Your phone location is tracked even if the GPS is “turned off”. As long as your phone is on, and connected to a network, the phone location is tracked.
“Turning off” GPS only means that your apps cannot get the GPS data, and it is not transmitted to other private parties, generally.
It will almost certainly still be available in the meta-data the government records.
Unless you disconnect the GPS antenna or put the phone in a faraday cage pouch.
I pretty much figured that was the case-there is a plumbing sub-contractor I work with who is married but has Bill Clinton’s libido and arrogance. He brags he never calls his shack jobs on his personal phone-he calls and texts/sexts them on “burner” phones, thinking he is untrackable-we have all told him he can still get busted any number of ways-after all, Anthony Weiner thought he wouldn’t get caught, either...