattered sheep, so shall I keep my sheep in view. I shall rescue them from wherever they have been scattered during the mist and darkness. I myself will pasture my sheep, I myself will show them where to rest – it is the Lord who speaks. I shall look for the lost one, bring back the stray, bandage the wounded and make the weak strong. I shall watch over the fat and healthy. I shall be a true shepherd to them.
As for you, my sheep, the Lord says this: I will judge between sheep and sheep, between rams and he-goats.
The Lord is my shepherd; there is nothing I shall want.
The Lord is my shepherd;
there is nothing I shall want.
Fresh and green are the pastures
where he gives me repose.
The Lord is my shepherd; there is nothing I shall want.
Near restful waters he leads me,
to revive my drooping spirit.
He guides me along the right path;
he is true to his name.
The Lord is my shepherd; there is nothing I shall want.
You have prepared a banquet for me
in the sight of my foes.
My head you have anointed with oil;
my cup is overflowing.
The Lord is my shepherd; there is nothing I shall want.
Surely goodness and kindness shall follow me
all the days of my life.
In the Lord’s own house shall I dwell
for ever and ever.
The Lord is my shepherd; there is nothing I shall want.
Christ will hand over the kingdom to God the Father; so that God may be all in all
Christ has been raised from the dead, the first-fruits of all who have fallen asleep. Death came through one man and in the same way the resurrection of the dead has come through one man. Just as all men die in Adam, so all men will be brought to life in Christ; but all of them in their proper order: Christ as the first-fruits and then, after the coming of Christ, those who belong to him. After that will come the end, when he hands over the kingdom to God the Father, having done away with every sovereignty, authority and power. For he must be king until he has put all his enemies under his feet and the last of the enemies to be destroyed is death, for everything is to be put under his feet. And when everything is subjected to him, then the Son himself will be subject in his turn to the One who subjected all things to him, so that God may be all in all.
Blessings on him who comes in the name of the Lord!
Blessings on the coming kingdom of our father David!
I was naked and you clothed me; sick, and you visited me
Jesus said to his disciples: ‘When the Son of Man comes in his glory, escorted by all the angels, then he will take his seat on his throne of glory. All the nations will be assembled before him and he will separate men one from another as the shepherd separates sheep from goats. He will place the sheep on his right hand and the goats on his left.
‘Then the King will say to those on his right hand, “Come, you whom my Father has blessed, take for your heritage the kingdom prepared for you since the foundation of the world. For I was hungry and you gave me food; I was thirsty and you gave me drink; I was a stranger and you made me welcome; naked and you clothed me, sick and you visited me, in prison and you came to see me.” Then the virtuous will say to him in reply, “Lord, when did we see you hungry and feed you; or thirsty and give you drink? When did we see you a stranger and make you welcome; naked and clothe you; sick or in prison and go to see you?” And the King will answer, “I tell you solemnly, in so far as you did this to one of the least of these brothers of mine, you did it to me.”
‘Next he will say to those on his left hand, “Go away from me, with your curse upon you, to the eternal fire prepared for the devil and his angels. For I was hungry and you never gave me food; I was thirsty and you never gave me anything to drink; I was a stranger and you never made me welcome, naked and you never clothed me, sick and in prison and you never visited me.” Then it will be their turn to ask, “Lord, when did we see you hungry or thirsty, a stranger or naked, sick or in prison, and did not come to your help?” Then he will answer, “I tell you solemnly, in so far as you neglected to do this to one of the least of these, you neglected to do it to me.”
‘And they will go away to eternal punishment, and the virtuous to eternal life.’
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The readings on this page are from the Jerusalem Bible, which is used at Mass in most of the English-speaking world. The New American Bible readings, which are used at Mass in the United States, are available in the Universalis apps, programs and downloads.
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|Latin: Vulgata Clementina
|Greek NT: Byzantine/Majority Text (2000)
|And when the Son of man shall come in his majesty, and all the angels with him, then shall he sit upon the seat of his majesty.
|Cum autem venerit Filius hominis in majestate sua, et omnes angeli cum eo, tunc sedebit super sedem majestatis suæ :
|οταν δε ελθη ο υιος του ανθρωπου εν τη δοξη αυτου και παντες οι αγιοι αγγελοι μετ αυτου τοτε καθισει επι θρονου δοξης αυτου
|And all nations shall be gathered together before him, and he shall separate them one from another, as the shepherd separateth the sheep from the goats:
|et congregabuntur ante eum omnes gentes, et separabit eos ab invicem, sicut pastor segregat oves ab hædis :
|και συναχθησεται εμπροσθεν αυτου παντα τα εθνη και αφοριει αυτους απ αλληλων ωσπερ ο ποιμην αφοριζει τα προβατα απο των εριφων
|And he shall set the sheep on his right hand, but the goats on his left.
|et statuet oves quidem a dextris suis, hædos autem a sinistris.
|και στησει τα μεν προβατα εκ δεξιων αυτου τα δε εριφια εξ ευωνυμων
|Then shall the king say to them that shall be on his right hand: Come, ye blessed of my Father, possess you the kingdom prepared for you from the foundation of the world.
|Tunc dicet rex his qui a dextris ejus erunt : Venite benedicti Patris mei, possidete paratum vobis regnum a constitutione mundi :
|τοτε ερει ο βασιλευς τοις εκ δεξιων αυτου δευτε οι ευλογημενοι του πατρος μου κληρονομησατε την ητοιμασμενην υμιν βασιλειαν απο καταβολης κοσμου
|For I was hungry, and you gave me to eat; I was thirsty, and you gave me to drink; I was a stranger, and you took me in:
|esurivi enim, et dedistis mihi manducare : sitivi, et dedistis mihi bibere : hospes eram, et collegistis me :
|επεινασα γαρ και εδωκατε μοι φαγειν εδιψησα και εποτισατε με ξενος ημην και συνηγαγετε με
|Naked, and you covered me: sick, and you visited me: I was in prison, and you came to me.
|nudus, et cooperuistis me : infirmus, et visitastis me : in carcere eram, et venistis ad me.
|γυμνος και περιεβαλετε με ησθενησα και επεσκεψασθε με εν φυλακη ημην και ηλθετε προς με
|Then shall the just answer him, saying: Lord, when did we see thee hungry, and fed thee; thirsty, and gave thee drink?
|Tunc respondebunt ei justi, dicentes : Domine, quando te vidimus esurientem, et pavimus te : sitientem, et dedimus tibi potum ?
|τοτε αποκριθησονται αυτω οι δικαιοι λεγοντες κυριε ποτε σε ειδομεν πεινωντα και εθρεψαμεν η διψωντα και εποτισαμεν
|And when did we see thee a stranger, and took thee in? or naked, and covered thee?
|quando autem te vidimus hospitem, et collegimus te : aut nudum, et cooperuimus te ?
|ποτε δε σε ειδομεν ξενον και συνηγαγομεν η γυμνον και περιεβαλομεν
|Or when did we see thee sick or in prison, and came to thee?
|aut quando te vidimus infirmum, aut in carcere, et venimus ad te ?
|ποτε δε σε ειδομεν ασθενη η εν φυλακη και ηλθομεν προς σε
|And the king answering, shall say to them: Amen I say to you, as long as you did it to one of these my least brethren, you did it to me.
|Et respondens rex, dicet illis : Amen dico vobis, quamdiu fecistis uni ex his fratribus meis minimis, mihi fecistis.
|και αποκριθεις ο βασιλευς ερει αυτοις αμην λεγω υμιν εφ οσον εποιησατε ενι τουτων των αδελφων μου των ελαχιστων εμοι εποιησατε
|Then he shall say to them also that shall be on his left hand: Depart from me, you cursed, into everlasting fire which was prepared for the devil and his angels.
|Tunc dicet et his qui a sinistris erunt : Discedite a me maledicti in ignem æternum, qui paratus est diabolo, et angelis ejus :
|τοτε ερει και τοις εξ ευωνυμων πορευεσθε απ εμου οι κατηραμενοι εις το πυρ το αιωνιον το ητοιμασμενον τω διαβολω και τοις αγγελοις αυτου
|For I was hungry, and you gave me not to eat: I was thirsty, and you gave me not to drink.
|esurivi enim, et non dedistis mihi manducare : sitivi, et non desistis mihi potum :
|επεινασα γαρ και ουκ εδωκατε μοι φαγειν εδιψησα και ουκ εποτισατε με
|I was a stranger, and you took me not in: naked, and you covered me not: sick and in prison, and you did not visit me.
|hospes eram, et non collegistis me : nudus, et non cooperuistis me : infirmus, et in carcere, et non visitastis me.
|ξενος ημην και ου συνηγαγετε με γυμνος και ου περιεβαλετε με ασθενης και εν φυλακη και ουκ επεσκεψασθε με
|Then they also shall answer him, saying: Lord, when did we see thee hungry, or thirsty, or a stranger, or naked, or sick, or in prison, and did not minister to thee?
|Tunc respondebunt ei et ipsi, dicentes : Domine, quando te vidimus esurientem, aut sitientem, aut hospitem, aut nudum, aut infirmum, aut in carcere, et non ministravimus tibi ?
|τοτε αποκριθησονται και αυτοι λεγοντες κυριε ποτε σε ειδομεν πεινωντα η διψωντα η ξενον η γυμνον η ασθενη η εν φυλακη και ου διηκονησαμεν σοι
|Then he shall answer them, saying: Amen I say to you, as long as you did it not to one of these least, neither did you do it to me.
|Tunc respondebit illis, dicens : Amen dico vobis : Quamdiu non fecistis uni de minoribus his, nec mihi fecistis.
|τοτε αποκριθησεται αυτοις λεγων αμην λεγω υμιν εφ οσον ουκ εποιησατε ενι τουτων των ελαχιστων ουδε εμοι εποιησατε
|And these shall go into everlasting punishment: but the just, into life everlasting.
|Et ibunt hi in supplicium æternum : justi autem in vitam æternam.
|και απελευσονται ουτοι εις κολασιν αιωνιον οι δε δικαιοι εις ζωην αιωνιον
31. When the Son of man shall come in his glory, and all the holy angels with him, then shall he sit upon the throne of his glory:
32. And before him shall be gathered all nations: and he shall separate them one from another, as a shepherd divideth his sheep from the goats:
33. And he shall set the sheep on his right hand, but the goats on the left.
34. Then shall the King say unto them on his right hand, Come, ye blessed of my Father, inherit the kingdom prepared for you from the foundation of the world:
35. For I was an hungred, and ye gave me meat: I was thirsty, and ye gave me drink: I was a stranger, and ye took me in:
36. Naked, and ye clothed me: I was sick, and ye visited me: I was in prison, and ye came unto me.
37. Then shall the righteous answer him, saying, Lord, when saw we thee an hungred, and fed thee? or thirsty, and gave thee drink?
38. When saw we thee a stranger, and took thee in? or naked, and clothed thee?
39. Or when saw we thee sick, or in prison, and came unto thee
40. And the King shall answer and say unto them, Verily I say unto you, Inasmuch as ye have done it unto one of the least of these my brethren, ye have done it unto me.
41. Then shall he say also unto them on the left hand, Depart from me, ye cursed, into everlasting fire, prepared for the devil and his angels:
42. For I was an hungred, and ye gave me no meat: I was thirsty, and ye gave me no drink:
43. I was a stranger, and ye took me not in: naked, and ye clothed me not: sick, and in prison, and ye visited me not.
44. Then shall they also answer him, saying, Lord, when saw we thee an hungred, or athirst, or a stranger, or naked, or sick, or in prison, and did not minister unto thee?
45. Then shall he answer them, saying, Verily I say unto you, Inasmuch as ye did it not to one of the least of these, ye did it not to me.
RABANUS. After the parables concerning the end of the world the Lord proceeds to describe the manner of the judgment to come.
CHRYSOSTOM. (Hom. lxxix.) To this most sweet section of Scripture which we cease not continually to ponder, let us now listen with all attention and compunction of spirit, for Christ does indeed clothe this discourse with more terrors and vividness. He does not accordingly say of this as of the others, The kingdom of heaven is like, but shews of Himself by direct revelation, saying, When the Son of man shall come in his majesty.
JEROME. He who was within two days to celebrate the passover, to be delivered to the cross, and mocked by men, fitly now holds out the glory of His triumph, that He may overbalance the offences that were to follow by the promise of reward. And it is to be noted, that He who shall be seen in majesty is the Son of Man.
AUGUSTINE. (in Joan. Tr. 21.) The wicked and they also who shall be set on His right hand shall see Him in human shape, for He shall appear in the judgment in that form which He took on Him from us; but it shall be afterwards that He shall be seen in the form of God, for which all the believers long.
REMIGIUS. These words overthrow the error of those who said that the Lord should not continue in the same form of a servant. By his majesty, He means His divinity, in which He is equal to the Father and the Holy Spirit.
ORIGEN. Or, He shall come again with glory, that His body may be such as when He was transfigured on the mount. His throne is either certain of the more perfect of the Saints, of whom it is written, For there are set thrones in judgment; (Ps. 122:5.) or certain Angelic Powers of whom it is said, Thrones or dominions. (Col. 1:16.)
AUGUSTINE. (de Civ. Dei, xx. 24.) He shall come down with the Angels whom He shall call from heavenly places to hold judgment.
CHRYSOSTOM. For all his Angels shall be with him to bear witness to the things wherein they have administered to men’s salvation at His bidding.
AUGUSTINE. (Serm. 351, 8.) Or, by Angels here He means men who shall judge with Christ; for Angels are messengers, and such we rightly understand all who have brought tidings of heavenly salvation to men.
REMIGIUS. And all nations shall be gathered before Him. These words prove that the resurrection of men shall be real.
AUGUSTINE. (de Civ. Dei, xx. 24.) This gathering shall be executed by the ministry of Angels, as it is said in the Psalm, Gather to him his saints. (Ps. 50:5.)
ORIGEN. Or, we need not understand this of a local gathering together, but that the nations shall be no more dispersed in divers and false dogmas concerning Him. For Christ’s divinity shall be manifested so that not even sinners shall any longer be ignorant of Him. He shall not then shew Himself as Son of God in one place and not in another; as He sought to express to us by the comparison of the lightning. So as long as the wicked know neither themselves nor Christ, or the righteous see through a glass darkly, (1 Cor. 13:12.) so long the good are not severed from the evil, but when by the manifestation of the Son of God all shall come to the knowledge of Him, then shall the Saviour sever the good from the evil; for then shall sinners see their sins, and the righteous shall see clearly to what end the seeds of righteousness in them have led. They that are saved are called sheep by reason of that mildness which they have learnt of Him who said, Learn of me, for I am meek and lowly, (Mat. 11:29.) and because they are ready to go even to death in imitation of Christ, who was led as a sheep to the slaughter. (Isa. 53:7.) The wicked, are called goats, because they climb rough and rugged rocks, and walk in dangerous places.
CHRYSOSTOM. Or, He calls the one sheep and the other goats, to denote the unprofitableness of the one, and the fruitfulness of the other, for sheep are greatly productive in fleece, milk, and lambs.
GLOSS. (non occ.) Under the figure of a sheep in Scripture is signified simplicity and innocence. Beautifully then in this place are the elect denoted by sheep.
JEROME. Also the goat is a salacious animal, and was the offering for sins in the Law; and He says not ‘she goats’ which can produce young, and come up shorn from the washing. (Song of Solomon 4:2.)
CHRYSOSTOM. Then He separates them in place.
ORIGEN. For the Saints who have wrought right works, shall receive in recompense of their right works the King’s right hand, at which is rest and glory; but the wicked for their evil and sinister deeds have fallen to the left hand, that is, into the misery of torments. Then shall the King say to those who are on his right hand, Come, that in whatsoever they are behind they may make it up when they are more perfectly united to Christ. He adds, ye blessed of my Father, to shew how eminendy blessed they were, being of old blessed of the Lord, which made heaven and earth. (Ps. 115:15.)
RABANUS. Or, they are called blessed, to whom an eternal blessing is due for their good deserts. He calls it the kingdom of His Father, ascribing the dominion of the kingdom to Him by whom Himself the King was begotten. For by His royal power, with which He shall be exalted alone in that day, He shall pronounce the sentence of judgment, Then shall the King say.
CHRYSOSTOM. Observe that He says not ‘Receive,’ but possess, or inherit, as duo to you from of old.
JEROME. This prepared for you from the foundation, of the world, is to be understood as of the foreknowledge of God, with whom things to come are as already done.
AUGUSTINE. (de Civ. Dei, xx. 9.) Besides that kingdom of which He will say in the end, Inherit the kingdom prepared for you, though in a very inferior manner, the present Church is also called His kingdom, in the which we are yet in conflict with the enemy until we come to that kingdom of peace, where we shall reign without an enemy.
AUGUSTINE. (Serm. 351. 8.) But one will say, I desire not to reign, it is enough for me that I be saved. Wherein they are deceived, first, because there is no salvation for those whose iniquity abounds; and, secondly, because if there be any difference between those that reign, and those that do not reign, yet must all be within the same kingdom, lest they be esteemed for foes or aliens, and perish while the others reign. Thus all the Romans inherit the kingdom of Rome, though all do not reign in it.
CHRYSOSTOM. For what the Saints obtain the boon of this heavenly kingdom He shews when He adds, I was an hungred, and ye gave me to eat.
REMIGIUS. And it is to be noted, that the Lord here enumerates six works of mercy which whoso shall study to accomplish shall be entitled to the kingdom prepared for the chosen from the foundation of the world.
RABANUS. Mystically, He who with the bread of the word and the drink of wisdom refreshes the soul hungering and thirsting after righteousness, or admits into the home of our mother the Church him who is wandering in heresy or sin, or who strengthens the weak in faith, such an one discharges the obligations of true love.
GREGORY. (Mor. xxvi. 27.) These, to whom as they stand on His right hand the Judge at His coming shall say, I was an hungred &c. are they who are judged on the side of the elect, and who reign; who wash away the stains of their life with tears; who redeem former sins by good deeds following; who, whatever unlawful thing they have at any time done, have covered it from the Judge’s eyes by a cloak of alms. Others indeed there are who are not judged, yet reign, who have gone even beyond the precepts of the Law in the perfection of their virtue.
ORIGEN. It is from humility that they declare themselves unworthy of any praise for their good deeds, not that they are forgetful of what they have done. But He shews them His close sympathy with His own.
RABANUS. Lord, when sate we thee &c. This they say not because they distrust the Lord’s words, but they are in amaze at so great exaltation, and at the greatness of their own glory; or because the good which they have done will seem to them to be so small according to that of the Apostle, For the sufferings of this present time are not worthy to be compared to the glory that shall be revealed in us. (Rom. 8:18.)
JEROME. It were indeed free to us to understand that it is Christ in every poor man whom we feed when he is hungry, or give drink to when he is thirsty, and so of other things; but when He says, In that ye have done it to one of the least of these my brethren, He seems tome not to speak of the poor generally, but of the poor in spirit, those to whom He pointed and said, Whosoever shall do the will of my Father which is in heaven, the same is my brother. (Matt. 12:50.)
CHRYSOSTOM. But if they are His brethren, why does He call them the least? Because they are lowly, poor, and outcast. By these He means not only the monks who have retired to the mountains, but every believer though he should be secular, though an hungred, or the like, yet He would have him obtain merciful succours, for baptism and communication of the Divine mysteries makes him a brother.
ORIGEN. As He had said to the righteous, Come ye, so He says to the wicked, Depart ye, for they who keep God’s commandment are near to the Word, and are called that they may be made more near; but they are far from it, though they may seem to stand hard by, who do not His commands; therefore it is said to them, Depart ye, that those who seemed to be living before Him, might be no more seen. It should be remarked, that though He had said to the Saints, Ye blessed of my Father, He says not now, Ye cursed of my Father, because of all blessing the Father is the author, but each man is the origin of his own curse when he does the things that deserve the curse. They who depart from Jesus fall into eternal fire, which is of a very different kind from that fire which we use. For no fire which we have is eternal, nor even of any long continuance. And note, that He does not say, ‘the kingdom prepared for the Angels,’ as He does say everlasting fire prepared for the Devil and his Angels; because He did not, as far as in Him lay, create men to perdition, but sinners yoke themselves to the Devil, so that as they that are saved are made equal to the holy Angels, they that perish are made equal with the Devil’s Angels.
AUGUSTINE. (de Civ. Dei, xxi. 10.) It is hence clear, that the same fire will be appropriated to the punishment of men and of dæmons. If then it inflicts pain by corporeal touch, so as to produce bodily torment, how will there be in it any punishment for the evil spirits, unless the dæmons have, as some have thought, bodies composed of gross and fluid air. But if any man asserts that the dæmons have no bodies, we would not pugnaciously contend the point. For why may we not say, that truly, though wonderfully, even incorporeal spirit can feel pain of corporeal fire? If the spirits of men, though themselves incorporeal, can be now inclosed in bodily limbs, they can then be inseparably attached to the bonds of body. The dæmons then will be united to a body of material fire, though themselves immaterial, drawing punishment from their body, not giving life to it. And that fire being material will torture such bodies as ours with their spirits; but the dæmons are spirits without bodies.
ORIGEN. Or it may be that fire is of such nature that it can but invisible substances, being itself invisible, as the Apostle speaks, The things which are seen are temporal, but the things which are not seen are eternal. (2 Cor. 4:18.) Wonder not when you hear that there is a fire which though unseen has power to torture, when you see that there is an internal fever which comes upon men, and pains them grievously. It follows, I was an hungred, and ye gave me no meat. It is written to the believers, Ye are the body of Christ. (1 Cor. 12:27.) As then the soul dwelling in the body, though it hungers not in respect of its spiritual substance, yet hungers for the food of the body, because it is yoked to the body; so the Saviour suffers whatever His body the Church suffers, though He Himself be impassible. And observe how in speaking to the righteous He reckons up their good deeds under their several kinds, but to the unrighteous He cuts short the description under the one head, I was sick and in prison, and ye visited me not, because it was the part of a merciful Judge to enlarge and dwell upon men’s good deeds, but to pass lightly and cursorily over their evil deeds.
CHRYSOSTOM. Observe how they had failed in mercifulness, not in one or two respects only, but in all; not only did they not feed Him when He was hungry, but they did not even visit Him when He was sick, which was easier. And look how light things He enjoins; He said not, I was in prison, and ye did not set me free, but, and ye visited me not. Also His hunger required no costly dainties, but necessary food. Each of these counts then is enough for their punishment. First, the slightness of His prayer, viz. for bread; secondly, the destitution of Him who sought it, for He was poor; thirdly, the natural feelings of compassion, for He was a man; fourthly, the expectation of His promise, for He promised a kingdom; fifthly, the greatness of Him who received, for it is God who receives in the poor man; sixthly, the preeminent honour, in that He condescended to take of men; and, seventhly, the righteousness of so bestowing it, for what He takes from us is our own. But avarice blinds men to all these considerations.
GREGORY. (ubi sup.) They to whom this is said are the wicked believers, who are judged and perish; others, being unbelievers, are not judged and perish; for there is no examination of the condition of such as appear before the face of an impartial Judge already condemned by their unbelief; but those who hold the profession of the faith, but have not the works of their profession, are convicted that they may be condemned. These at least hear the words of their Judge, because they have at least kept the words of His faith. The others hear no words of their Judge pronouncing sentence of condemnation, because they have not paid Him honour even in word. For a prince who governs an earthly kingdom punishes after a different manner the rebellion of a subject and the hostile attempts of an enemy; in the former case, he recurs to his prerogative; against an enemy he takes arms, and does not ask what penalty the law attaches to his crime.
CHRYSOSTOM. Thus convicted by the words of the Judge, they make answer submissively, Lord, when saw we thee &c.
ORIGEN. Mark how the righteous dwell upon each word, while the unrighteous answer summarily, and not going through the particular instances; for so it becomes the righteous out of humility to disclaim each individual generous action, when imputed to them publicly; whereas bad men excuse their sins, and endeavour to prove them few and venial. And Christ’s answer conveys this. And to the righteous He says, In that ye did it to my brethren, to shew the greatness of their good deeds; to the sinners He says only, to one of the least of these, not aggravating their sin. For they are truly His brethren who are perfect; and a deed of mercy shewn to the more holy is more acceptable to God than one shewn to the less holy; and the sin of overlooking the less holy is less than of overlooking the more holy.
AUGUSTINE. (de Civ. Dei, xx. 1.) He is now treating of the last judgment, when Christ shall come from heaven to judge the quick and dead. This day of the Divine judgment we call the Last Day, that is, the end of time; for we cannot tell through how many days that judgment will be prolonged; but day, as is the use of holy Scripture, is put for time. And we therefore call it the last or latest judgment, because He both now judges and has judged from the beginning of the human race, when He thrust forth the first man from the tree of life, and spared not the Angels that sinned. But in that final judgment both men and Angels shall be judged together, when the Divine power shall bring each man’s good and evil deeds in review before his memory, and one intuitive glance shall present them to the perception, so that at once we shall be condemned or acquitted in our consciences.
46. And these shall go away into everlasting punishment: but the righteous into life eternal.
AUGUSTINE. (de Fid. et Op. 15.) Some deceive themselves, saying, that the fire indeed is called everlasting, but not the punishment. This the Lord foreseeing, sums up His sentence in these words.
ORIGEN. Observe that whereas He put first the invitation, Come, ye blessed, and after that, Depart, ye cursed, because it is the property of a merciful God to record the good deeds of the good, before the bad deeds of the bad; He now reverses the order, describing first the punishment of the wicked, and then the life of the good, that the terrors of the one may deter us from evil, and the honour of the other incite us to good.
GREGORY. (Mor. xv. 19.) If he who has not given to others is visited with so heavy a punishment, what shall he get who is convicted of having robbed others of their own.
AUGUSTINE. (de Civ. Dei, xix. 11.) Eternal life is our chief good, and the end of the city of God, of which the Apostle speaks, And the end everlasting life. (Rom. 6:22.) But because eternal life might be understood by those who are not well versed in Holy Scripture, to mean also the life of the wicked, because of the immortality of their souls, or because of the endless torments of the wicked; therefore we must call the end of this City in which the chief good shall be attained, either peace in life eternal, or life eternal in peace, that it may be intelligible to all.
AUGUSTINE. (de Trin. i. 8.) That which the Lord spoke to His servant Moses, I am that I am, (Exod. 3:14.) this we shall contemplate when we shall live in eternity. For thus the Lord speaks, This is life eternal, that they might know thee the only true God. (John 17:3.) This contemplation is promised to us as the end of all action, and the eternal perfection of our joys, of which John speaks, We shall see him as he is. (1 John 3:2.)
JEROME. Let the thoughtful reader observe that punishments are eternal, and that that continuing life has thenceforward no fear of fall.
GREGORY. (Mor. xxxiv. 19.) They say that He held out empty terrors to deter them from sin. We answer, if He threatened falsely to check unrighteousness, then He promised falsely to promote good conduct. Thus while they go out of the way to prove God merciful, they are not afraid to charge Him with fraud. But, they urge, finite sin ought not to be visited with infinite punishment; we answer, that this argument would be just, if the righteous Judge considered men’s actions, and not their hearts. Therefore it belongs to the righteousness of an impartial Judge, that those whose heart would never be without sin in this life, should never be without punishment.
AUGUSTINE. (de Civ. Dei, xxi. 11.) And the justice of no law is concerned to provide that the duration of each man’s punishment should be the same with the sin which drew that punishment upon him. There never was any man, who held that the torment of him, who committed a murder or adultery, should be compressed within the same space of time as the commission of the act. And when for any enormous crime a man is punished with death, does the law estimate his punishment by the delay that takes place in putting him to death, and not rather by this, that they remove him for ever from the society of the living? And fines, disgrace, exile, slavery, when they are inflicted without any hopes of mercy, do they not seem like eternal punishments in proportion to the length of this life? They are only therefore not eternal, because the life which suffers them is not itself eternal. But they say, How then is that true which Christ says, With what measure ye mete, it shall be measured to you again, (Matt. 7:2.) if temporal sin is punished with eternal pain? They do not observe that this is said with a view, not to the equality of the period of time, but of the retribution of evil, i. e. that he that has done evil should suffer evil. Man was made worthy of everlasting evil, because he destroyed in himself that good which might have eternal.
GREGORY. (ubi sup.) But they say, no just man takes pleasure in cruelties, and the guilty servant was scourged to correct his fault. But when the wicked are given over to hell fire, to what purpose shall they burn there for ever? We reply, that Almighty God, seeing He is good, does not delight in the torments of the wretched; but forasmuch as He is righteous, He ceases not from taking vengeance on the wicked; yet do the wicked burn not without some purpose, namely, that the righteous may acknowledge how they are debtors for eternity to Divine grace, when they see the wicked suffering for eternity misery, which themselves have escaped only by the assistance of that Divine grace.
AUGUSTINE. (de Civ. Dei, xxi. 3.) But, they assert, nobody can be at once capable of suffering pain, and incapable of death. It must be that one live in pain, but it need not be that pain kill him; for not even these mortal bodies die from every pain; but the reason that some pain causes their death is, that the connection between the soul and our present body is such that it gives way to extreme pain. But then the soul shall be united to such a body, and in such a way, that no pain shall be able to overcome the connection. There will not then be no death, but an everlasting death, the soul being unable to live, as being without God, and equally unable to rid itself of the pains of body by dying.
AUGUSTINE. (17.) Among these impugners of the eternity of punishment, Origen is the most merciful, who believed that the Devil himself and his Angels, after sufferings proportioned to their deserts, and a long endurance, should be delivered from those torments, and associated with the holy Angels. But for these and other things he was not undeservedly rebuked by the Church, because even his seeming mercy was thrown away, making for the saints real pains in which their sins were to be expiated, and fictitious blessedness, if the joys of the good were not to be secure and endless. In quite another way does the mercy of others err through their humane sympathies, who think that the sufferings of those men who are condemned by this sentence will be temporal, but that the happiness of those who are set free sooner or later will be eternal. Why does their charity extend to the whole race of man, but dries up when they come to the angelic race?
GREGORY. (ubi sup.) But they say, How can they be called Saints, if they shall not pray for their enemies whom they see then burning? They do not indeed pray for their enemies, so long as there is any possibility of converting their hearts to a profitable penitence, but how shall they pray for them when any change from their wickedness is no longer possible?
AUGUSTINE. (de Civ. Dei, xxi. 19, 20. &c.) So some there are who hold out liberation from punishment not to all men, but to those only who have been washed in Christ’s Baptism, and have been partakers of His Body, let them have lived as they will; because of that which the Lord speaks, If any man eat of this bread, he shall not die eternally. (John 6:51.) Again, others promise this not to all who have Christ’s sacrament, but to Catholics only, however ill their lives, who have eaten Christ’s Body, not in sacrament only, but in verity, (inasmuch as they are set in the Church, which is His Body,) even though they should afterwards have fallen into heresy or idolatry of the Gentiles. And others again, because of what is written above, He that shall endure to the end, the same shall be saved, (Matt. 24:13.) promise this only to those who persevere in the Catholic Church, that by the worthiness of their foundation, that is, of their faith, they shall be saved by fire. All these the Apostle opposes when he says, The works of the flesh are manifest, which are these, uncleanness, fornication, and the like; of which I tell you before, that they which do such things shall not inherit the kingdom of God. (Gal. 5:19.) Whoever in his heart prefers temporal things to Christ, Christ is not his foundation, though he seem to have the faith of Christ. How much more then is he, who has committed things unlawful, convicted of not preferring Christ, but preferring other things to Him? I have also met with some who thought that only those would burn in eternal torments who neglected to give alms proportioned to their sins; and for this reason they think that the Judge Himself here mentions nothing else that He shall make enquiry of, but of the giving or not giving alms. But whoso gives alms worthily for his sins, first begins with himself; for it were unmeet that he should not do that to himself which he does to others when he has heard the words of God, Thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself, (Matt. 22:39.) and hears likewise, Be merciful to thy soul in pleasing God? (Ecclus. 30:24.) He then who does not to his own soul this alms of pleasing God, how can he be said to give alms meet for his sins? Why we are to give alms then is only that when we pray for mercy for sins past, we may be heard; not that we may purchase thereby license for continuing in sin. And the Lord forewarns us that He will put alms done on the right hand, and on the left alms not done, to hew us how mighty are alms to do away former sins, not to give impunity to a continuance in sin.
ORIGEN. Or, It is not one kind of righteousness only that is rewarded, as many think. In whatsoever matters any one does Christ’s commands, he gives Christ meat and drink, Who feeds ever upon the truth and righteousness of His faithful people. So do we weave raiment for Christ when cold, when taking wisdom’s web, we inculcate upon others, and put upon them bowels of mercy. Also when we make ready with divers virtues our heart for receiving Him, or those who are His, we take Him in a stranger into the home of our bosom. Also when we visit a brother sick either in faith or in good works, with doctrine, reproof, or comfort, we visit Christ Himself. Moreover, all that is here, is the prison of Christ, and of them that are His, who live in this world, as though chained in the prison of natural necessity. When we do a good work to these; we visit them in prison, and Christ in them.
John Berchmans (1599-1621) personifies the ideal that ordinary deeds done extraordinarily well lead to great holiness. He died very young, only five years after entering the novitiate, but his great desire to be a priest inspired him to live religious life fully. He was born to a very religious family in Diest, Belgium, and started studies that would lead to the priesthood early in his life. He lived in the rectory of Notre Dame parish while he studied, but after three years his father told him he would have to leave school and learn a practical trade to help his family's poor finances. The pastor of the Diest Béguinage offered to pay for Berchmans' education in return for his service as a servant; in 1612 the young man took the same arrangement in Mechlin at the household of Canon Froymont. In Mechlin, though, Berchmans met the Jesuits and decided to join them rather than become a diocesan priest. His father was disappointed because a diocesan priest could contribute to the family while a Jesuit could not, but he gave his son permission to pursue his goal.
Berchmans entered the Jesuits in 1616 and performed all the novice duties with joy and exacting fidelity. He also sought to control himself through penances. A few months after he entered the Jesuits, his mother died; then his father gave up his shoemaking shop and entered the diocesan seminary. He was ordained a priest in April 1618. Later that year, on Sept. 25, John pronounced the three vows of religious life and went to Antwerp to study philosophy. After only three weeks he was informed that he would move to Rome for studies. Before he could return to Mechlin to say goodbye to his father, the latter died suddenly.
The young Jesuit arrived in Rome on Dec. 31 and joined the community at the Roman College, where he was as faithful to his studies and religious life as he had been in the novitiate. He excelled in his studies and at the end of his third year he was selected to defend the entire course of philosophy in a public disputation. His health had suffered from the effort he had put into studying for his final exam, and he became steadily weaker as he prepared for the public disputation, held on July 8. He hoped to rest when it was over, but he was also selected to represent the Roman College at another disputation to be held in August at the Greek College. The two events took too much out of his weakened condition.
On Aug. 7 he suffered an attack of dysentery, and then a fever set in. When the superior saw how pale and weak Berchmans was, he sent him to the infirmary. The young Jesuit grew more ill day by day as his lungs became inflamed and he grew weaker and weaker. He spoke of Paradise as if he would soon be there when other scholastics came to visit. The brother infirmarian suggested that he should receive Communion the next day, even though it was not a Sunday. The Jesuit community came in procession bringing Viaticum to the their dying brother. He asked for his crucifix, rosary and rule book and received a steady stream of visitors, including Father General. He spent his final night in prayer and died on August 13 in the morning.
Originally Collected and edited by: Tom Rochford,SJ
Ad Majorem Dei Gloriam (To the Greater Glory of God)
From: Ezekiel 34:11-12, 15-17
The Lord, the Shepherd of Israel
 ”For thus says the Lord God: Behold, I, I myself will search for my sheep, and will seek them out.  As a shepherd seeks out his flock when some of his sheep” have been scattered abroad, so will I seek out my sheep; and I will rescue them from all places where they have been scattered on a day of clouds and thick darkness.  And I will bring them up from the peoples, and gather them from the countries, and will bring them into their own land; and I will feed them on the mountains of Israel, by the fountains, and in all the inhabited places of the country.  I will feed them with good pasture, and upon the mountain heights of Israel shall be their pasture; there they shall lie down in good grazing land, and on fat pasture they shall feed on the mountains of Israel.  I myself will be the shepherd of my sheep, and I will make them lie down, says the Lord God.  I will seek the lost, and I will bring back the strayed, and I will bind up the crippled, and I will strengthen the weak, and the fat and the strong I will watch over;” I will feed them in justice.
 ”As for you, my flock, thus says the Lord GOD: Behold, I judge between sheep and sheep, rams and he-goats.
34:11-22. Ezekiel says that God has made himself a shepherd for his people (v. 11); he always looks out for them (vv. 12-16), neglecting none. This solicitude includes the practice of justice (vv. 17-22); in this new stage it becomes clearer that divine love and mercy are compatible with condemnation of the wicked (v. 20): in fact, love can never exclude justice. This beautiful oracle resounds in our Lord’s parable of the Good Shepherd who takes care of his sheep (cf. Jn 10:1-21), in what he says about the Father’s joy on finding the lost sheep (cf. Mt 18:12-14; Lk 15:4-7), and in things he has to say about the Last Judgment as reported by St Matthew (Mt 25:31-46). In a sermon on pastors, St Augustine comments: “He stands guard over us when we are awake and while we sleep. If an earthly flock is safe in the vigilant care of a human shepherd, how much more secure are we, who have God as our shepherd, not only because he desires to teach and help us, but because he is our creator. "As for you, my flock, thus says the Lord God: Behold, I judge between sheep and sheep, rams and he-goats" (Ezek 34:17). Why are he-goats to be found among God’s flock? Goats who will be sent to the left, and sheep that will be called to the right side of God, are to be found in the same fields and by the same streams; and He tends together those who will later be separated. The meek patience of sheep is an imitation of the patience of God. He will separate the flock later, sending some to the right and some to the left” ("Sermones", 47).
From: 1 Corinthians 15:20-28
The Basis of Our Faith (Continuation)
 But in fact Christ has been raised from the dead, the first fruits of those who have fallen asleep.  For as by a man came death, by a man has come also the resurrection of the dead.  For as in Adam all die, so also in Christ shall all be made alive.  But each in his own order: Christ the first fruits, then at his coming those who belong to Christ.  Then comes the end, when he delivers the kingdom to God the Father after destroying every rule and every authority and power.  For he must reign until he has put all his enemies under his feet.  The last enemy to be destroyed is death.  "For God has put all things in subjection under his feet." But when it says, "All things are put in subjection under him," it is plain that he is excepted who put all things under him.
 When all things are subjected to him, then the Son himself will also be subjected to him who put all things under him, that God may be everything to everyone.
20-28. The Apostle insists on the solidarity that exists between Christ and Christians: as members of one single body, of which Christ is the head, they form as it were one organism (cf. Rom 6:3-11; Gal 3:28). Therefore, once the resurrection of Christ is affirmed, the resurrection of the just necessarily follows. Adam's disobedience brought death for all; Jesus, the new Adam, has merited that all should rise (cf. Rom 5:12-21). "Again, the resurrection of Christ effects for us the resurrection of our bodies not only because it was the efficient cause of this mystery, but also because we all ought to arise after the example of the Lord. For with regard to the resurrection of the body we have this testimony of the Apostle: 'As by a man came death, by a man has come also the resurrection of the dead' (1 Cor 15:21). In all that God did to accomplish the mystery of our redemption he made use of the humanity of Christ as an effective instrument, and hence his resurrection was, as it were, an instrument for the accomplishment of our resurrection" ("St Pius V Catechism", I, 6, 13).
Although St Paul here is referring only to the resurrection of the just (v. 23), he does speak elsewhere of the resurrection of all mankind (cf. Acts 24:15). The doctrine of the resurrection of the bodies of all at the end of time, when Jesus will come in glory to judge everyone, has always been part of the faith of the Church; "he [Christ] will come at the end of the world, he will judge the living and the dead; and he will reward all, both the lost and the elect, according to their works. And all those will rise with their own bodies which they now have so that they may receive according to their works, whether good or bad; the wicked, a perpetual punishment with the devil; the good, eternal glory with 'Christ" (Fourth Lateran Council, "De Fide Catholica", chap. 1).
23-28. St Paul outlines very succinctly the entire messianic and redemptive work of Christ: by decree of the Father, Christ has been made Lord of the universe (cf. Mt 28:18), in fulfillment of Ps 110:1 and Ps 8:7. When it says here that "the Son himself will also be subjected to him who put all things under him", this must be understood as referring to Christ in his capacity of Messiah and head of the Church; not Christ as God, because the Son is "begotten, not created, consubstantial with the Father" ("Nicene-Constantinopolitan Creed").
Christ's sovereignty over all creation comes about in history, but it will achieve its final, complete, form after the Last Judgment. The Apostle presents that last event--a mystery to us--as a solemn act of homage to the Father. Christ will offer all creation to his Father as a kind of trophy, offering him the Kingdom which up to then had been confided to his care. From that moment on, the sovereignty of God and Christ will be absolute, they will have no enemies, no rivals; the stage of combat will have given way to that of contemplation, as St Augustine puts it (cf. "De Trinitate", 1, 8).
The Parousia or second coming of Christ in glory at the end of time, when he establishes the new heaven and the new earth (cf. Rev 21:1-2), will mean definitive victory over the devil, over sin, suffering and death. A Christian's hope in this victory is not something passive: rather, it is something that spurs him on to ensure that even in this present life Christ's teaching and spirit imbue all human activities. "Far from diminishing our concern to develop this earth," Vatican II teaches, "the expectancy of a new earth should spur us on, for it is here that the body of a new human family grows, foreshadowing in some way the age which is to come. That is why, although we must be careful to distinguish earthly progress clearly from the increase of the Kingdom of Christ, such progress is of vital concern to the Kingdom of God, insofar as it can contribute to the better ordering of human society.
"When we have spread on earth the fruits of our nature and our enterprise--human dignity, brotherly communion, and freedom—according to the command of the Lord and in his Spirit, we will find them once again, cleansed this time from the stain of sin, illuminated and transfigured, when Christ presents to his Father an eternal and universal kingdom of truth and life, a kingdom of holiness and grace, a kingdom of justice, love and peace ("Roman Missal", preface for the solemnity of Christ the King). Here on earth the Kingdom is mysteriously present; when the Lord comes it will enter into its perfection" ("Gaudium Et Spes", 39).
24. "When he delivers the kingdom to God the Father": this does not quite catch the beauty of the Greek which literally means "when he delivers the kingdom to the God and Father". In New Testament Greek, when the word "Theos" (God) is preceded by the definite article ("ho Theos") the first person of the Blessed Trinity is being referred to.
25. "He must reign": every year, on the last Sunday of ordinary time, the Church celebrates the solemnity of Christ the King, to acknowledge his absolute sovereignty over all created things. On instituting this feast, Pius XI pointed out that "He must reign in our minds, which should assent with perfect submission and firm belief to revealed truths and to the teachings of Christ. He must reign in our wills, which should obey the laws and precepts of God. He must reign in our hearts, which should spurn natural desires and love God above all things, and cleave to him alone. He must reign in our bodies and in our members, which should serve as instruments for the interior sanctification of our souls, or, to use the words of the Apostle Paul, as instruments of righteousness unto God (Rom 6:13)" ("Quas Primas").
27. By "all things" the Apostle clearly means all created beings. In pagan mythology, rivalry and strife occurred among the gods and sometimes led to the son of a god supplanting his father. St Paul wants to make it quite clear that Sacred Scripture suggests nothing of that kind. No subjection is possible among the three persons of the Blessed Trinity, because they are one God.
28. The subjection of the son which St Paul speaks of here is in no way opposed to his divinity. He is referring to what will happen when Christ's mission as Redeemer and Messiah comes to an end, that is, once final victory is won over the devil, sin and its consequences. The final victory of Jesus Christ will restore to all creation its original harmony, which sin destroyed.
"Who can realize", St Bernard comments, "the indescribable sweetness contained in these few words: God will be everything to everyone? Not to speak of the body, I see three things in the soul--mind, will and memory; and these three are one and the same. Everyone who lives according to the spirit senses in this present life how far he falls short of wholeness and perfection. Why is this, if not because God is not yet everything to everyone? That is why ones' mind is so often mistaken in the judgment it makes, that is why one's will experiences such restlessness, why one's memory is thrown into confusion by many things. The noble person is, without wanting to be, at the mercy of this triple vanity, yet he does not lose hope. For he who responds so generously to the desires of the soul must also provide the mind with fullness and light, the will with abundance of peace, and the memory with visions of eternity. O truth, O charity, O eternity, O blessed and blessing Trinity! This wretched trinity of mine, sighs for thee, for it is unfortunately still far from thee" ("Sermon on the Song of Songs", 11).
From: Matthew 25:31-46
The Last Judgment
 "When the Son of Man comes in His glory, and all the angels with him, then He will sit on His glorious throne.  Before Him will be gathered all the nations, and He will separate them one from another as a shepherd separates the sheep from the goats,  and He will place the sheep at His right hand, but the goats at the left.  Then the King will say to those at His right hand, `Come, O blessed of My Father, inherit the Kingdom prepared for you from the foundation of the world;  for I was hungry and you gave Me food, I was thirsty and you gave Me drink, I was a stranger and you welcomed Me,  I was naked and you clothed Me, I was sick and you visited Me, I was in prison and you came to Me.'  Then the righteous will answer Him, `Lord, when did we see Thee hungry and feed thee, or thirsty and give thee drink?  And when did we see Thee a stranger and welcome Thee, or naked and clothe Thee?  And when did we see Thee sick or in prison and visit Thee?'  And the King will answer them, `Truly I say to you, as you did it to one of the least of My brethren, you did it to Me.'  Then He will say to those at His left hand, `Depart from Me, you cursed, into the eternal fire prepared for the devil and his angels;  for I was hungry and you gave Me no food; I was thirsty and you gave Me no drink,  I was a stranger and you did not welcome Me, naked and you did not clothe Me, sick and in prison and you did not visit Me.'  Then they also will answer, `Lord, when did we see Thee hungry or thirsty or a stranger or naked or sick or in prison, and did not minister to Thee?'  Then He will answer them, `Truly, I say to you, as you did it not to one of the least of these, you did it not to Me.'  And they will go away into eternal punishment, but the righteous into eternal life."
31-46. The three parables (Matthew 24:42-51; 25:1-13; and 25:14-30) are completed by the announcement of a rigorous last judgment, a last act in a drama, in which all matters of justice are resolved. Christian tradition calls it the Last Judgment, to distinguish it from the "Particular Judgment" which everyone undergoes immediately after death. The sentence pronounced at the end of time will simply be a public, formal confirmation of that already passed on the good and the evil, the elect and the reprobate.
31-33. In the Prophets and in the Book of Revelation the Messiah is depicted on a throne, like a judge. This is how Jesus will come at the end of the world, to judge the living and the dead.
The Last Judgment is a truth spelled out in the very earliest creedal statements of the Church and dogma of faith solemnly defined by Benedict XII in the Constitution "Benedictus Deus" (29 January 1336).
35-46. All the various things listed in this passage (giving people food and drink, clothing them, visiting them) become works of Christian charity when the person doing them sees Christ in these "least" of His brethren.
Here we can see the seriousness of sins of omission. Failure to do something which one should do means leaving Christ unattended.
"We must learn to recognize Christ when He comes out to meet us in our brothers, the people around us. No human life is ever isolated. It is bound up with other lives. No man or woman is a single verse; we all make up one divine poem which God writes with the cooperation of our freedom" ([St] J. Escriva, "Christ Is Passing By", 111).
We will be judged on the degree and quality of our love (cf. St. John of the Cross, "Spiritual Sentences and Maxims", 57). Our Lord will ask us to account not only for the evil we have done but also for the good we have omitted. We can see that sins of omission are a very serious matter and that the basis of love of neighbor is Christ's presence in the least of our brothers and sisters.
St. Teresa of Avila writes: "Here the Lord asks only two things of us: love for His Majesty and love of our neighbor. It is for these two virtues that we must strive, and if we attain them perfectly we are doing His will [...]. The surest sign that we are keeping these two commandments is, I think, that we should really be loving our neighbor; for we cannot be sure if we are loving God, although we may have good reasons for believing that we are, but we can know quite well if we are loving our neighbor. And be certain that, the farther advanced you find you are in this, the greater the love you will have for God; for so dearly does His Majesty love us that He will reward our love for our neighbor by increasing the love which we bear to Himself, and that in a thousand ways: this I cannot doubt" ("Interior Castle", V, 3).
This parable clearly shows that Christianity cannot be reduced to a kind of agency for "doing good". Service of our neighbor acquires supernatural value when it is done out of love for Christ, when we see Christ in the person in need. This is why St. Paul asserts that "if I give away all I have...but have not love, I gain nothing" (1 Corinthians 13:3). Any interpretation of Jesus' teaching on the Last Judgment would be wide of the mark if it gave it a materialistic meaning or confused mere philanthropy with genuine Christian charity.
40-45. In describing the exigencies of Christian charity which gives meaning to "social aid", the Second Vatican Council says: "Wishing to come to topics that are practical and of some urgency, the Council lays stress on respect for the human person: everyone should look upon his neighbor (without any exception) as another self, bearing in mind, above all, his life and the means necessary for living it in a dignified way, `lest he follow the example of the rich man who ignored Lazarus, the poor man' (cf. Luke 16:18-31).
"Today there is an inescapable duty to make ourselves the neighbor of every man, no matter who he is, and if we meet him, to come to his aid in a positive way, whether he is an aged person abandoned by all, a foreign worker despised without reason, a refugee, an illegitimate child wrongly suffering for a sin he did not commit, or a starving human being who awakens our conscience by calling to mind the words of Christ: `As you did it to one of the least of these My brethren, you did it to Me.'" ("Gaudium Et Spes," 27).
46. The eternal punishment of the reprobate and the eternal reward of the elect are a dogma of faith solemnly defined by the Magisterium of the Church in the Fourth Lateran Council (1215): "He [Christ] will come at the end of the world; He will judge the living and the dead; and He will reward all, both the lost and the elect, according to their works. And all these will rise with their own bodies which they now have so that they may receive according to their works, whether good or bad; the wicked, a perpetual punishment with the devil; the good, eternal glory with Christ."
Viva Cristo Rey!
(If I could make that centered, bold, large, and red, I would!!!!)
Thanks for posting these each week. They are so informative!
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