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Catholic Caucus: Daily Mass Readings 30-September-2023
Universalis/Jerusalem Bible ^

Posted on 09/30/2023 9:24:19 AM PDT by annalex

30 September 2023

Saint Jerome, Priest, Doctor
on Saturday of week 25 in Ordinary Time

St. Jerome Church in Walbridge, Ohio

Readings at Mass

Liturgical Colour: White. Year: A(I).

Readings for the feria

Readings for the memorial

These are the readings for the feria

First reading
Zechariah 2:5-9,14-15 ©

'I will be the glory of Jerusalem'

Raising my eyes, I saw a vision. It was this: there was a man with a measuring line in his hand. I asked him, ‘Where are you going?’ He said, ‘To measure Jerusalem, to find out her breadth and her length.’ And then, while the angel who was talking to me stood still, another angel came forward to meet him. He said to him, ‘Run, and tell that young man this, “Jerusalem is to remain unwalled, because of the great number of men and cattle there will be in her. But I – it is the Lord who speaks – I will be a wall of fire for her all round her, and I will be her glory in the midst of her.”’
Sing, rejoice,
daughter of Zion;
for I am coming
to dwell in the middle of you
– it is the Lord who speaks.
Many nations will join the Lord,
on that day;
they will become his people.

Responsorial Psalm
Jeremiah 31:10-12,13 ©
The Lord will guard us, as a shepherd guards his flock.
O nations, hear the word of the Lord,
  proclaim it to the far-off coasts.
Say: ‘He who scattered Israel will gather him,
  and guard him as a shepherd guards his flock.’
The Lord will guard us, as a shepherd guards his flock.
For the Lord has ransomed Jacob,
  has saved him from an overpowering hand.
They will come and shout for joy on Mount Zion,
  they will stream to the blessings of the Lord.
The Lord will guard us, as a shepherd guards his flock.
Then the young girls will rejoice and will dance,
  the men, young and old, will be glad.
I will turn their mourning into joy,
  I will console them, give them gladness for grief.
The Lord will guard us, as a shepherd guards his flock.

Gospel Acclamationcf.Ac16:14
Alleluia, alleluia!
Open our heart, O Lord,
to accept the words of your Son.
Alleluia, alleluia!
Our Saviour Jesus Christ abolished death
and he has proclaimed life through the Good News.

GospelLuke 9:43-45 ©

They were afraid to ask him what he meant

At a time when everyone was full of admiration for all he did, Jesus said to his disciples, ‘For your part, you must have these words constantly in your mind: “The Son of Man is going to be handed over into the power of men.”’ But they did not understand him when he said this; it was hidden from them so that they should not see the meaning of it, and they were afraid to ask him about what he had just said.


These are the readings for the memorial

First reading
2 Timothy 3:14-17 ©

All scripture is inspired by God and can profitably be used for teaching

You must keep to what you have been taught and know to be true; remember who your teachers were, and how, ever since you were a child, you have known the holy scriptures – from these you can learn the wisdom that leads to salvation through faith in Christ Jesus. All scripture is inspired by God and can profitably be used for teaching, for refuting error, for guiding people’s lives and teaching them to be holy. This is how the man who is dedicated to God becomes fully equipped and ready for any good work.

Responsorial Psalm
Psalm 118(119):9-14 ©
Lord, teach me your statutes.
How shall the young remain sinless?
  By obeying your word.
I have sought you with all my heart;
  let me not stray from your commands.
Lord, teach me your statutes.
I treasure your promise in my heart
  lest I sin against you.
Blessed are you, O Lord;
  teach me your statutes.
Lord, teach me your statutes.
With my tongue I have recounted
  the decrees of your lips.
I rejoiced to do your will
  as though all riches were mine.
Lord, teach me your statutes.

Gospel Acclamationcf.Ac16:14
Alleluia, alleluia!
Open our heart, O Lord,
to accept the words of your Son.

Matthew 13:47-52 ©

The fishermen collect the good fish and throw away those that are no use

Jesus said to the crowds: ‘The kingdom of heaven is like a dragnet cast into the sea that brings in a haul of all kinds. When it is full, the fishermen haul it ashore; then, sitting down, they collect the good ones in a basket and throw away those that are no use. This is how it will be at the end of time: the angels will appear and separate the wicked from the just to throw them into the blazing furnace where there will be weeping and grinding of teeth.
  ‘Have you understood all this?’ They said, ‘Yes.’ And he said to them, ‘Well then, every scribe who becomes a disciple of the kingdom of heaven is like a householder who brings out from his storeroom things both new and old.’



Christian Art


Each day, The Christian Art website gives a picture and reflection on the Gospel of the day.

The readings on this page are from the Jerusalem Bible, which is used at Mass in most of the English-speaking world. The New American Bible readings, which are used at Mass in the United States, are available in the Universalis apps, programs and downloads.

You can also view this page with the Gospel in Greek and English.

TOPICS: Catholic; General Discusssion; Prayer; Worship
KEYWORDS: catholic; lk9; mt13; ordinarytime; prayer
For your reading, reflection, faith-sharing, comments, questions, discussion.

1 posted on 09/30/2023 9:24:19 AM PDT by annalex
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To: All

KEYWORDS: catholic; lk9; mt13; ordinarytime; prayer;

2 posted on 09/30/2023 9:25:37 AM PDT by annalex (fear them not)
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To: nickcarraway; NYer; ELS; Pyro7480; livius; ArrogantBustard; Catholicguy; RobbyS; marshmallow; ...

Alleluia Ping

Please FReepmail me to get on/off the Alleluia Ping List.

3 posted on 09/30/2023 9:27:04 AM PDT by annalex (fear them not)
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To: annalex
My dad is back in the hospital. [JimRob update at 242]
Jim still needs our prayers. Thread 2
Prayer thread for Salvation's recovery
Pray for Ukraine
Prayer thread for Fidelis' recovery
4 posted on 09/30/2023 9:27:58 AM PDT by annalex (fear them not)
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To: annalex
 English: Douay-RheimsLatin: Vulgata ClementinaGreek NT: Byzantine/Majority Text (2000)
 Luke 9
42.........επετιμησεν δε ο ιησους τω πνευματι τω ακαθαρτω και ιασατο τον παιδα και απεδωκεν αυτον τω πατρι αυτου
43And Jesus rebuked the unclean spirit, and cured the boy, and restored him to his father. Et increpavit Jesus spiritum immundum, et sanavit puerum, et reddidit illum patri ejus.εξεπλησσοντο δε παντες επι τη μεγαλειοτητι του θεου παντων δε θαυμαζοντων επι πασιν οις εποιησεν ο ιησους ειπεν προς τους μαθητας αυτου
44And all were astonished at the mighty power of God. But while all wondered at all the things he did, he said to his disciples: Lay you up in your hearts these words, for it shall come to pass, that the Son of man shall be delivered into the hands of men. Stupebant autem omnes in magnitudine Dei : omnibusque mirantibus in omnibus quæ faciebat, dixit ad discipulos suos : Ponite vos in cordibus vestris sermones istos : Filius enim hominis futurum est ut tradatur in manus hominum.θεσθε υμεις εις τα ωτα υμων τους λογους τουτους ο γαρ υιος του ανθρωπου μελλει παραδιδοσθαι εις χειρας ανθρωπων
45But they understood not this word; and it was hid from them, so that they perceived it not. And they were afraid to ask him concerning this word. At illi ignorabant verbum istud, et erat velatum ante eos ut non sentirent illud : et timebant eum interrogare de hoc verbo.οι δε ηγνοουν το ρημα τουτο και ην παρακεκαλυμμενον απ αυτων ινα μη αισθωνται αυτο και εφοβουντο ερωτησαι αυτον περι του ρηματος τουτου

(*) The Greek passage at the first half of verse 43; "εξεπλησσοντο δε παντες επι τη μεγαλειοτητι του θεου" begins verse 44 in the translations.

5 posted on 09/30/2023 9:34:10 AM PDT by annalex (fear them not)
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To: annalex

Catena Aurea by St. Thomas Aguinas


43.—But while they wondered every one at all things which Jesus did, he said unto his disciples,

44. Let these sayings sink down into your ears: for the Son of man shall be delivered into the hands of men.

45. But they understood not this saying, and it was hid from them, that they perceived it not: and they feared to ask him of that saying.

CYRIL OF ALEXANDRIA. (non occ.) Every thing that Jesus did claimed admiration from all men for a peculiar and divine light reflected upon each of His works, according to the Psalms, honour and majesty wilt thou lay upon him. (Ps. 21:5.) Although all indeed marvelled at those things which He did, He however addresses what follows, not to all, but to His disciples; as it is said, But while they wondered every one, &c. He had shewn His glory on the mount to His disciples, and after this delivered a man from an evil spirit, but it was necessary for Him to undergo His passion for our salvation. Now His disciples might have been perplexed, saying, “Have we then been deceived in that we thought him to be God?” That they might know then what was to happen to Him, He bids them lay up in their minds as a certain deposit the mystery of His passion, saying, Let these sayings sink down in your hearts. By the word your, He distinguishes them from others. For the multitude were not to know that He was about to suffer, but were rather to be assured that the dead would rise again, destroying death, lest they should be offended.

TITUS BOSTRENSIS. While all thus were wondering at the miracles, He foretels His passion. For miracles do not save, but the cross conveys the benefit. Hence he adds, For the Son of man shall he delivered into the hands of men.

ORIGEN. (in Matt. tom. 13.) But it is not clearly expressed by whom He is to be delivered, for one says, that He is to be delivered up by Judas, another by the devil; but Paul says, that God the Father delivered Him up for us all; (Rom. 8:32.) but Judas, as he delivered Him up for money, did it traitorously, the Father for His mercies’ sake.

THEOPHYLACT. Now our Lord in condescension to their infirmities and governing them with a kind of economy, did not permit them to understand what was said of the cross; as it follows, But they understood not.

BEDE. This ignorance of the disciples proceeds not so much from slowness of understanding as from affection, for since they were yet carnal and ignorant of the mystery of the cross, they could not believe that He whom they thought to be really God would suffer death. And because they were often accustomed to hear Him speak by figure, they thought that He meant figuratively something else, by what He said of His betrayal.

CYRIL OF ALEXANDRIA. Now some one perhaps will say, How were the disciples ignorant of the mystery of the cross, seeing that it was touched upon in several places by the shadows of the Law? But as Paul relates, Even unto this day, when Moses is read, the vail is upon their hearts. (2 Cor. 3:15.) It becomes then those who approach Christ, to say, Open thou my eyes, that I may behold the wonderful things out of thy law. (Ps. 119:18.)

THEOPHYLACT. Mark also the reverence of the disciples in what follows, And they feared to ask him of that saying. For fear is the first step to reverence.

Catena Aurea Luke 9

6 posted on 09/30/2023 9:35:52 AM PDT by annalex (fear them not)
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To: annalex

Christ Taken Prisoner

Duccio di Buoninsegna

Tempera on wood, 51 x 76 cm
Museo dell'Opera del Duomo, Siena

7 posted on 09/30/2023 9:36:47 AM PDT by annalex (fear them not)
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To: annalex
 English: Douay-RheimsLatin: Vulgata ClementinaGreek NT: Byzantine/Majority Text (2000)
 Matthew 13
47Again the kingdom of heaven is like to a net cast into the sea, and gathering together of all kind of fishes. Iterum simile est regnum cælorum sagenæ missæ in mare, et ex omni genere piscium congreganti.παλιν ομοια εστιν η βασιλεια των ουρανων σαγηνη βληθειση εις την θαλασσαν και εκ παντος γενους συναγαγουση
48Which, when it was filled, they drew out, and sitting by the shore, they chose out the good into vessels, but the bad they cast forth. Quam, cum impleta esset, educentes, et secus littus sedentes, elegerunt bonis in vasa, malos autem foras miserunt.ην οτε επληρωθη αναβιβασαντες επι τον αιγιαλον και καθισαντες συνελεξαν τα καλα εις αγγεια τα δε σαπρα εξω εβαλον
49So shall it be at the end of the world. The angels shall go out, and shall separate the wicked from among the just. Sic erit in consummatione sæculi : exibunt angeli, et separabunt malos de medio justorum,ουτως εσται εν τη συντελεια του αιωνος εξελευσονται οι αγγελοι και αφοριουσιν τους πονηρους εκ μεσου των δικαιων
50And shall cast them into the furnace of fire: there shall be weeping and gnashing of teeth. et mittent eos in caminum ignis : ibi erit fletus, et stridor dentium.και βαλουσιν αυτους εις την καμινον του πυρος εκει εσται ο κλαυθμος και ο βρυγμος των οδοντων
51Have ye understood all these things? They say to him: Yes. Intellexistis hæc omnia ? Dicunt ei : Etiam.λεγει αυτοις ο ιησους συνηκατε ταυτα παντα λεγουσιν αυτω ναι κυριε
52He said unto them: Therefore every scribe instructed in the kingdom of heaven, is like to a man that is a householder, who bringeth forth out of his treasure new things and old. Ait illis : Ideo omnis scriba doctus in regno cælorum, similis est homini patrifamilias, qui profert de thesauro suo nova et vetera.ο δε ειπεν αυτοις δια τουτο πας γραμματευς μαθητευθεις εις την βασιλειαν των ουρανων ομοιος εστιν ανθρωπω οικοδεσποτη οστις εκβαλλει εκ του θησαυρου αυτου καινα και παλαια
53And it came to pass: when Jesus had finished these parables, he passed from thence. Et factum est, cum consummasset Jesus parabolas istas, transiit inde.και εγενετο οτε ετελεσεν ο ιησους τας παραβολας ταυτας μετηρεν εκειθεν

8 posted on 09/30/2023 9:39:51 AM PDT by annalex (fear them not)
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To: annalex

Catena Aurea by St. Thomas Aguinas


47. Again, the kingdom of heaven is like unto a net, that was cast into the sea, and gathered of every kind:

48. Which, when it was full, they drew to shore, and sat down, and gathered the good into vessels, but cast the bad away.

49. So shall it be at the end of the world: the angels shall come forth, and sever the wicked from the just,

50. And shall cast them into the furnace of fire: there shall be wailing and gnashing of teeth.

CHRYSOSTOM. In the foregoing parables He has commended the Gospel preaching; now, that we may not trust in preaching only, nor think that faith alone is sufficient for our salvation, He adds another fearful parable, saying, Again, the kingdom of heaven is like unto a net cast into the sea.

JEROME. In fulfilment of that prophecy of Hieremias, who said, I will send unto you many fishers, (Jer. 6:16.) when Peter and Andrew, James and John, heard the words, Follow me, I will make you fishers of men, they put together a net for themselves formed of the Old and New Testaments, and cast it into the sea of this world, and that remains spread until this day, taking up out of the salt and bitter and whirlpools whatever falls into it, that is good men and bad; and this is that He adds, And gathered of every kind.

GREGORY. (Hom. in Ev. xi. 4.) Or otherwise; The Holy Church is likened to a net, because it is given into the hands of fishers, and by it each man is drawn into the heavenly kingdom out of the waves of this present world, that he should not be drowned in the depth of eternal death. This net gathers of every kind of fishes, because the wise and the foolish, the free and the slave, the rich and the poor, the strong and the weak, are called to forgiveness of sin; it is then fully filled when in the end of all things the sum of the human race is completed; as it follows, Which, when it was filled, they drew out, and sitting down on the shore gathered the good into vessels, but the bad they cast away. For as the sea signifies the world, so the sea shore signifies the end of the world; and as the good are gathered into vessels, but the bad cast away, so each man is received into eternal abodes, while the reprobate having lost the light of the inward kingdom are cast forth into outer darkness. But now the net of faith holds good and bad mingled together in one; but the shore shall discover what the net of the Church has brought to land.

JEROME. For when the net shall be drawn to the shore, then shall be shewn the true test for separating the fishes.

CHRYSOSTOM. Wherein does this parable differ from the parable of the tares? There, as here, some perish and some are saved; but there, because of their heresy of evil dogmas; in the first parable of the sower, because of their not attending to what was spoken; here, because of their evil life, because of which, though drawn by the net, that is, enjoying the knowledge of God, they cannot be saved. And when you hear that the wicked are cast away, that you may not suppose that this punishment may be risked, He adds an exposition shewing its severity, saying, Thus shall it be in the end of the world; the angels shall come forth and sever the wicked from among the just, and shall cast them into the furnace of fire, there shall be wailing and gnashing of teeth. Though He elsewhere declares, that He shall separate them as a shepherd separates the sheep from the goats; He here declares, that the Angels shall do it, as also in the parable of the tares.

GREGORY. (ubi sup.) To fear becomes us here, rather than to expound for the torments of sinners are pronounced in plain terms, that none might plead his ignorance, should eternal punishment be threatened in obscure sayings.

JEROME. For when the end of the world shall be come, then shall be shewn the true test of separating the fishes, and as in a sheltered harbour the good shall be sent into the vessels of heavenly abodes, but the flame of hell shall seize the wicked to be dried up and withered.


51. Jesus saith unto them, Have ye understood all these things? They say unto him, Yea, Lord.

52. Then said he unto them, Therefore every Scribe which is instructed unto the kingdom of heaven is like unto a man that is an householder, which bringeth forth out of his treasure things new and old.

GLOSS. (non occ.) When the multitude had departed, the Lord spoke to His disciples in parables, by which they were instructed only so far as they understood them; wherefore He asks them, Have ye understood all these things? They say unto him, Yea, Lord.

JEROME. For this is spoken especially to the Apostles, whom He would have not to hear only as the multitude, but to understand as having to teach others.

CHRYSOSTOM. Then He praises them because they had understood; He saith unto them; Therefore every Scribe instructed in the kingdom of heaven is like unto an householder who bringeth out of his treasure things new and old.

AUGUSTINE. (De Civ. Dei, xx. 4.) He said not ‘old and new,’ as He surely would have said had He not preferred to preserve the order of value rather than of time. But the Manichæans while they think they should keep only the new promises of God, remain in the old man of the flesh, and put on newness of error.

AUGUSTINE. (Quæst. in Matt. q. 16.) By this conclusion, whether did He desire to shew whom He intended by the treasure hid in the field—in which case we might understand the Holy Scriptures to be here meant, the two Testaments by the things new and old—or did He intend that he should be held learned in the Church who understood that the Old Scriptures were expounded in parables, taking rules from these new Scriptures, seeing that in them also the Lord proclaimed many things in parables. If He then, in whom all those old Scriptures have their fulfilment and manifestation, yet speaks in parables until His passion shall rend the vail, when there is nothing hid that shall not be revealed; much more those things which were written of Him so long time before we see to have been clothed in parables; which the Jews took literally, being unwilling to be learned in the kingdom of heaven.

GREGORY. (ubi sup.) But if by things new and old in this passage we understand the two Testaments, we deny Abraham to have been learned, who although he knew indeed some deeds of the Old Testament, yet had not read the words. Neither Moses may we compare to a learned householder, for although he composed the Old Testament, yet had he not the words of the New. But what is here said may be understood as meant not of those who had been, but of such as might hereafter be in the Church, who then bring forth things new and old when they speak the preachings of both Testaments, in their words and in their lives.

HILARY. Speaking to His disciples, He calls them Scribes on account of their knowledge, because they understood the things that He brought forward, both new and old, that is from the Law and from the Gospels; both being of the same householder, and both treasures of the same owner. He compares them to Himself under the figure of a householder, because they had received doctrine of things both new and old out of His treasury of the Holy Spirit.

JEROME. Or the Apostles are called Scribes instructed, as being the Saviour’s notaries who wrote His words and precepts on fleshly tables of the heart with the sacraments of the heavenly kingdom, and abounded in the wealth of a householder, bringing forth out of the stores of their doctrine things new and old; whatsoever they preached in the Gospels, that they proved by the words of the Law and the Prophets. Whence the Bride speaks in the Song of Songs; I have kept for thee my beloved the new with the old. (c. 7:13.)

GREGORY. (ubi sup.) Otherwise; The things old are, that the human race for its sin should suffer in eternal punishment; the things new, that they should be converted and live in the kingdom. First, He brought forward a comparison of the kingdom to a treasure found and a pearl of price; and after that, narrated the punishment of hell in the burning of the wicked, and then concluded with Therefore every Scribe, &c. as if He had said, He is a learned preacher in the Church who knows to bring forth things new concerning the sweetness of the kingdom, and to speak things old concerning the terror of punishment; that at least punishment may deter those whom rewards do not excite.


53. And it came to pass, that when Jesus had finished these parables, he departed thence.

54. And when he was come into his own country, he taught them in their synagogue, insomuch that they were astonished, and said, Whence hath this man this wisdom, and these mighty works?

55. Is not this the carpenter’s son? is not his mother called Mary? and his brethren, James, and Joses, and Simon, and Judas?

56. And his sisters, are they not all with us? Whence then hath this man all these things?

57. And they were offended in him. But Jesus said unto them, A prophet is not without honour, save in his own country, and in his own house.

58. And he did not many mighty works there because of their unbelief.

JEROME. After the parables which the Lord spake to the people, and which the Apostles only understand, He goes over into His own country that He may teach there also.

AUGUSTINE. (De Cons. Ev. ii. 42.) From the foregoing discourse consisting of these parables, He passes to what follows without any very evident connexion between them. Besides which, Mark passes from these parables to a different event from what Matthew here gives; and Luke agrees with him, so continuing the thread of the story as to make it much more probable that that which they relate followed here, namely, about the ship in which Jesus slept, and the miracle of the demons cast out; which Matthew has introduced above.

Catena Aurea Matthew 13

9 posted on 09/30/2023 9:40:27 AM PDT by annalex (fear them not)
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To: annalex

Orvieto, Duomo, facade; Last Judgment

14th century

10 posted on 09/30/2023 9:42:08 AM PDT by annalex (fear them not)
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To: annalex

St. Jerome

Feast day: Sep 30

St. Jerome
Saint Jerome, the priest, monk and Doctor of the Church renowned for his extraordinary depth of learning and translations of the Bible into Latin in the Vulgate, is celebrated by the Church with his memorial today, September 30.

Besides his contributions as a Church Father and patronage of subsequent Catholic scholarship, Jerome is also regarded as a patron of people with difficult personalities—owing to the sometimes extreme approach which he took in articulating his scholarly opinions and the teaching of the Church. He is also notable for his devotion to the ascetic life, and for his insistence on the importance of Hebrew scholarship for Christians.

Born around 340 as Eusebius Hieronymous Sophronius in present-day Croatia, Jerome received Christian instruction from his father, who sent him to Rome for instruction in rhetoric and classical literature. His youth was thus dominated by a struggle between worldly pursuits --which brought him into many types of temptation-- and the inclination to a life of faith, a feeling evoked by regular trips to the Roman catacombs with his friends in the city.

Baptized in 360 by Pope Liberius, Jerome traveled widely among the monastic and intellectual centers of the newly Christian empire. Upon returning to the city of his birth, following the end of a local crisis caused by the Arian heresy, he studied theology in the famous schools of Trier and worked closely with two other future saints, Chromatius and Heliodorus, who were outstanding teachers of orthodox theology.

Seeking a life more akin to the first generation of “desert fathers,” Jerome left the Adriatic and traveled east to Syria, visiting several Greek cities of civil and ecclesiastical importance on the way to his real destination: “a wild and stony desert ... to which, through fear or hell, I had voluntarily condemned myself, with no other company but scorpions and wild beasts.”

Jerome's letters vividly chronicle the temptations and trials he endured during several years as a desert hermit. Nevertheless, after his ordination by the bishop of Antioch, followed by periods of study in Constantinople and service at Rome to Pope Damasus I, Jerome opted permanently for a solitary and ascetic life in the city of Bethlehem from the mid-380s.

Jerome remained engaged both as an arbitrator and disputant of controversies in the Church, and served as a spiritual father to a group of nuns who had become his disciples in Rome. Monks and pilgrims from a wide array of nations and cultures also found their way to his monastery, where he commented that “as many different choirs chant the psalms as there are nations.”

Rejecting pagan literature as a distraction, Jerome undertook to learn Hebrew from a Christian monk who had converted from Judaism. Somewhat unusually for a fourth-century Christian priest, he also studied with Jewish rabbis, striving to maintain the connection between Hebrew language and culture, and the emerging world of Greek and Latin-speaking Christianity. He became a secretary of Pope Damasus, who commissioned the Vulgate from him. Prepared by these ventures, Jerome spent 15 years translating most of the Hebrew Bible into its authoritative Latin version. His harsh temperament and biting criticisms of his intellectual opponents made him many enemies in the Church and in Rome and he was forced to leave the city.

Jerome went to Bethlehem, established a monastery, and lived the rest of his years in study, prayer, and ascetcism.

St. Jerome once said, "I interpret as I should, following the command of Christ: 'Search the Scriptures,' and 'Seek and you shall find.' For if, as Paul says, Christ is the power of God and the wisdom of God, and if the man who does not know Scripture does not know the power and wisdom of God, then ignorance of Scriptures is ignorance of Christ."

After living through both Barbarian invasions of the Roman empire, and a resurgence of riots sparked by doctrinal disputes in the Church, Jerome died in his Bethlehem monastery in 420.

11 posted on 09/30/2023 9:46:52 AM PDT by annalex (fear them not)
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To: annalex

Saint Jerome

Caravaggio (1571–1610)

Galleria Borghese, Rome

12 posted on 09/30/2023 9:50:34 AM PDT by annalex (fear them not)
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