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Catholic Caucus: Daily Mass Readings 22-February-2023; Ash Wednesday
Universalis/Jerusalem Bible ^

Posted on 02/22/2023 5:50:11 AM PST by annalex

22 February 2023

Ash Wednesday

St. Philip's Martyrion, Pamukkale, modern Turkey

Readings at Mass

Liturgical Colour: Violet. Year: A(I).

First readingJoel 2:12-18 ©

Let your hearts be broken, not your garments torn

‘Now, now – it is the Lord who speaks –
come back to me with all your heart,
fasting, weeping, mourning.’
Let your hearts be broken, not your garments torn,
turn to the Lord your God again,
for he is all tenderness and compassion,
slow to anger, rich in graciousness,
and ready to relent.
Who knows if he will not turn again, will not relent,
will not leave a blessing as he passes,
oblation and libation
for the Lord your God?
Sound the trumpet in Zion!
Order a fast,
proclaim a solemn assembly,
call the people together,
summon the community,
assemble the elders,
gather the children,
even the infants at the breast.
Let the bridegroom leave his bedroom
and the bride her alcove.
Between vestibule and altar let the priests,
the ministers of the Lord, lament.
Let them say,
‘Spare your people, Lord!
Do not make your heritage a thing of shame,
a byword for the nations.
Why should it be said among the nations,
“Where is their God?”’
Then the Lord, jealous on behalf of his land,
took pity on his people.

Responsorial Psalm
Psalm 50(51):3-6,12-14,17 ©
Have mercy on us, O Lord, for we have sinned.
Have mercy on me, God, in your kindness.
  In your compassion blot out my offence.
O wash me more and more from my guilt
  and cleanse me from my sin.
Have mercy on us, O Lord, for we have sinned.
My offences truly I know them;
  my sin is always before me
Against you, you alone, have I sinned;
  what is evil in your sight I have done.
Have mercy on us, O Lord, for we have sinned.
A pure heart create for me, O God,
  put a steadfast spirit within me.
Do not cast me away from your presence,
  nor deprive me of your holy spirit.
Have mercy on us, O Lord, for we have sinned.
Give me again the joy of your help;
  with a spirit of fervour sustain me,
O Lord, open my lips
  and my mouth shall declare your praise.
Have mercy on us, O Lord, for we have sinned.

Second reading
2 Corinthians 5:20-6:2 ©

Be reconciled to God

We are ambassadors for Christ; it is as though God were appealing through us, and the appeal that we make in Christ’s name is: be reconciled to God. For our sake God made the sinless one into sin, so that in him we might become the goodness of God. As his fellow workers, we beg you once again not to neglect the grace of God that you have received. For he says: At the favourable time, I have listened to you; on the day of salvation I came to your help. Well, now is the favourable time; this is the day of salvation.

Gospel AcclamationPs50:12,14
Praise to you, O Christ, king of eternal glory!
A pure heart create for me, O God,
and give me again the joy of your help.
Praise to you, O Christ, king of eternal glory!
Praise to you, O Christ, king of eternal glory!
Harden not your hearts today,
but listen to the voice of the Lord.
Praise to you, O Christ, king of eternal glory!

Matthew 6:1-6,16-18 ©

Your Father who sees all that is done in secret will reward you

Jesus said to his disciples: ‘Be careful not to parade your good deeds before men to attract their notice; by doing this you will lose all reward from your Father in heaven. So when you give alms, do not have it trumpeted before you; this is what the hypocrites do in the synagogues and in the streets to win men’s admiration. I tell you solemnly, they have had their reward. But when you give alms, your left hand must not know what your right is doing; your almsgiving must be secret, and your Father who sees all that is done in secret will reward you.
  ‘And when you pray, do not imitate the hypocrites: they love to say their prayers standing up in the synagogues and at the street corners for people to see them; I tell you solemnly, they have had their reward. But when you pray, go to your private room and, when you have shut your door, pray to your Father who is in that secret place, and your Father who sees all that is done in secret will reward you.
  ‘When you fast do not put on a gloomy look as the hypocrites do: they pull long faces to let men know they are fasting. I tell you solemnly, they have had their reward. But when you fast, put oil on your head and wash your face, so that no one will know you are fasting except your Father who sees all that is done in secret; and your Father who sees all that is done in secret will reward you.’

Christian Art


Each day, The Christian Art website gives a picture and reflection on the Gospel of the day.

The readings on this page are from the Jerusalem Bible, which is used at Mass in most of the English-speaking world. The New American Bible readings, which are used at Mass in the United States, are available in the Universalis apps, programs and downloads.

You can also view this page with the Gospel in Greek and English.

TOPICS: Catholic; General Discusssion; Prayer; Worship
KEYWORDS: catholic; mt6; ordinarytime; prayer
For your reading, reflection, faith-sharing, comments, questions, discussion.

1 posted on 02/22/2023 5:50:11 AM PST by annalex
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To: All

KEYWORDS: catholic; mt6; ordinarytime; prayer

2 posted on 02/22/2023 5:50:51 AM PST by annalex (fear them not)
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To: nickcarraway; NYer; ELS; Pyro7480; livius; ArrogantBustard; Catholicguy; RobbyS; marshmallow; ...

Alleluia Ping

Please FReepmail me to get on/off the Alleluia Ping List.

3 posted on 02/22/2023 5:53:05 AM PST by annalex (fear them not)
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To: annalex
Jim still needs our prayers. Thread 2
Prayer thread for Salvation's recovery
Pray for Ukraine
4 posted on 02/22/2023 5:53:29 AM PST by annalex (fear them not)
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To: annalex
 English: Douay-RheimsLatin: Vulgata ClementinaGreek NT: Byzantine/Majority Text (2000)
 Matthew 6
1TAKE heed that you do not your justice before men, to be seen by them: otherwise you shall not have a reward of your Father who is in heaven. Attendite ne justitiam vestram faciatis coram hominibus, ut videamini ab eis : alioquin mercedem non habebitis apud Patrem vestrum qui in cælis est.προσεχετε την ελεημοσυνην υμων μη ποιειν εμπροσθεν των ανθρωπων προς το θεαθηναι αυτοις ει δε μηγε μισθον ουκ εχετε παρα τω πατρι υμων τω εν τοις ουρανοις
2Therefore when thou dost an almsdeed, sound not a trumpet before thee, as the hypocrites do in the synagogues and in the streets, that they may be honoured by men. Amen I say to you, they have received their reward. Cum ergo facis eleemosynam, noli tuba canere ante te, sicut hypocritæ faciunt in synagogis, et in vicis, ut honorificentur ab hominibus. Amen dico vobis, receperunt mercedem suam.οταν ουν ποιης ελεημοσυνην μη σαλπισης εμπροσθεν σου ωσπερ οι υποκριται ποιουσιν εν ταις συναγωγαις και εν ταις ρυμαις οπως δοξασθωσιν υπο των ανθρωπων αμην λεγω υμιν απεχουσιν τον μισθον αυτων
3But when thou dost alms, let not thy left hand know what thy right hand doth. Te autem faciente eleemosynam, nesciat sinistra tua quid faciat dextera tua :σου δε ποιουντος ελεημοσυνην μη γνωτω η αριστερα σου τι ποιει η δεξια σου
4That thy alms may be in secret, and thy Father who seeth in secret will repay thee. ut sit eleemosyna tua in abscondito, et Pater tuus, qui videt in abscondito, reddet tibi.οπως η σου η ελεημοσυνη εν τω κρυπτω και ο πατηρ σου ο βλεπων εν τω κρυπτω αυτος αποδωσει σοι εν τω φανερω
5And when ye pray, you shall not be as the hypocrites, that love to stand and pray in the synagogues and corners of the streets, that they may be seen by men: Amen I say to you, they have received their reward. Et cum oratis, non eritis sicut hypocritæ qui amant in synagogis et in angulis platearum stantes orare, ut videantur ab hominibus : amen dico vobis, receperunt mercedem suam.και οταν προσευχη ουκ εση ωσπερ οι υποκριται οτι φιλουσιν εν ταις συναγωγαις και εν ταις γωνιαις των πλατειων εστωτες προσευχεσθαι οπως αν φανωσιν τοις ανθρωποις αμην λεγω υμιν οτι απεχουσιν τον μισθον αυτων
6But thou when thou shalt pray, enter into thy chamber, and having shut the door, pray to thy Father in secret: and thy Father who seeth in secret will repay thee. Tu autem cum oraveris, intra in cubiculum tuum, et clauso ostio, ora Patrem tuum in abscondito : et Pater tuus, qui videt in abscondito, reddet tibi.συ δε οταν προσευχη εισελθε εις το ταμιειον σου και κλεισας την θυραν σου προσευξαι τω πατρι σου τω εν τω κρυπτω και ο πατηρ σου ο βλεπων εν τω κρυπτω αποδωσει σοι εν τω φανερω
16And when you fast, be not as the hypocrites, sad. For they disfigure their faces, that they may appear unto men to fast. Amen I say to you, they have received their reward. Cum autem jejunatis, nolite fieri sicut hypocritæ, tristes. Exterminant enim facies suas, ut appareant hominibus jejunantes. Amen dico vobis, quia receperunt mercedem suam.οταν δε νηστευητε μη γινεσθε ωσπερ οι υποκριται σκυθρωποι αφανιζουσιν γαρ τα προσωπα αυτων οπως φανωσιν τοις ανθρωποις νηστευοντες αμην λεγω υμιν οτι απεχουσιν τον μισθον αυτων
17But thou, when thou fastest anoint thy head, and wash thy face; Tu autem, cum jejunas, unge caput tuum, et faciem tuam lava,συ δε νηστευων αλειψαι σου την κεφαλην και το προσωπον σου νιψαι
18That thou appear not to men to fast, but to thy Father who is in secret: and thy Father who seeth in secret, will repay thee. ne videaris hominibus jejunans, sed Patri tuo, qui est in abscondito : et Pater tuus, qui videt in abscondito, reddet tibi.οπως μη φανης τοις ανθρωποις νηστευων αλλα τω πατρι σου τω εν τω κρυπτω και ο πατηρ σου ο βλεπων εν τω κρυπτω αποδωσει σοι

5 posted on 02/22/2023 5:55:24 AM PST by annalex (fear them not)
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To: annalex

Catena Aurea by St. Thomas Aguinas


1. Take heed that ye do not your alms before men, to be seen of them: otherwise ye have no reward of your Father which is in Heaven.

GLOSS. (non occ.) Christ having now fulfilled the Law in respect of commandments, begins to fulfil it in respect of promises, that we may do God’s commandments for heavenly wages, not for the earthly which the Law held out. All earthly things are reduced to two main heads, viz. human glory, and abundance of earthly goods, both of which seem to be promised in the Law. Concerning the first is that spoken in Deuteronomy, The Lord shall make thee higher than all the nations who dwell on the face of the earth. (c. 28:1.) And in the same place it is added of earthly wealth, The Lord shall make thee abound in all good things. Therefore the Lord now forbids these two things, glory and wealth, to the attention of believers.

CHRYSOSTOM. (Hom. xix.) Yet be it known that the desire of fame is near a kin to virtue.

PSEUDO-CHRYSOSTOM. For when any thing truly glorious is done, there ostentation has its readiest occasion; so the Lord first shuts out all intention of seeking glory; as He knows that this is of all fleshly vices the most dangerous to man. The servants of the Devil are tormented by all kinds of vices; but it is the desire of empty glory that torments the servants of the Lord more than the servants of the Devil.

AUGUSTINE. (Prosper. Lib. Sentent. 318.) How great strength the love of human glory has, none feels, but he who has proclaimed war against it. For though it is easy for any not to wish for praise when it is denied him, it is difficult not to be pleased with it when it is offered.

CHRYSOSTOM. Observe how He has begun as it were describing some beast hard to be discerned, and ready to steal upon him who is not greatly on his guard against it; it enters in secretly, and carries off insensibly all those things that are within.

PSEUDO-CHRYSOSTOM. And therefore he enjoins this to be more carefully avoided, Take heed that ye do not your righteousness before men. It is our heart we must watch, for it is an invisible serpent that we have to guard against, which secretly enters in and seduces; but if the heart be pure into which the enemy has succeeded in entering in, the righteous man soon feels that he is prompted by a strange spirit; but if his heart were full of wickednesses, he does not readily perceive the suggestion of the Devil, and therefore He first taught us, Be not angry, Lust not, for that he who is under the yoke of these evils cannot attend to his own heart. But how can it be that we should not do our alms before men. Or if this may be, how can they be so done that we should not know of it. For if a poor man come before us in the presence of any one, how shall we be able to give him alms in secret? If we lead him aside, it must be seen that we shall give him. Observe then that He said not simply, Do not before men, but added, to be seen of them. He then who does righteousness not from this motive, even if he does it before the eyes of men, is not to be thought to be herein condemned; for he who does any thing for God’s sake, sees nothing in his heart but God, for whose sake he does it; as a workman has always before his eyes him who has entrusted him with the work to do.

GREGORY. (Mor. viii. 48.) If then we seek the fame of giving, we make even our public deeds to be hidden in His sight; for if herein we seek our own glory, then they are already cast out of His sight, even though there be many by whom they are yet unknown. It belongs only to the thoroughly perfect, to suffer their deeds to be seen, and to receive the praise of doing them in such sort that they are lifted up with no secret exultation; whereas they that are weak, because they cannot attain to this perfect contempt of their own fame, must needs hide those good deeds that they do.

AUGUSTINE. (Serm. in Mont. ii. 1.) In saying only, That ye be seen of men, without any addition, He seems to have forbidden that we should make that the end of our actions. For the Apostle who declared, If I yet pleased men, I should not be the servant of Christ; (Gal. 1:10.) says in another place, I please all men in all things. (1 Cor. 10:33.) This he did not that he might please men, but God, to the love of whom he desires to turn the hearts of men by pleasing them. As we should not think that he spoke absurdly, who should say. In this my pains in seeking a ship, it is not the ship I seek, but my country.

AUGUSTINE. (Serm. 54. 2.) He says this, that ye be seen of men, because there are some who so do their righteousness before men that themselves may not be seen, but that the works themselves may be seen, and their Father who is in heaven may be glorified; for they reckon not their own righteousness, but His, in the faith of whom they live.

AUGUSTINE. (Serm. in Mont. ii. 1.) That He adds, Otherwise ye shall not have your reward before your Father who is in heaven, signifies no more than that we ought to take heed that we seek not praise of men in reward of our works.

PSEUDO-CHRYSOSTOM. What shall you receive from God, who have given God nothing? What is done for God’s sake is given to God, and received by Him; but what is done because of men is cast to the winds. But what wisdom is it, to bestow our goods, to reap empty words, and to have despised the reward of God? Nay you deceive the very man for whose good word you look; for he thinks you do it for God’s sake, otherwise he would rather reproach than commend you. Yet must we think him only to have done his work because of men, who does it with his whole will and intention governed by the thought of them. But if an idle thought, seeking to be seen of men, mount up in any one’s heart, but is resisted by the understanding spirit, he is not thereupon to be condemned of man-pleasing; for that the thought came to him was the passion of the flesh, what he chose was the judgment of his soul.


2. Therefore when thou doest thine alms, do not sound a trumpet before thee, as the hypocrites do in the synagogues and in the streets, that they may have glory of men. Verily I say unto you, They have their reward.

3. But when thou doest alms, let not thy left hand know what thy right hand doeth:

4. That thine alms may be in secret: and thy Father which seeth in secret Himself shall reward thee openly.

AUGUSTINE. (Serm. in Mont. ii. 2.) Above the Lord had spoken of righteousness in general. He now pursues it through its different parts.

PSEUDO-CHRYSOSTOM. (Hom. xv.) He opposes three chief virtues, alms, prayer, and fasting, to three evil things against which the Lord undertook the war of temptation. For He fought for us in the wilderness against gluttony; against covetousness on the mount; against false glory on the temple. It is alms that scatter abroad against covetousness which heaps up; fasting against gluttony which is its contrary; prayer against false glory, seeing that all other evil things come out of evil, this alone comes out of good; and therefore it is not overthrown but rather nourished of good, and has no remedy that may avail against it but prayer only.

AMBROSIASTER. (Comm. in Tim. 4, 8.) The sum of all Christian discipline is comprehended in mercy and piety, for which reason He begins with almsgiving.

PSEUDO-CHRYSOSTOM. The trumpet stands for every act or word that tends to a display of our works; for instance, to do alms if we know that some other person is looking on, or at the request of another, or to a person of such condition that he may make us return; and unless in such cases not to do them. Yea, even if in some secret place they are done with intent to be thought praiseworthy, then is the trumpet sounded.

AUGUSTINE. (ubi sup.) Thus what He says, Do not sound a trumpet before thee, refers to what He had said above, Take heed that ye do not your righteousness before men.

JEROME. He who sounds a trumpet before him when he does alms is a hypocrite. Whence he adds, as the hypocrites do.

ISIDORE. (Etym. x. ex Aug. Serm.) The name ‘hypocrite’ is derived from the appearance of those who in the shows are disguised in masks, variously coloured according to the character they represent, sometimes male, sometimes female, to impose on the spectators while they act in the games.

AUGUSTINE. (ubi sup.) As then the hypocrites, (a word meaning ‘one who feigns,’) as personating the characters of other men, act parts which are not naturally their own—for he who personates Agamemnon, is not really Agamemnon, but feigns to be so—so likewise in the Churches, whosoever in his whole conduct desires to seem what he is not, is a hypocrite; he feigns himself righteous and is not really so, seeing his only motive is praise of men.

GLOSS. (non occ.) In the words, in the streets and villages, he marks the public places which they selected; and in those, that they may receive honour of men, he marks their motive.

GREGORY. (Mor. xxxi. 13.) It should be known, that there are some who wear the dress of sanctity, and are not able to work out the merit of perfection, yet who must in no wise be numbered among the hypocrites, because it is one thing to sin from weakness, another from crafty affectation.

AUGUSTINE. (Serm. in Mont. ii. 2.) And such sinners receive from God the Scarcher of hearts none other reward than punishment of their deceitfulness; Verily I say unto you, they have their reward,

JEROME. A reward not of God, but of themselves, for they receive praise of men, for the sake of which it was that they practised their virtues.

AUGUSTINE. (ubi sup.) This refers to what He had said above, Otherwise ye shall have no reward of your Father which is in heaven; and He goes on to shew them that they should not do their alms as the hypocrites, but teaches them how they should do them.

CHRYSOSTOM. Let not thy left hand know what thy right hand doeth, is said as an extreme expression, as much as to say, If it were possible, that you should not know yourself, and that your very hands should be hid from your sight, that is what you should most strive after.

PSEUDO-CHRYSOSTOM. The Apostles in the book of the Constitutions, interpret thus; The right hand is the Christian people which is at Christ’s right hand; the left hand is all the people who are on His left hand. He means then, that when a Christian does alms, the unbeliever should not see it.

AUGUSTINE. (ubi sup.) But according to this interpretation, it will be no fault to have a respect to pleasing the faithful; and yet we are forbidden to propose as the end of any good work the pleasing of any kind of men. Yet if you would have men to imitate your actions which may be pleasing to them, they must be done before unbelievers as well as believers. If again, according to another interpretation, we take the left hand to mean our enemy, and that our enemy should not know when we do our alms, why did the Lord Himself mercifully heal men when the Jews were standing round Him? And how too must we deal with our enemy himself according to that precept, If thy enemy hunger, feed him. (Prov. 25:21.) A third interpretation is ridiculous; that the left hand signifies the wife, and that because women are wont to be more close in the matter of expense out of the family purse, therefore the charities of the husband should be secret from the wife, for the avoiding of domestic strife. But this command is addressed to women as well as to men, what then is the left hand, from which women are bid to conceal their alms? Is the husband also the left hand of the wife? And when it is commanded such that they enrich each other with good works, it is clear that they ought not to hide their good deeds; nor is a theft to be committed to do God service. But if in any case something must needs be done covertly, from respect to the weakness of the other, though it is not unlawful, yet that we cannot suppose the wife to be intended by the left hand here is clear from the purport of the whole paragraph; no, not even such an one as he might well call left. But that which is blamed in hypocrites, namely, that they seek praise of men, this you are forbid to do; the left hand therefore seems to signify the delight in men’s praise; the right hand denotes the purpose of fulfilling the divine commands. Whenever then a desire to gain honour from men mingles itself with the conscience of him that does alms, it is then the left hand knowing what the right hand, the right conscience, does. Let not the left hand know, therefore, what the right hand doeth, means, let not the desire of men’s praise mingle with your conscience. But our Lord does yet more strongly forbid the left hand alone to work in us, than its mingling in the works of the right hand. The intent with which He said all this is shewn in that He adds, that your alms may be in secret; that is, in that your good conscience only, which human eye cannot see, nor words discover, though many things are said falsely of many. But your good conscience itself is enough for you towards deserving your reward, if you look for your reward from Him who alone can see your conscience. This is that He adds, And your Father which seeth in secret shall reward you. Many Latin copies have, openlya.

PSEUDO-CHRYSOSTOM. For it is impossible that God should leave in obscurity any good work of man; but He makes it manifest in this world, and glorifies it in the next world, because it is the glory of God; as likewise the Devil manifests evil, in which is shewn the strength of his great wickedness. But God properly makes public every good deed only in that world the goods of which are not common to the righteous and the wicked; therefore to whomsoever God shall there shew favour, it will be manifest that it was as reward of his righteousness. But the reward of virtue is not manifested in this world, in which both bad and good are alike in their fortunes.

AUGUSTINE. But in the Greek copies, which are earlier, we have not the word openly.

CHRYSOSTOM. If therefore you desire spectators of your good deeds, behold you have not merely Angels and Archangels, but the God of the universe.


5. And when thou prayest, thou shalt not be as the hypocrites are; for they love to pray standing in the synagogues and in the corners of the streets, that they may be seen of men. Verily I say unto you, They have their reward.

6. But thou, when thou prayest, enter into thy closet, and when thou hast shut thy door, pray to thy Father which is in secret; and thy Father which seeth in secret shall reward thee openly.

PSEUDO-CHRYSOSTOM. (non occ.) Solomon says, Before prayer, prepare thy soul. (Ecclus. 18:23.) This he does who comes to prayer doing alms; for good works stir up the faith of the heart, and give the soul confidence in prayer to God. Alms then are a preparation for prayer, and therefore the Lord after speaking of alms proceeds accordingly to instruct us concerning prayer.

AUGUSTINE. (Serm. in Mont. ii. 3.) He does not now bid us pray, but instructs us how we should pray; as above He did not command us to do alms, but shewed the manner of doing them.

PSEUDO-CHRYSOSTOM. Prayer is as it were a spiritual tribute which the soul offers of its own bowels. Wherefore the more glorious it is, the more watchfully ought we to guard that it is not made vile by being done to be seen of men.

CHRYSOSTOM. He calls them hypocrites, because feigning that they are praying to God, they are looking round to men; and, He adds, they love to pray in the synagogues.

PSEUDO-CHRYSOSTOM. But I suppose that it is not the place that the Lord here refers to, but the motive of him that prays; for it is praiseworthy to pray in the congregation of the faithful, as it is said, In your Churches bless ye God. (Ps. 68:26.) Whoever then so prays as to be seen of men does not look to God but to man, and so far as his purpose is concerned he prays in the synagogue. But he, whose mind in prayer is wholly fixed on God, though he pray in the synagogue, yet seems to pray with himself in secret. In the corners of the streets, namely, that they may seem to be praying retiredly; and thus earn a twofold praise, both that they pray, and that they pray in retirement.

GLOSS. (ord.) Or, the corners of the streets, are the places where one way crosses another, and makes four cross-ways.

PSEUDO-CHRYSOSTOM. He forbids us to pray in an assembly with the intent of being seen of that assembly, as He adds, that they may be seen of men. He that prays therefore should do nothing singular that might attract notice; as crying out, striking his breast, or reaching forth his hands.

AUGUSTINE. (ubi sup.) Not that the mere being seen of men is an impiety, but the doing this, in order to be seen of men.

CHRYSOSTOM. It is a good thing to be drawn away from the thought of empty glory, but especially in prayer. For our thoughts are apt to stray of themselves; if then we address ourselves to prayer with this disease upon us, how shall we understand those things that are said by us?

AUGUSTINE. (ubi sup.) The privity of other men is to be so far shunned by us, as it leads us to do any thing with this mind that we look for the fruit of their applause.

PSEUDO-CHRYSOSTOM. Verily I say unto you, they have received their reward, for every man where he sows there he reaps, therefore they who pray because of men, not because of God, receive praise of men, not of God.

CHRYSOSTOM. He says, have received, because God was ready to give them that reward which comes from Himself, but they prefer rather that which comes from men. He then goes on to teach how we should pray.

JEROME. This if taken in its plain sense teaches the hearer to shun all desire of vain honour in praying.

PSEUDO-CHRYSOSTOM. That none should be there present save he only who is praying, for a witness impedes rather than forwards prayer.

CYPRIAN. (Tr. vii. 2.) The Lord has bid us in His instructions to pray secretly in remote and withdrawn places, as best suited to faith; that we may be assured that God who is present every where hears and sees all, and in the fulness of His Majesty penetrates even hidden places.

PSEUDO-CHRYSOSTOM. We may also understand by the door of the chamber, the mouth of the body; so that we should not pray to God with loudness of tone, but with silent heart, for three reasons. First, because God is not to be gained by vehement crying, but by a right conscience, seeing He is a hearer of the heart; secondly, because none but thyself and God should be privy to your secret prayers; thirdly, because if you pray aloud, you hinder any other from praying near you.

CASSIAN. (Collat. ix. 35.) Also we should observe close silence in our prayers, that our enemies, who are ever most watchful to ensnare us at that time, may not know the purport of our petition.

AUGUSTINE. (ubi sup.) Or, by our chambers are to be understood our hearts, of which it is spoken in the fourth Psalm; (Ps 4:4.) What things ye utter in your hearts, and wherewith ye are pricked in your chambers. The door is the bodily senses; without are all worldly things, which, enter into our thoughts through the senses, and that crowd of vain imaginings which beset us in prayer.

CYPRIAN. (Tr. vii. 20.) What insensibility is it to be snatched wandering off by light and profane imaginings, when you are presenting your entreaty to the Lord, as if there were aught else you ought rather to consider than that your converse is with God! How can you claim of God to attend to you, when you do not attend to yourself? This is altogether to make no provision against the enemy; this is when praying to God, to offend God’s Majesty by the neglectfulness of your prayer.

AUGUSTINE. (ubi sup.) The door then must be shut, that is, we must resist the bodily sense, that we may address our Father in such spiritual prayer as is made in the inmost spirit, where we pray to Him truly in secret.

REMIGIUS. Let it be enough for you that He alone know your petitions, who knows the secrets of all hearts; for He Who sees all things, the same shall listen to you.

CHRYSOSTOM. He said not ‘shall freely give thee,’ but, shall reward thee; thus He constitutes Himself your debtor.


16. Moreover when ye fast, be not, as the hypocrites, of a sad countenance: for they disfigure their faces, that they may appear unto men to fast. Verily I say unto you, They have their reward.

PSEUDO-CHRYSOSTOM. Forasmuch as that prayer which is offered in a humble spirit and contrite heart, shews a mind already strong and disciplined; whereas he who is sunk in self-indulgence cannot have a humble spirit and contrite heart; it is plain that without fasting prayer must be faint and feeble; therefore, when any would pray for any need in which they might be, they joined fasting with prayer, because it is an aid thereof. Accordingly the Lord, after His doctrine respecting prayer, adds doctrine concerning fasting, saying, When ye fast, be not ye as the hypocrites, of sad countenance. The Lord knew that vanity may spring from every good thing, and therefore bids us root out the bramble of vain-gloriousness which springs in the good soil, that it choke not the fruit of fasting. For though it cannot be that fasting should not be discovered in any one, yet is it better that fasting should shew you, than that you should shew your fasting. But it is impossible that any in fasting should be gay, therefore He said not, Be not sad, but Be not made sad; for they who discover themselves by any false displays of their affliction, they are not sad, but make themselves; but he who is naturally sad in consequence of continued fasting, does not make himself sad, but is so.

JEROME. The word exterminare, so often used in the ecclesiastical Scriptures through a blunder of the translators, has a quite different meaning from that in which it is commonly understood. It is properly said of exiles who are sent beyond the boundary of their country. Instead of this word, it would seem better to use the word demoliri, ‘to destroy,’ in translating the Greek ἀφανίζειν. The hypocrite destroys his face, in order that he may feign sorrow, and with a heart full of joy wears sorrow in his countenance.

GREGORY. (Mor. viii. 44.) For by the pale countenance, the trembling limbs, and the bursting sighs, and by all so great toil and trouble, nothing is in the mind but the esteem of men.

LEO. (Serm. in Epiph. iv. 5.) But that fasting is not pure, that comes not of reasons of continence, but of the arts of deceit.

PSEUDO-CHRYSOSTOM. If then he who fasts, and makes himself of sad countenance, is a hypocrite, how much more wicked is he who does not fast, yet assumes a fictitious paleness of face as a token of fasting.

AUGUSTINE. (Serm. in Mont. ii. 12.) On this paragraph it is to be specially noted, that not only in outward splendor and pomp, but even in the dress of sorrow and mourning, is there room for display, and that the more dangerous, inasmuch as it deceives under the name of God’s services. For he who by inordinate pains taken with his person, or his apparel, or by the glitter of his other equipage, is distinguished, is easily proved by these very circumstances to be a follower of the pomps of this world, and no man is deceived by any semblance of a feigned sanctity in him. But when any one in the profession of Christianity draws men’s eyes upon him by unwonted beggary and slovenliness in dress, if this be voluntary and not compulsory, then by his other conduct may be seen whether he does this to be seen of men, or from contempt of the refinements of dress.

REMIGIUS. The reward of the hypocrites’ fast is shewn, when it is added, That they may seem to men to fast; verily I say unto you, They have their reward; that is, that reward for which they looked.


17. But thou, when thou fastest, anoint thine head, and wash thy face;

18. That thou appear not unto men to fast, but unto thy Father which is in secret: and thy Father, which seeth in secret, shall reward thee openly.

GLOSS. (ap. Anselm.) The Lord having taught us what we ought not to do, now proceeds to teach us what we ought to do, saying, When thou fastest, anoint thy head, and wash thy face.

AUGUSTINE. (ubi sup.) A question is here wont to be raised; for none surely would literally enjoin, that, as we wash our faces from daily habit, so we should have our heads anointed when we fast; a thing which all allow to be most disgraceful.

PSEUDO-CHRYSOSTOM. Also if He bade us not to be of sad countenance that we might not seem to men to fast, yet if anointing of the head and washing of the face are always observed in fasting, they will become tokens of fasting.

JEROME. But He speaks in accordance with the manners of the province of Palestine, where it is the custom on festival days to anoint the head. What He enjoins then is, that when we are fasting we should wear the appearance of joy and gladness.

PSEUDO-CHRYSOSTOM. Therefore the simple interpretation of this is, that is added as an hyperbolical explanation of the command; as though He had said, Yea, so far should ye be from any display of your fasting, that if it might be (which yet it may not be) so done, ye should even do such things as are tokens of luxury and feasting.

CHRYSOSTOM. (Hom. xx.) In almsgiving indeed, He did not say simply, ‘Do not your alms before men,’ but added, ‘to be seen of them.’ But in fasting and prayer He added nothing of this sort; because alms cannot be so done as to be altogether hid, fasting and prayer can be so done. The contempt of men’s praise is no small fruit, for thereby we are freed from the heavy slavery of human opinion, and become properly workers of virtue, loving it for itself and not for others. For as we esteem it an affront if we are loved not for ourselves but for others’ sake, so ought we not to follow virtue on the account of these men, nor to obey God for men’s sake but for His own. Therefore it follows here, But to thy Father which seeth in secret.

GLOSS. (ord.) That is, to thy heavenly Father, who is unseen, or who dwells in the heart through faith. He fasts to God who affliets himself for the love of God, and bestows on others what he denies himself.

REMIGIUS. For it is enough for you that He who sees your conscience should be your rewarder.

PSEUDO-CHRYSOSTOM. Spiritually interpreted—the face may be understood to mean the mental conscience. And as in the eyes of man a fair face has grace, so in the eyes of God a pure conscience has favour. This face the hypocrites, fasting on man’s account, disfigure, seeking thereby to cheat both God and man; for the conscience of the sinner is always wounded. If then you have cast out all wickedness from your heart, you have washed your conscience, and fast well.

LEO. (Serm. in Quadr. vi. 2.) Fasting ought to be fulfilled not in abstinence of food only, but much more in cutting off vices. For when we submit ourselves to that discipline in order to withdraw that which is the nurse of carnal desires, there is no sort of good conscience more to be sought than that we should keep ourselves sober from unjust will, and abstinent from dishonourable action. This is an act of religion from which the sick are not excluded, seeing integrity of heart may be found in an infirm body.

PSEUDO-CHRYSOSTOM. Spiritually again, thy head denotes Christ. Give the thirsty drink and feed the hungry, and therein you have anointed your head, that is, Christ, who cries out in the Gospel, In that ye have done this to one of the least of these my brethren, ye have done it to me. (Mat. 25:40.)

GREGORY. (Hom. in Ev. xvi. 6.) For God approves that fasting, which before His eyes opens the hands of alms. This then that you deny yourself, bestow on another, that wherein your flesh is afflicted, that of your needy neighbour may be refreshed.

AUGUSTINE. (ubi sup.) Or; by the head we rightly understand the reason, because it is preeminent in the soul, and rules the other members of the man. Now anointing the head has some reference to rejoicing. Let him therefore joy within himself because of his fasting, who in fasting turns himself from doing the will of the world, that he may be subject to Christ.

GLOSS. (ord.) Behold how every thing in the New Testament is not to be taken literally. It were ridiculous to be smeared with oil when fasting; but it is behoveful for the mind to be anointed with the spirit of His love, in whose sufferings we ought to partake by afflicting ourselves.

PSEUDO-CHRYSOSTOM. And truly we ought to wash our face, but to anoint, and not to wash, our head. For as long as we are in the body, our conscience is foul with sin. But Christ who is our head has done no sin.

Catena Aurea Matthew 6

6 posted on 02/22/2023 5:56:14 AM PST by annalex (fear them not)
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To: annalex

Saint Catherine of Alexandria at Prayer


Museum of Fine Arts, Boston

7 posted on 02/22/2023 5:56:52 AM PST by annalex (fear them not)
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To: annalex

Ad Majorem Dei Gloriam (To the Greater Glory of God)

From: Joel 2:12-18

An Urgent Call to Repentance
[12] “Yet even now,” says the LORD, “return to me with all your heart, with fasting, with weeping, and with mourning; [13] and rend your hearts and not your garments.” Return to the LORD, your God, for he is gracious and merciful, slow to anger, and abounding in steadfast love, and repents of evil. [14] Who knows whether he will not turn and repent, and leave a blessing behind him, a cereal offering and.a drink offering for the LORD, your God?

[15] Blow the trumpet in Zion; sanctify a fast; call a solemn assembly; [16] gather the people. Sanctify the congregation; assemble the elders; gather the children, even nursing infants. Let the bridegroom leave his room, and the bride her chamber.

The Priests Entreat the Lord
[17] Between the vestibule and the altar let the priests, the ministers of the LORD, weep and say, “Spare thy people, O LORD, and make not thy heritage a reproach, a byword among the nations. Why should they say among the peoples, ‘Where is their God?'"

[18] Then the LORD became jealous for his land, and had pity on his people.


2:12-17. The first part of the book ends with a general exhortation to conversion: there is an oracle of the Lord (“says the Lord”: v. 12), where the prophet makes an appeal on behalf of God; and then he specifically mentions the priests’ duty to do penance and offer prayers. Central to these words of warning is v. 13, which spells out what makes conversion last--God’s compassion and man’s sincere determination. St Jerome comments: "'Return to me with. all your heart': show your repentance and inner conversion through fasting, mourning and tears. By fasting now, your hunger will be satisfied later; mourning now, one day you will laugh; weeping now, you shall be consoled. The custom of rending one’s garments at times of sorrow or adversity is well-established: the high priest tore his robes to show the gravity of the Savior’s crime; and, according to the Acts of the Apostles, Paul and Barnabas ripped their tunics when they heard blasphemous words being spoken. But I tell you to rend not your garments, but your hearts that are filled with sin. The heart, like wineskins, does not tear of its own accord: it must be deliberately torn. When you have rent your heart in this way, return to the Lord, your God, from whom you have strayed by your sins. Never doubt his forgiveness, for no matter how many and grave your past sins have been, he will pardon you from the abundance of his mercy”("Commentarii in Ioelem", 2, 12ff).

2:17. This verse (which the liturgy of the Church uses as a call to penance on Ash Wednesday) acts as a conclusion to the first part of the book: a change of heart, backed up by sincere acts of penance, can cause God to stay his hand and spare his people any more affliction. The words that open the second part of the book (v. 18) tell us of the Lord’s response; from then on, hope is on the horizon: “God does not let himself be outdone in generosity. Be sure that he grants faithfulness to those who give themselves to him” (St Josemaria Escrivá, "The Forge", 623).

8 posted on 02/22/2023 6:00:20 AM PST by fidelis (👈 Under no obligation to respond to rude, ignorant, abusive, bellicose, and obnoxious posts.)
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To: fidelis
From: 2 Corinthians 5:20-6:2

The Ministry of Reconciliation (Continuation)
[20] So we are ambassadors for Christ, God making his appeal through us. We beseech you on behalf of Christ, be reconciled to God. [21] For our sake he made him to be sin who knew no sin, so that in him we might become the righteousness of God.

St Paul, a True Servant of Christ
[1] Working together with him, then, we entreat you not to accept the grace of God in vain. [2] For he says, "At the acceptable time I have listened to you, and helped you on the day of salvation." Behold, now is the acceptable time; behold, now is the day of salvation.


18-21. The reconciliation of mankind with God--whose friendship we lost through original sin--has been brought about by Christ's death on the cross. Jesus, who is like men in all things "yet without sinning" (Heb 4:14), bore the sins of men (cf. Is 53:4-12) and offered himself on the cross as an atoning sacrifice for all those sins (cf. 1 Pet 2:22-25), thereby reconciling men to God; through this sacrifice we became the righteousness of God, that is, we are justified, made just in God's sight (cf. Rom 1:17; 3:24-26 and notes). The Church reminds us of this in the rite of sacramental absolution: "God, the Father of mercies, through the death and resurrection of his son has reconciled the world to himself [...]."

Our Lord entrusted the Apostles with this ministry of reconciliation (v. 18), this "message of reconciliation" (v. 19), to pass it on to all men: elsewhere in the New Testament it is described as the "message of salvation" (Acts 13:26), the "word of grace" (Acts 14:3; 20:32), the "word of life" ( 1 Jn 1: 1). Thus, the Apostles were our Lord's ambassadors to men, to whom St Paul addresses a pressing call: "be reconciled to God", that is, apply to yourselves the reconciliation obtained by Jesus Christ--which is done mainly through the sacraments of Baptism and Penance. "The Lord Jesus instituted in his Church the sacrament of Penance, so that those who have committed sins after Baptism might be reconciled with God, whom they have offended, and with the Church itself whom they have injured" (John Paul II, "Aperite Portas", 5).

21. "He made him to be sin": obviously St Paul does not mean that Christ was guilty of sin; he does not say "to be a sinner" but "to be sin". "Christ had no sin," St Augustine says; "he bore sins, but he did not commit them" ("Enarrationes in Psalmos", 68, 1, 10).

According to the rite of atoning sacrifices (cf. Lev 4:24; 5:9; Num 19:9; Mic 6:7; Ps 40:7) the word "sin", corresponding to the Hebrew "asam", refers to the actual act of sacrifice or to the victim being offered. Therefore, this phrase means "he made him a victim for sin" or "a sacrifice for sin". it should be remembered that in the Old Testament nothing unclean or blemished could be offered to God; the offering of an unblemished animal obtained God's pardon for the transgression which one wanted to expiate. Since Jesus was the most perfect of victims offered for us, he made full atonement for all sins. In the Letter to the Hebrews, when comparing Christ's sacrifice with that of the priests of the Old Testament, it is expressly stated that "every priest stands daily at his service, offering repeatedly the same sacrifices, which can never take away sins. But when Christ had offered for all time a single sacrifice for sins, he sat down at the right hand of God, then to wait until his enemies should be made a stool for his feet. For by a single offering he has perfected for all time those who are sanctified" (Heb 10:11-14).

This concentrated sentence also echoes the Isaiah prophecy about the sacrifice of the Servant of Yahweh; Christ, the head of the human race, makes men sharers in the grace and glory he achieved through his sufferings: "upon him was the chastisement that made us whole, and with his stripes we are healed" (Is 53:5).

Jesus Christ, burdened with our sins and offering himself on the cross as a sacrifice for them, brought about the Redemption: the Redemption is the supreme example both of God's justice--which requires atonement befitting the offense--and of his mercy, that mercy which makes him love the world so much that "he gave his only Son" (Jn 3:16). "In the Passion and Death of Christ--in the fact that the Father did not spare his own Son, but 'for our sake made him sin'--absolute justice is expressed, for Christ undergoes the Passion and Cross because of the sins of humanity. This constitutes even a 'superabundance' of justice, for the sins of man are 'compensated for' by the sacrifice of the Man-God. Nevertheless, this justice, which is properly justice 'to God's measure', springs completely from love, from the love of the Father and of the Son, and completely bears fruit in love. Precisely for this reason the divine justice revealed in the Cross of Christ is 'to God's measure', because it springs from love and is accomplished in love, producing fruits of salvation. The divine dimension of redemption is put into effect not only by bringing justice to bear upon sin, but also by restoring to love that creative power in man thanks to which he once more has access to the fullness of life and holiness that come from God. In this way, redemption involves the revelation of mercy in its fullness" (John Paul II, "Dives In Misericordia", 7).

1-10. St Paul concludes his long defense of his apostolic ministry (cf. 3:1-6:10) by saying that he has always tried to act as a worthy servant of God. First he calls on the Corinthians to have a sense of responsibility so that the grace of God be not ineffective in them (vv. 1-2), and then he briefly describes the afflictions this ministry has meant for him. Earlier, he touched on this subject (cf. 4:7-12), and he will deal with it again in 11:23-33.

1-2. St Paul exhorts the faithful not to accept the grace of God in vain-which would happen if they did not cultivate the faith and initial grace they received in Baptism and if they neglected the graces which God continues to send them. This exhortation is valid for all Christians: "We receive the grace of God in vain", St Francis de Sales points out, "when we receive it at the gate of our heart, without allowing it to enter: we receive it without receiving it; we receive it without fruit, since there is no use in feeling the inspiration if one does not consent unto it. And just as the sick man who has the medicine in his hands, if he takes only part of it, will only partially benefit from it, so too, when God sends a great and mighty inspiration to move us to embrace his love, if we do not avail of it in its entirety, we shall benefit from it only partially" ("Treatise on the Love of God", book 2, chap. 11).

The Apostle urges them to cultivate the grace they have been given, using a quotation from Isaiah (49:8): the right time has come, the day of salvation. His words recall our Lord's preaching in the synagogue of Nazareth (cf. Lk 4:16-21).

The "acceptable time" will last until Christ comes in glory at the end of the world (in the life of the individual, it will last until the hour of his death); until then, every day is "the day of salvation": "'Ecce none dies salutis', the day of salvation is here before us. The call of the good shepherd has reached us: '"ego vocavi te nomine too", I have called you by name' (Is 43:1). Since love repays love, we must reply: '"ecce ego quia vocasti me", Here I am, for you called me' (1 Sam 3:5) [...]. I will be converted, I will turn again to the Lord and love him as he wants to be loved" (St J. Escriva, "Christ Is Passing By", 59).

9 posted on 02/22/2023 6:00:57 AM PST by fidelis (👈 Under no obligation to respond to rude, ignorant, abusive, bellicose, and obnoxious posts.)
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To: fidelis
From: Matthew 6:1-6, 16-18

An Upright Intention in Almsgiving, Prayer and Fasting
(Jesus said to His disciples,) [1] "Beware of practising your piety before men in order to be seen by them; for then you will have no reward from your Father who is in Heaven.

[2] "Thus, when you give alms, sound no trumpet before you, as the hypocrites do in the synagogues and in the streets, that they may be praised by men. Truly, I say to you, they have their reward. [3] But when you give alms, do not let your left hand know what your right hand is doing, [4] so that your alms may be in secret; and your Father who sees in secret will reward you.

[5] "And when you pray, you must not be like the hypocrites; for they love to stand and pray in the synagogues and at the street corners, that they may be seen by men. Truly, I say to you, they have their reward. [6] But when you pray, go into your room and shut the door and pray to your Father who is in secret; and your Father who sees in secret will reward you.

[16] "And when you fast, do not look dismal, like the hypocrites, for they disfigure their faces that their fasting may be seen by men. Truly, I say to you, they have their reward. [17] But when you fast, anoint your head and wash your face, [18] that your fasting may not be seen by men but by your Father who is in secret; and your Father who sees in secret will reward you."


1-18. "Piety", here, means good works (cf. note on Matthew 5:6). Our Lord is indicating the kind of spirit in which we should do acts of personal piety. Almsgiving, fasting and prayer were the basic forms taken by personal piety among the chosen people--which is why Jesus refers to these three subjects. With complete authority He teaches that true piety must be practised with an upright intention, in the presence of God and without any ostentation. Piety practised in this way implies exercising our faith in God who sees us--and also in the safe knowledge that He will reward those who are sincerely devout.

5-6. Following the teaching of Jesus, the Church has always taught us to pray even when we were infants. By saying "you" (singular) our Lord is stating quite unequivocally the need for personal prayer—relating as child to Father, alone with God.

Public prayer, for which Christ's faithful assemble together, is something necessary and holy; but it should never displace obedience to this clear commandment of our Lord: "When you pray, go into your room and shut the door and pray to your Father".

The Second Vatican Council reminds us of the teaching and practice of the Church in its liturgy, which is "the summit toward which the activity of the Church is directed; it is also the fount from which all her power flows [...]. The spiritual life, however, is not limited solely to participation in the liturgy. The Christian is indeed called to pray with others, but he must also enter into his bedroom to pray to his Father in secret; furthermore, according to the teaching of the Apostle, he must pray without ceasing (1 Thessalonians 5:17)" ("Sacrosanctum Concilium", 10 and 12).

A soul who really puts his Christian faith into practice realizes that he needs frequently to get away and pray alone to his Father, God. Jesus, who gives us this teaching about prayer, practised it during His own life on earth: the holy Gospel reports that He often went apart to pray on His own: "At times He spent the whole night in an intimate conversation with His Father. The Apostles were filled with love when they saw Christ pray" ([St] J. Escriva, "Christ Is Passing By", 119; cf. Matthew 14:23; Mark 1:35; Luke 5:16; etc.). The Apostles followed the Master's example, and so we see Peter going up to the rooftop of the house to pray in private, and receiving a revelation (cf. Acts 10:9-16). "Our life of prayer should also be based on some moments that are dedicated exclusively to our conversation with God, moments of silent dialogue" ("ibid", 119).

16-18. Starting from the traditional practice of fasting, our Lord tells us the spirit in which we should exercise mortification of our senses: we should do so without ostentation, avoiding praise, discreetly; that way Jesus' words will not apply to us: "they have their reward"; it would have been a very bad deal. "The world admires only spectacular sacrifice, because it does not realize the value of sacrifice that is hidden and silent" (St J. Escriva, "The Way", 185).

Source: Daily Word for Reflection—Navarre Bible

10 posted on 02/22/2023 6:01:11 AM PST by fidelis (👈 Under no obligation to respond to rude, ignorant, abusive, bellicose, and obnoxious posts.)
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To: annalex


Papias, along with Ignatius and Polycarp, was considered among the disciples of John, perhaps even his scribe. He later became bishop of Hierapolis in Asia Minor.  The tradition that he was John's scribe may have come from the fact that Papias was a compiler of the sayings and teachings of Jesus, which made up his Expositions of the Sayings of the Lord, in five books, which he presumably published sometime around 130 A.D.  Unfortunately, only fragments of this work have survived. As few as they are, these fragments provide a glimpse into the material in circulation to which John referred: "Jesus worked many other miracles for his disciples, and not all of them are written in this book" (John 20:30, CEV); (see also John 21:25). Their influence seems to have continued even after the Gospels were written, providing a glimpse of the oral tradition that survived. Jerome, in his Lives of Illustrious Men 18 quotes the Preface to Papias' work:

I used to inquire about what Andrew or Peter had said, or Philip or Thomas or James or John or Matthew, or any other of the Lord's disciples, and what Aristion and John the Elder, disciples of the Lord, were saying. For books to read are not as useful to me as the living voice sounding out clearly up to the present day in the persons of their authors.

Papias would seem to be at least as important a figure as Ignatius and Polycarp. And yet, little is known about him, his birth, or his death. Perhaps this is because he did not suffer martyrdom as they did and therefore did not attain the same level of fame or notoriety posthumously. Most of what we learn about Papias comes from Eusebius and Irenaeus. Eusebius is critical of Papias, whereas Irenaeus uses Papias to support his own millennial teaching of chiliasm - the literal 1000-year reign of Christ on earth.  But Papias is also interesting because of what he has to say concerning the origin and authorship of the Gospels.  He speaks of an original Aramaic version of the Gospel of Matthew, which existed before the Greek one.  He also mentions Peter as the main source for Mark's information regarding the Gospel of Mark. It is Eusebius' reading of the Papias Preface, however, which has provided the most controversy. The controversy concerns the authorship of the Fourth Gospel and of Revelation.
Eusebius asserted, on the basis of the Papias quote given above, that there were two Johns at Ephesus: one known as John the apostle who wrote the Gospel, and the other John the elder who is referred to in 2nd and 3rd John and who also wrote the Revelation (See Eusebius, Ecclesiastical History 3.39.1-8). Since the Gospel itself leaves its authorship an open question, there is legitimate room for speculation as to John's identity. However, there is nothing to prevent viewing these two Johns listed in Papias' writings as the same person—especially considering the antipathy of Eusebius towards the Book of Revelation being included in the canon he enumerates.
11 posted on 02/22/2023 6:04:41 AM PST by annalex (fear them not)
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To: annalex

The Martyrion in Pamukkale at the title image is all that remains of Hierapolis today.

12 posted on 02/22/2023 6:06:01 AM PST by annalex (fear them not)
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To: fidelis
Click here to go to the My Catholic Life! Devotional thread for today’s Gospel Reading
13 posted on 02/22/2023 6:06:54 AM PST by fidelis (👈 Under no obligation to respond to rude, ignorant, abusive, bellicose, and obnoxious posts.)
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To: annalex

From Nuremberg Chronicle

14 posted on 02/22/2023 6:08:45 AM PST by annalex (fear them not)
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