Skip to comments.Catholic Caucus: Daily Mass Readings 17-February-2023
Posted on 02/17/2023 6:40:40 AM PST by annalex
Friday of week 6 in Ordinary Time
St. Evermode of Ratzeburg blessing the church
Readings at Mass
Liturgical Colour: Green. Year: A(I).
The tower of Babel
Throughout the earth men spoke the same language, with the same vocabulary. Now as they moved eastwards they found a plain in the land of Shinar where they settled. They said to one another, ‘Come, let us make bricks and bake them in the fire.’ (For stone they used bricks, and for mortar they used bitumen). ‘Come,’ they said ‘let us build ourselves a town and a tower with its top reaching heaven. Let us make a name for ourselves, so that we may not be scattered about the whole earth.’
Now the Lord came down to see the town and the tower that the sons of man had built. ‘So they are all a single people with a single language!’ said the Lord. ‘This is but the start of their undertakings! There will be nothing too hard for them to do. Come, let us go down and confuse their language on the spot so that they can no longer understand one another.’ The Lord scattered them thence over the whole face of the earth, and they stopped building the town. It was named Babel therefore, because there the Lord confused the language of the whole earth. It was from there that the Lord scattered them over the whole face of the earth.
Happy the people the Lord has chosen as his own.
He frustrates the designs of the nations,
he defeats the plans of the peoples.
His own designs shall stand for ever,
the plans of his heart from age to age.
Happy the people the Lord has chosen as his own.
They are happy, whose God is the Lord,
the people he has chosen as his own.
From the heavens the Lord looks forth,
he sees all the children of men.
Happy the people the Lord has chosen as his own.
From the place where he dwells he gazes
on all the dwellers on the earth;
he who shapes the hearts of them all;
and considers all their deeds.
Happy the people the Lord has chosen as his own.
Whenever anyone obeys what Christ has said,
God’s love comes to perfection in him.
I call you friends, says the Lord,
because I have made known to you
everything I have learnt from my Father.
Anyone who loses his life for my sake will save it
Jesus called the people and his disciples to him and said:
‘If anyone wants to be a follower of mine, let him renounce himself and take up his cross and follow me. For anyone who wants to save his life will lose it; but anyone who loses his life for my sake, and for the sake of the gospel, will save it. What gain, then, is it for a man to win the whole world and ruin his life? And indeed what can a man offer in exchange for his life? For if anyone in this adulterous and sinful generation is ashamed of me and of my words, the Son of Man will also be ashamed of him when he comes in the glory of his Father with the holy angels.’ And he said to them, ‘I tell you solemnly, there are some standing here who will not taste death before they see the kingdom of God come with power.’
Each day, The Christian Art website gives a picture and reflection on the Gospel of the day.
The readings on this page are from the Jerusalem Bible, which is used at Mass in most of the English-speaking world. The New American Bible readings, which are used at Mass in the United States, are available in the Universalis apps, programs and downloads.
KEYWORDS: catholic; mk8; ordinarytime; prayer
Please FReepmail me to get on/off the Alleluia Ping List.
|English: Douay-Rheims||Latin: Vulgata Clementina||Greek NT: Byzantine/Majority Text (2000)|
|34.||And calling the multitude together with his disciples, he said to them: If any man will follow me, let him deny himself, and take up his cross, and follow me.||Et convocata turba cum discipulis suis, dixit eis : Si quis vult me sequi, deneget semetipsum : et tollat crucem suam, et sequatur me.||και προσκαλεσαμενος τον οχλον συν τοις μαθηταις αυτου ειπεν αυτοις οστις θελει οπισω μου ακολουθειν απαρνησασθω εαυτον και αρατω τον σταυρον αυτου και ακολουθειτω μοι|
|35.||For whosoever will save his life, shall lose it: and whosoever shall lose his life for my sake and the gospel, shall save it.||Qui enim voluerit animam suam salvam facere, perdet eam : qui autem perdiderit animam suam propter me, et Evangelium, salvam faciet eam.||ος γαρ αν θελη την ψυχην αυτου σωσαι απολεσει αυτην ος δ αν απολεση την εαυτου ψυχην ενεκεν εμου και του ευαγγελιου ουτος σωσει αυτην|
|36.||For what shall it profit a man, if he gain the whole world, and suffer the loss of his soul?||Quid enim proderit homini, si lucretur mundum totum et detrimentum animæ suæ faciat ?||τι γαρ ωφελησει ανθρωπον εαν κερδηση τον κοσμον ολον και ζημιωθη την ψυχην αυτου|
|37.||Or what shall a man give in exchange for his soul?||Aut quid dabit homo commutationis pro anima sua ?||η τι δωσει ανθρωπος ανταλλαγμα της ψυχης αυτου|
|38.||For he that shall be ashamed of me, and of my words, in this adulterous and sinful generation: the Son of man also will be ashamed of him, when he shall come in the glory of his Father with the holy angels.||Qui enim me confusus fuerit, et verba mea in generatione ista adultera et peccatrice, et Filius hominis confundetur eum, cum venerit in gloria Patris sui cum angelis sanctis.||ος γαρ εαν επαισχυνθη με και τους εμους λογους εν τη γενεα ταυτη τη μοιχαλιδι και αμαρτωλω και ο υιος του ανθρωπου επαισχυνθησεται αυτον οταν ελθη εν τη δοξη του πατρος αυτου μετα των αγγελων των αγιων|
|1.||8:39 And he said to them: Amen I say to you, that there are some of them that stand here, who shall not taste death, till they see the kingdom of God coming in power.||8:39 Et dicebat illis : Amen dico vobis, quia sunt quidam de hic stantibus, qui non gustabunt mortem donec videant regnum Dei veniens in virtute.||και ελεγεν αυτοις αμην λεγω υμιν οτι εισιν τινες των ωδε εστηκοτων οιτινες ου μη γευσωνται θανατου εως αν ιδωσιν την βασιλειαν του θεου εληλυθυιαν εν δυναμει|
34. And when he had called the people unto him with his disciples also, he said unto them, Whosoever will come after me, let him deny himself, and take up his cross, and follow me.
35. For whosoever will save his life shall lose it; but whosoever shall lose his life for my sake and the Gospel’s, the same shall save it.
36. For what shall it profit a man, if he shall gain the whole world, and lose his own soul?
37. Or what shall a man give in exchange for his soul?
38. Whosoever therefore shall be ashamed of me and of my words in this adulterous and sinful generation; of him also shall the Son of man be ashamed, when he cometh in the glory of his Father with the holy angels.
BEDE. After shewing to His disciples the mystery of His passion and resurrection, He exhorts them, as well as the multitude, to follow the example of His passion. Wherefore it goes on; And when he had called the people unto him with his disciples also, he said unto them, Whosoever wishes to come after me, let him deny himself.
CHRYSOSTOM. (Hom. in Matt. 55) As if He would say to Peter, Thou indeed dost rebuke Me, who am willing to undergo My passion, but I tell thee, that not only is it wrong to prevent Me from suffering, but neither canst thou be saved unless thou thyself diest. Again He says, Whosoever wishes to come after me; as if He said, I call you to those good things which a man should wish for, I do not force you to evil and burdensome things; for he who does violence to his hearer, often stands in his way; but he who leaves him free, rather draws him to himself. And a man denies himself when he cares not for his body, so that whether it be scourged, or whatever of like nature it may suffer, he bears it patiently.
THEOPHYLACT. For a man who denies another, be it brother or father, does not sympathize with him, nor grieve at his fate, though he be wounded and die; thus we ought to despise our body, so that if it should be wounded or hurt in any way, we should not mind its suffering.
CHRYSOSTOM. (ubi sup.) But He says not, a man should not spare himself, but what is more, that he should deny himself, as if he had nothing in common with himself, but face danger, and look upon such things as if another were suffering; and this is really to spare himself; for parents then most truly act kindly to their children, when they give them up to their masters, with an injunction not to spare them. Again, He shews the degree to which a man should deny himself, when He says, And take up his cross, by which He means, even to the most shameful death.
THEOPHYLACT. For at that time the cross appeared shameful, because malefactors were fixed to it.
PSEUDO-JEROME. Or else, as a skilful pilot, foreseeing a storm in a calm, wishes his sailors to be prepared; so also the Lord says, If any one will follow me, &c.
BEDE. (ubi sup.) For we deny ourselves, when we avoid what we were of old, and strive to reach that point, whither we are newly called. And the cross is taken up by us, when either our body is pained by abstinence, or our soul afflicted by fellow-feeling for our neighbour.
THEOPHYLACT. But because after the cross we must have a new strength, He adds, and follow me.
CHRYSOSTOM. (ubi sup.) And this He says, because it may happen that a man may suffer and yet not follow Christ, that is, when he does not suffer for Christ’s sake; for he follows Christ, who walks after Him, and conforms himself to His death, despising those principalities and powers under whose power, before the coming of Christ, he committed sin. Then there follows, For whosoever will save his life shall lose it; but whosoever shall lose his life for my sake and the Gospel’s, the same shall save it. I give you these commands, as it were to spare you; for whosoever spares his son, brings him to destruction, but whosoever does not spare him, saves him. It is therefore right to be always prepared for death; for if in the battles of this world, he who is prepared for death fights better than others, though none can restore him to life after death, much more is this the case in spiritual battle, when so great a hope of resurrection is set before him, since he who gives up his soul unto death saves it.
REMIGIUS. And life is to be taken in this place for the present life, and not for the substance itself of the soul.
CHRYSOSTOM. (ubi sup.) As therefore He had said, For who so ever will save his life shall lose it, lest any one should suppose this loss to be equivalent to that salvation, He adds, For what shall it profit a man, if he shall gain the whole world, and lose his own soul, &c. As if He said, Think not that he has saved his soul, who has shunned the perils of the cross; for when a man, at the cost of his soul, that is, his life, gains the whole world, what has he besides, now that his soul is perishing? Has he another soul to give for his soul? For a man can give the price of his house in exchange for the house, but in losing his soul, he has not another soul to give. And it is with a purpose that He says, Or what shall a man give in exchange for his soul? for God, in exchange for our salvation, has given the precious blood of Jesus Christ.
BEDE. (in Marc. 2, 36) Or else He says this, because in time of persecution, our life is to be laid aside, but in time of peace, our earthly desires are to be broken, which He implies when He says, For what shall it profit a man, &c. But we are often hindered by a habit of shamefacedness, from expressing with our voice the rectitude which we preserve in our hearts; and therefore it is added, For whosoever shall confess me and my words in this adulterous and sinful generation, him also shall the Son of man confess, when he cometh in the glory of his Father with the holy angels.
THEOPHYLACT. For that faith which only remains in the mind is not sufficient, but the Lord requires also the confession of the mouth; for when the soul is sanctified by faith, the body ought also to be sanctified by confession.
PSEUDO-CHRYSOSTOM. (Vict. Ant. e Cat. in Marc.) He then who has learned this, is bound zealously to confess Christ without shame. And this generation is called adulterous, because it has left God the true Bridegroom of the soul, and has refused to follow the doctrine of Christ, but has prostrated itself to the devil and taken up the seeds of impiety, for which reason also it is called sinful. Whosoever therefore amongst them has denied the kingdom of Christ, and the words of God revealed in the Gospel, shall receive a reward befitting His impiety, when He hears in the second advent, I know you not. (Matt. 7:23)
THEOPHYLACT. Him then who shall have confessed that his God was crucified, Christ Himself also shall confess, not here, where He is esteemed poor and wretched, but in His glory and with a multitude of Angels.
GREGORY. (Hom. 32. in Evang.) There are however some, who confess Christ, because they see that all men are Christians; for if the name of Christ were not at this day in such great glory, the Holy Church would not have so many professors. The voice of profession therefore is not sufficient for a trial of faith whilst the profession of the generality defends it from shame. In the time of peace therefore there is another way, by which we may be known to ourselves. We are ever fearful of being despised by our neighbours, we think it shame to bear injurious words; if perchance we have quarrelled with our neighbour, we blush to be the first to give satisfaction; for our carnal heart, in seeking the glory of this life, disdains humility.
THEOPHYLACT. But because He had spoken of His glory, in order to shew that His promises were not vain, He subjoins, Verily I say unto you, That there be some of them that stand here who shall not taste of death, till they have seen the kingdom of God come with power. As if He said, Some, that is, Peter, James, and John, shall not taste of death, until I shew them, in my transfiguration, with what glory I am to come in my second advent; for the transfiguration was nothing else, but an announcement of the second coming of Christ, in which also Christ Himself and the Saints will shine.
BEDE. (in Marc. 3. 36) Truly it was done with a loving foresight, in order that they, having tasted for a brief moment the contemplation of everlasting joy, might with the greater strength bear up under adversity.
CHRYSOSTOM. (Hom. in Matt. 56) And He did not declare the names of those who were about to go up, lest the other disciples should feel some touch of human frailty, and He tells it to them beforehand, that they might come with minds better prepared to be taught all that concerned that vision.
BEDE. (ubi sup.) Or else the present Church is called the kingdom of God; and some of the disciples were to live in the body until they should see the Church built up, and raised against the glory of the world; for it was right to make some promises concerning this life to the disciples who were uninstructed, that they might be built up with greater strength for the time to come.
PSEUDO-CHRYSOSTOM. (Orig. in Matt. tom. xii. 33, 35) But in a mystical sense, Christ is life, and the devil is death, and he tastes of death, who dwells in sin; even now every one, according as he has good or evil doctrines, tastes the bread either of life or of death. And indeed, it is a less evil to see death, a greater to taste of it, still worse to follow it, worst of all to be subject to it.
1. And he said unto them, Verily I say unto you, That there be some of them that stand here, which shall not taste of death, till they have seen the kingdom of God come with power.
PSEUDO-JEROME. After the consummation of the cross, the glory of the resurrection is shewn, that they, who were to see with their own eyes the glory of the resurrection to come, might not fear the shame of the cross; wherefore it is said, And after six days Jesus taketh with him Peter, and James, and John, and led them up into an high mountain apart by themselves, and he was transfigured before them.
Catena Aurea Mark 8
Catena Aurea Mark 9
Today we celebrate the memoria of Saint Evermode († 1178); one of Our Holy Father Norbert’s closest friends and disciples, he was also the first of a long line of Premonstratensian bishops of Ratzeburg and is credited with the conversion of the Wends.
Evermode is thought to have been born in Belgium during the 1100s, although little is known of his youth. He was in his twenties when he encountered St. Norbert preaching at Cambrai. Evermode was struck with Norbert’s words and immediately left everything to return with Norbert to Prémontré. From that day Evermode never left Norbert’s side and accompanied him on all his journeys. The Vita A of St. Norbert describes the friendship of the two
“a man after his own heart. Norbert’s spirit so rested in him that he confided to Evermode where he wanted to be buried after he died and ordered that he should never leave him without returning”.
True to Norbert’s direction Evermode followed him everywhere and was present at all the key moments of Norbert’s life as both priest and later archbishop. Evermode was present at the death of St. Norbert and was deeply affected by the death of his dear friend. In iconography Evermode is often depicted with tears in his eyes; tears shed for his friend.
From 1134 to 1138 he was the provost of the Abbey of Gottesgnaden in Saxony, and, from 1138 to 1154 provost of St. Mary’s in Magdeburg. In the year 1154 Evermode was appointed the first bishop of the newly founded diocese of Ratzeburg. A cathedral chapter of thirteen Norbertines surrounded Evermode and so the Premonstratensians were firmly established in the diocese. As bishop he was known above all else for his apostolic zeal for the conversion of the pagan peoples of the north, most notably the Wends. So successful were Evermode’s attempts at their conversion that he acquired the title ‘Apostle of the Wends’. The efforts of Evermode and the Premonstratensians with their conversion have earned the Order the accolade of being the only religious order to be credited with the conversion of an entire nation. Evermode was also known for his keen sense of justice. When Count Henry of Ratzeburg mistreated his prisoners Evermode pleaded with the Count for their humane treatment. God too heard Evermode’s plea for the imprisoned and worked a miracle. On Easter Day when the time for the asperges came, Evermode sprinkled the prisoners with the holy water and immediately their chains were broken.
Saint Evermode, Apostle of the Wends, Beloved Disciple of St. Norbert died on this day in 1178. Let us continually invoke his intercession for his fellow Premonstratensians, for those afflicted with the loss of those they love and for those deprived of justice.
O Lord our God, you blessed St. Evermode with the gift of faithfulness and made him a zealous bishop of your church. Through his intercession grant that we may persevere to the end in good works and ever be filled with zeal for the salvation of souls. May St. Evermode keep us ever faithful to the spirit of St. Norbert. We ask this through Christ our Lord, Amen.
Catholic parish church, former Premonstratensian monastery church of St. Johannes Baptist in Steingaden in the district of Weilheim-Schongau (Bavaria/Germany), wall frescos (arcade paintings) by Johann Georg Bergmüller, created between 1741/42 and 1751; Depiction: Bishop Evermod loosens the chains of prisoners
Ad Majorem Dei Gloriam (To the Greater Glory of God)
From: Genesis 11:1-9
Babel: the confusion of language
 Now the whole earth had one language and few words.  And as men migrated from the east, they found a plain in the land of Shinar and settled there.  And they said to one another, “Come, let us make bricks, and burn them thoroughly.” And they had brick for stone, and bitumen for mortar.  Then they said, “Come, let us build ourselves a city, and a tower with its top in the heavens, and let us make a name for ourselves, lest we be scattered abroad upon the face of the whole earth.”  And the Lord came down to see the city and the tower, which the sons of men had built.  And the Lord said, “Behold, they are one people, and they have all one language; and this is only the beginning of what they will do; and nothing that they propose to do will now be impossible for them.  Come, let us go down, and there confuse their language, that they may not understand one another’s speech.”  So the Lord scattered them abroad from there over the face of all the earth, and they left off building the city.  Therefore its name was called Babel, because there the Lord confused the language of all the earth; and from there the Lord scattered them abroad over the face of all the earth.
11:1-9. The text goes on to describe the growth of evil (cf. 8:21; 9:20-27), and, as one of its results, the fact that mankind is scattered and its God-given unity is fragmented. Thus, the text begins by talking about mankind when it was still together; it came from the east, where it originated and settled in the plains of Mesopotamia (in Shinar; cf. 10:10). But the people are filled with pride, and want to make a name for themselves, and to guarantee their own security by reaching heaven by their own efforts. This attitude is epitomized by the project of building a massive tower (we can get some idea of it from the tower-temples of Mesopotamia, the ziggurats, on whose high terraces the Babylonians thought they could gain access to the godhead and thus dominate God). The text also offers an explanation for why there are so many languages; it sees language as a sign of division and misunderstanding between individuals and nations. It is based on the popular meaning of the word “babel”, connecting it with the Hebrew “balbalah”, confusion; but in fact Babel means “gate of God”. We have here an instance of literary devices being used to expound deep convictions – in this case the view that disunion in mankind is the outcome of men’s pride and sinfulness.
Babel thus becomes the opposite of Jerusalem, the city to which, the prophets say, all the nations will flock (cf. Is 2:2-3). And it will be in the Church, the new Jerusalem, that men of all nations, races and tongues will join in faith and love, as will be seen in the Pentecost event (cf. Acts 2:1-13). There the phenomenon of Babel will be reversed: all will understand the same language. In the history of mankind, in effect, the Church is a kind of sign or sacrament of the union of God and men, and of the unity of the whole human race (cf. Vatican II, Lumen gentium, 1).
11:4. St Augustine explains the frustration of man’s designs against God in this way: “Where would man’s vain presumption have ended if it succeeded in rearing a building of such size and height, even to the sky in the face of God – since they would have been higher than any mountain and would have reached beyond the limits of our atmosphere? In any case, no harm could have come to God from any straining after spiritual or physical elevation” (De civitate Dei, 16, 4).
This new sin of mankind is basically the same sort of sin as was committed in paradise; it is a kind of continuation of it. It is the sin of pride to which man is always prone and it has been well described in the following words of Blessed Josemaria Escriva when he comments on 1 John 2:16: “They eyes of our soul grow dull. Reason proclaims itself sufficient to understand everything, without the aid of God. This is a subtle temptation, which hides behind the power of our intellect, given by our Father God to man so that he might know and love him freely. Seduced by this temptation, the human mind appoints itself the centre of the universe, being thrilled with the prospect that ‘you shall be like gods’ (cf. Gen 3:5). So, filled with love for itself, it turns its back on the love of God. In this way does our existence fall prey unconditionally to the third enemy: pride of life. It’s not merely a question of passing thoughts of vanity or self-love, it’s a state of general conceit. Let’s not deceive ourselves, for this is the worst of all evils, the root of every false step. The fight against pride has to be a constant battle, to such an extent that someone once said that pride only disappears twenty-four hours after a person dies. It is the arrogance of the Pharisee whom God cannot transform because he finds in him the obstacle of self-sufficiency. It is the haughtiness which leads to despising other people, to lording it over them, and so mistreating them. For ‘when pride comes, then comes disgrace’ (Prov 11:2)” (Christ Is Passing By, 6)
Christian Renunciation (Continuation)
 And He (Jesus) called to Him the multitude with His disciples, and said to them, "If any man would come after Me, let him deny himself and take up his cross and follow Me.  For whoever would save his life will lose it; and whoever loses his life for My sake and the Gospel's will save it.  For what does it profit a man to gain the whole world and forfeit his life?  For what can a man give in return for his life?  For whoever is ashamed of Me and of My words in this adulterous and sinful generation, of him will the Son of Man also be ashamed, when He comes in the glory of His Father with the holy angels".
 And He said to them, "Truly, I say to you, there are some standing here who will not taste death before they see the Kingdom of God come with power."
35. "Life": in the original text and the New Vulgate the word literally means "soul." But here, as in many other cases, "soul" and "life" are equivalent. The word "life" is used, clearly, in a double sense: earthly life and eternal life, the life of man here on earth and man's eternal happiness in Heaven. Death can put an end to earthly life, but it cannot destroy eternal life (cf. Matthew 10:28), the life which can only be given by Him who brings the dead back to life.
Understood in this way, we can grasp the paradoxical meaning of our Lord's phrase: whoever wishes to save his (earthly) life will lose his (eternal) life. But whoever loses his (earthly) life for Me and the Gospel, will save his (eternal) life. What, then, does saving one's (earthly) life mean? It means living this life as if there were non other--letting oneself be controlled by the lust of the flesh and the lust of the eyes and the pride of life (cf. 1 John 2:16). And losing one's (earthly) life means mortifying, by continuous ascetical effort, this triple concupiscence--that is, taking up one's cross (verse 34)—and consequently seeking and savoring the things that are God's and not the things of the earth (cf. Colossians 3:1-2).
36-37. Jesus promises eternal life to those who are willing to lose earthly life for His sake. He has given us example: He is the Good Shepherd who lays down His life for His sheep (John 10:15); and He fulfilled in His own case what He said to the Apostles on the night before He died: "Greater love has no man than this that a man lay down his life for his friends" (John 15:13).
38. Each person's eternal destiny will be decided by Christ. He is the Judge who will come to judge the living and the dead (Matthew 16:27). The sentence will depend on how faithful each has been in keeping the Lord's commandments--to love God and to love one's neighbor, for God's sake. On that day Christ will not recognize as His disciple anyone who is ashamed to imitate Jesus' humility and example and follow the precepts of the Gospel for fear of displeasing the world or worldly people: he has failed to confess by his life the faith which he claims to hold. A Christian, then, should never be ashamed of the Gospel (Romans 1:16); he should never let himself be drawn away by the worldliness around him; rather he should exercise a decisive influence on his environment, counting on the help of God's grace. The first Christians changed the ancient pagan world. God's arm has not grown shorter since their time (cf. Isaiah 59:1). Cf. Matthew 10:32-33 and note on same.
Matthew 10:32-33 reads: “ So every one who acknowledges Me before men, I also will acknowledge before My Father who is in heaven;  but whoever denies Me before men, I also will deny before My Father who is in heaven."
32-33. Here Jesus tells us that public confession of our faith in Him—whatever the consequences--is an indispensable condition for eternal salvation. After the Judgment, Christ will welcome those who have given testimony of their faith and condemn those whom fear caused to be ashamed of Him (cf. Matthew 7:23; 25: 41; Revelation 21:8). The Church honors as "confessors" those Saints who have not gone physical martyrdom but whose lives bore witness to the Catholic faith. Although every Christian should be ready to die for his faith, most Christians are called to be confessors of the faith. ]
1. The coming of the Kingdom of God with power does not seem to refer to the second, glorious coming of Jesus at the end of time (the Parousia); it may, rather, indicate the amazing spread of the Church in the lifetime of the Apostles. Many of those present here will witness this. The growth and spread of the Church in the world can be explained only by the divine power God gives to the mystical body of Christ. The Transfiguration of our Lord, which is recounted in the next passage, is a sign, given to the Apostles, of Jesus' divinity and of the divine powers which He will give His Church.
Disclaimer: Opinions posted on Free Republic are those of the individual posters and do not necessarily represent the opinion of Free Republic or its management. All materials posted herein are protected by copyright law and the exemption for fair use of copyrighted works.