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Coyotes Are the New Top Dogs
Scientific American ^ | May 17, 2012 | Sharon Levy

Posted on 05/17/2012 4:09:20 PM PDT by SJackson

Coyotes are champions of change and have evolved in clever ways to take advantage of a human-dominated landscape

Near the dawn of time, the story goes, Coyote saved the creatures of Earth. According to the mythology of Idaho's Nez Perce people, the monster Kamiah had stalked into the region and was gobbling up the animals one by one. The crafty Coyote evaded Kamiah but didn't want to lose his friends, so he let himself be swallowed. From inside the beast, Coyote severed Kamiah's heart and freed his fellow animals. Then he chopped up Kamiah and threw the pieces to the winds, where they gave birth to the peoples of the planet.

European colonists took a very different view of the coyote (Canis latrans) and other predators native to North America. The settlers hunted wolves to extinction across most of the southerly 48 states. They devastated cougar and bobcat populations and attacked coyotes. But unlike the other predators, coyotes have thrived in the past 150 years. Once restricted to the western plains, they now occupy most of the continent and have invaded farms and cities, where they have expanded their diet to include squirrels, household pets and discarded fast food.

Researchers have long known the coyote as a master of adaptation, but studies over the past few years are now revealing how these unimposing relatives of wolves and dogs have managed to succeed where many other creatures have suffered. Coyotes have flourished in part by exploiting the changes that people have made to the environment, and their opportunism goes back thousands of years. In the past two centuries, coyotes have taken over part of the wolf's former ecological niche by preying on deer and even on an endangered group of caribou. Genetic studies reveal that the coyotes of northeastern America — which are bigger than their cousins elsewhere — carry wolf genes that their ancestors picked up through interbreeding. This lupine inheritance has given northeastern coyotes the ability to bring down adult deer — a feat seldom attempted by the smaller coyotes of the west.

The lessons learned from coyotes can help researchers to understand how other mid-sized predators respond when larger carnivores are wiped out. In sub-Saharan Africa, for example, intense hunting of lions and leopards has led to a population explosion of olive baboons, which are now preying on smaller primates and antelope, causing a steep decline in their numbers.

Yet even among such opportunists, coyotes stand out as the champions of change. “We need to stop looking at these animals as static entities,” says mammalogist Roland Kays of the North Carolina Museum of Natural Sciences in Raleigh. “They're evolving”.

At a fast rate, too. Two centuries ago, coyotes led a very different life, hunting rabbits, mice and insects in the grasslands of the Great Plains. Weighing only 10 to 12 kilograms on average, they could not compete in the forests with the much larger grey wolves (Canis lupus), which are quick to dispatch coyotes that try to scavenge their kills.

The big break for coyotes came when settlers pushed west, wiping out the resident wolves. Coyotes could thrive because they breed more quickly than wolves and have a more varied diet. Since then, their menu has grown and so has their range; they have invaded all the mainland United States (with the exception of northern Alaska) and Mexico, as well as large parts of southern Canada.

The animals that arrived in the northeastern United States and Canada in the 1940s and 50s were significantly larger on average than those on the Great Plains, sometimes topping 16 kilograms. Kays and his colleagues studied the rapid changes in coyote physique by analyzing mitochondrial DNA and skull measurements of more than 100 individuals collected in New York state and throughout New England. They found that these northeastern coyotes carried genes from Great Lakes wolves, showing that the two species had interbred as the coyotes passed through that region. “Coyotes mated with wolves in the 1800s, when wolf populations were at low density because of human persecution,” says Kays. In those circumstances, wolves had a hard time finding wolf mates, so they settled for coyotes.

Compared with the ancestral coyotes from the plains, the northeastern coyote–wolf hybrids have larger skulls, with more substantial anchoring points for their jaw muscles. Thanks in part to those changes, these beefy coyotes can take down larger prey; they even killed a 19-year-old female hiker in Nova Scotia in 2009. The northeastern coyotes have expanded their range five times faster than coyote populations in the southeastern United States, the members of which encountered no wolves as they journeyed east.

New to the city Coyotes have even moved into Washington DC, appearing in Rock Creek Park in 2004, just a few miles from the White House. Christine Bozarth, a conservation geneticist at the Smithsonian Institution in Washington, has tracked their arrival and has shown that some of them are descended from the larger northeastern strain and carry wolf DNA. Bozarth says the coyotes are there to stay. “They can adapt to any urban landscape; they'll raise their pups in drainage ditches and old pipes,” she says. She hopes that the coyotes will help to control the deer, whose numbers are booming. But Kays says that coyotes have not made a significant dent in the northeast's deer population. “Coyotes fill part of the empty niche, but they don't completely replace wolves,” he says.

Oddly enough, it is the smaller coyotes in the southeastern United States that seem to be having a real impact on deer. About the same size as western coyotes, the southeastern ones have begun to exploit a niche left empty by the red wolves (Canis lupus rufus) that once roamed the southeast and specialized in hunting the region's deer, which are smaller than those in the northeast.

John Kilgo, a wildlife biologist with the US Forest Service in New Ellenton, South Carolina, and his colleagues found in a 2010 study that South Carolina's deer population started to decline when coyotes arrived in the late 1980s. More recently, he and his colleagues have studied deaths among fawns, using forensic techniques right out of a murder investigation. They analyzed bite wounds on the carcasses and sequenced DNA in saliva left on the wounds. They also searched for scat and tracks left by the killers and noted how they had stashed uneaten remains. More than one-third of the fawn deaths were clearly caused by coyotes, and circumstantial evidence suggests that the true number might be closer to 80%. “Coyotes are acting as top predators on deer, and controlling their numbers,” says Kilgo.

At first, many researchers had a hard time accepting that conclusion because they thought that coyotes were too small to affect deer populations, Kilgo says. He hopes to study how the newly arrived coyotes will affect other members of the southeastern ecosystem, including wild turkeys and predators such as raccoons, foxes and opossums.

There is no danger that the southeastern coyotes will drive the abundant deer in that region to extinction. But at the northern extreme of their range, coyotes are threatening a highly endangered band of woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou) in the mature forests of Quebec's Gaspésie National Park. Logging and other changes there had taken a toll on the caribou even before coyotes arrived in the region in 1973 and settled into newly cleared parts of the forest. But then coyotes started hunting caribou calves and the population dropped even further.

A 2010 study found that coyotes accounted for 60% of the predation on these caribou, which now number only 140. Dominic Boisjoly, a wildlife biologist with Quebec's Ministry of Sustainable Development, Environment and Parks in Quebec City, says that the best way to protect the caribou would be to cease clear-cutting of the forest, thereby denying the predators a home.

Coyotes have been taking advantage of the changes wrought by humans for many thousands of years, according to a study of coyote fossils published this year. Evolutionary biologist Julie Meachen at the National Evolutionary Synthesis Center in Durham, North Carolina, and Joshua Samuels at the John Day Fossil Beds National Monument in Kimberly, Oregon, made that discovery by measuring the size of coyote fossils dating back over the past 25,000 years. During the last ice age, coyotes were significantly larger than most of their modern counterparts and resembled the biggest of the present-day coyote–wolf hybrids in the northeast. They probably scavenged meat from kills made by dire wolves and saber-toothed cats, and preyed on the young of the large herbivores, such as giant ground sloths, wild camels and horses, that thronged North America at that time.

But at the close of the ice age, about 13,000 years ago, most of the megafauna vanished — an extinction attributed to both climate change and the appearance of efficient Stone Age hunters. With them went the largest predators, allowing the smaller grey wolves to fill the vacant niche, which put them in competition with the largest coyotes. That conflict, as well as the loss of large herbivores, caused coyotes to shrink in stature. Within 1,000 years of the Pleistocene extinctions, coyotes had reached the same size as in most present-day populations.

Now, they're going through a whole new set of changes as they adapt to the modern landscape of North America. Genetic studies show that some coyotes are even interbreeding with dogs, which could lead to a different sort of hybrid animal. Researchers are struggling to keep up with the animals and their impacts as they lope into more new regions.

“Invading a landscape emptied of wolves may trigger a whole new pathway in terms of the coyote's evolution,” says Bill Ripple, an ecologist at Oregon State University in Corvallis. “And the coyote's arrival will have unpredictable effects on other species in the ecosystem.”

This article is reproduced with permission from the magazine Nature. The article was first published on May 16, 2012.


TOPICS: Culture/Society; News/Current Events
KEYWORDS: coyotes; godsgravesglyphs; mythology; nez; people; perce; save
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1 posted on 05/17/2012 4:09:22 PM PDT by SJackson
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To: SJackson
Once restricted to the western plains, they now occupy most of the continent and have invaded farms and cities, where they have expanded their diet to include squirrels, household pets and discarded fast food.

On the bad side, their cholesterol levels are off the charts.

2 posted on 05/17/2012 4:12:25 PM PDT by SamAdams76
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To: SJackson

OTOH the Phoenix Coyotes are doing very very bad. Gotta beat LA tonight.


3 posted on 05/17/2012 4:14:09 PM PDT by Don Corleone ("Oil the gun..eat the cannoli. Take it to the Mattress.")
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To: Iowa Granny; Ladysmith; Diana in Wisconsin; JLO; sergeantdave; damncat; phantomworker; joesnuffy; ..

If you’d like to be on or off this Outdoors/Rural/wildlife/hunting/hiking/backpacking/National Parks/animals list please FR mail me. And ping me is you see articles of interest.


4 posted on 05/17/2012 4:15:15 PM PDT by SJackson (As a black man, you know, Barack could get shot going to the gas station, M Obama)
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To: Joe 6-pack

ping


5 posted on 05/17/2012 4:17:44 PM PDT by SandRat (Duty - Honor - Country! What else needs said?)
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To: SJackson

Too many of them here in MA as it is. And now we have cougars here as well even though officials won’t admit it.


6 posted on 05/17/2012 4:19:47 PM PDT by TheRhinelander
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To: SJackson

Hell... they live in my moms neighborhood in Clearwater, Fl.


7 posted on 05/17/2012 4:20:45 PM PDT by goseminoles
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To: SJackson
Interesting. Coyotes have returned to NE Ohio in the last twenty-thirty years, absent the former wolf population. But I have not heard of deer being taken down by them, though we are infested with deer. They seem to thrive on smaller prey, including cats and dogs.

One note, coyotes are scarce this year, and speculation is that they may have been subject to an outbreak of parvo, possibly passed to them by domestic dogs.

Nobody is sad though, as coyotes are nasty and have no redeeming virtues. Ohio has open season on them all year.

8 posted on 05/17/2012 4:23:13 PM PDT by hinckley buzzard
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To: SJackson

9 posted on 05/17/2012 4:25:01 PM PDT by central_va ( I won't be reconstructed and I do not give a damn.)
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To: AnAmericanMother; Titan Magroyne; Badeye; SandRat; arbooz; potlatch; afraidfortherepublic; ...
WOOOF!

The Doggie Ping list is for FReepers who would like to be notified of threads relating to all things canid. If you would like to join the Doggie Ping Pack (or be unleashed from it), FReemail me.

10 posted on 05/17/2012 4:34:39 PM PDT by Joe 6-pack (Que me amat, amet et canem meum)
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To: SJackson

[ Near the dawn of time, the story goes, Coyote saved the creatures of Earth. According to the mythology of Idaho’s Nez Perce people, the monster Kamiah had stalked into the region and was gobbling up the animals one by one. The crafty Coyote evaded Kamiah but didn’t want to lose his friends, so he let himself be swallowed. From inside the beast, Coyote severed Kamiah’s heart and freed his fellow animals. Then he chopped up Kamiah and threw the pieces to the winds, where they gave birth to the peoples of the planet. ]

Nice to know the author’s minor in native American Studies didn’t fully go to waste....


11 posted on 05/17/2012 4:34:48 PM PDT by GraceG
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To: SJackson
Genetic studies reveal that the coyotes of northeastern America — which are bigger than their cousins elsewhere — carry wolf genes that their ancestors picked up through interbreeding. This lupine inheritance has given northeastern coyotes the ability to bring down adult deer — a feat seldom attempted by the smaller coyotes of the west.

Maybe western coyotes accomplish this feat in pairs. As I posted on a thread yesterday, just a week ago I watched a pair of coyote chase down four deer. As they all went racing right past me, the coyotes were within lunging distance of the deer. I guarantee they got at least one.

We've had a deer overpopulation problem here for a couple of years. Now we have deer and coyote overpopulation, with a pack of about a dozen coyote living on the boundary of my subdivision and making frequent neighborhood forays.

A few weeks ago there was a confirmed sighting of a pack of four wolves less than 10 miles from here. I'd expect the wolves will be here by the end of summer to take care of the coyote overpopulation. Then what? Things are about to get interesting, I think.

12 posted on 05/17/2012 4:35:16 PM PDT by lonevoice (Klepto Baracka Marxo, impeach we much.)
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To: hinckley buzzard

[ Interesting. Coyotes have returned to NE Ohio in the last twenty-thirty years, absent the former wolf population. But I have not heard of deer being taken down by them, though we are infested with deer. They seem to thrive on smaller prey, including cats and dogs.

One note, coyotes are scarce this year, and speculation is that they may have been subject to an outbreak of parvo, possibly passed to them by domestic dogs.

Nobody is sad though, as coyotes are nasty and have no redeeming virtues. Ohio has open season on them all year. ]

They don’t control the rabbits where we live so they (the coyotes) breed like rabbits and some have attacked people... I wish coyote pelts were worth something again, the problem would go away, stupid PETA.


13 posted on 05/17/2012 4:39:59 PM PDT by GraceG
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To: TheRhinelander
Too many of them here in MA as it is. And now we have cougars here as well even though officials won’t admit it.

Till they eat one of the Kennedy's dogs, they they'll hunt them down.

14 posted on 05/17/2012 4:40:44 PM PDT by SJackson (As a black man, you know, Barack could get shot going to the gas station, M Obama)
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To: central_va

And lots and lots of hybrids inbetween. Wolf/coyote, called eastern coyotes, dog/wolves, dog/coyotes. Not going to get into it here since wolves are off the endangered list around here, but lots of questions about what a wolf is. DNA just confuses it. Very adaptive animals.


15 posted on 05/17/2012 4:45:16 PM PDT by SJackson (As a black man, you know, Barack could get shot going to the gas station, M Obama)
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To: lonevoice
I'd expect the wolves will be here by the end of summer to take care of the coyote overpopulation.

Yes, wolves kill coyotes. Or breed with them, till you don't know what you're looking at a couple generations down the road.

16 posted on 05/17/2012 4:47:33 PM PDT by SJackson (As a black man, you know, Barack could get shot going to the gas station, M Obama)
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To: SJackson

“They’re evolving”... ?

Maybe one of them should run for president.


17 posted on 05/17/2012 4:57:31 PM PDT by Sigurdrifta
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To: SJackson

Wolf hunters use coyote calls to attract wolves. Yes, I think when the nearby wolves hear all these coyotes on the hunt they’ll make their way over soon enough. Sometimes when the whole coyote pack is out hunting around the neighborhood, it sounds like the hills are ringing with the echoes of their calling to one another. I bet it carries for miles.


18 posted on 05/17/2012 4:57:31 PM PDT by lonevoice (Klepto Baracka Marxo, impeach we much.)
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To: Sigurdrifta

Couldn’t do any worse than the current WH occupant.


19 posted on 05/17/2012 5:00:21 PM PDT by SJackson (As a black man, you know, Barack could get shot going to the gas station, M Obama)
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To: Sigurdrifta

Are there gay coyotes? Maybe they need special protection?


20 posted on 05/17/2012 5:00:21 PM PDT by central_va ( I won't be reconstructed and I do not give a damn.)
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To: SJackson

Have they made it to the WH dinner table yet?


21 posted on 05/17/2012 5:02:48 PM PDT by samtheman
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To: Joe 6-pack

By chance I received an email today which documented a case where a car hit a coyote at night at 75 mph in Utah and traveled over 600 miles with 2 stops for gas. When the driver inspected the front for damage at daylight, he found the coyote embedded in the front bumper and trapped up next to the radiator. The coyote lived with only a scratch to his paw. There were amazing pictures with the email. Unfortunately, I cannot post because I have no urls for the pictures.

We hit a coyote at night under similar circumstances in Wyoming at 80 mph. He did NOT live, but he did $1000 damage to the front of my car.


22 posted on 05/17/2012 5:24:44 PM PDT by afraidfortherepublic
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To: SJackson

Caught this one on the trail cam behind my house a couple of days ago.

23 posted on 05/17/2012 5:30:57 PM PDT by E. Pluribus Unum (Do I really need a sarcasm tag? Seriously? You're that dense?)
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To: central_va

I don’t know where they got their weight range for wolves. It should be 50 to 150 lbs. I believe the infamous wolf of Minnesota, Lobo, was about 200lbs.


24 posted on 05/17/2012 6:08:20 PM PDT by mamelukesabre
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To: central_va

I live in southwest Connecticut. I have personally seen coyotes that I estimate to be the size of a robust German Shepherd - well over the 50 lbs indicated in the chart.


25 posted on 05/17/2012 6:13:19 PM PDT by Stingray51
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To: lonevoice

My uncle used to have a half dozen half wild dogs that looked like small huskies...about 30lbs each. They were either black, or white, or white with black spots. They all made coyote sounds at night. I think they might’ve been part coyote.


26 posted on 05/17/2012 6:13:54 PM PDT by mamelukesabre
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To: SJackson

Here in Adirondacks we have coydogs roaming in packs and wolves roaming as loners. The wolves will not hurt people, just curious. The wolves have white bellies and are in the mountains higher up. This winter no coydog packs at all running around the house, with lots of prey and water in the lower mountains.
Inadvisable to go into the woods here alone unarmed or without a large Lab coz the female coydog will attack you from the rear while the male will decoy you in front if you are alone. Western coyotes I saw in downtown Hayward, CA, are much smaller than the coydogs here. The gray/white wolves here have large wide heads; the coydogs have narrow faces.
A wolf here will approach fearlessly and jump over a leanto blazing night campfire even if you have a .44; the coydog stay away. [My experience as a kid.] I have never seen a coyote here at all probably because the coydogs have been dominant since I remember in 1950`s, when they ran around the house in packs and destroyed the henhouse.


27 posted on 05/17/2012 6:26:18 PM PDT by bunkerhill7 (lupus urbs??`?? Who knew?)
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To: SJackson

.223 or .22-250. Your choice.


28 posted on 05/17/2012 6:36:16 PM PDT by x1stcav (There's a bunch of us out here spoiling for a fight.)
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To: lonevoice
Eastern Red wolves howling

They're about the same size as coyotes.

29 posted on 05/17/2012 6:54:51 PM PDT by BerryDingle (I know how to deal with communists, I still wear their scars on my back from Hollywood-Ronald Reagan)
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To: TheRhinelander
"...And now we have cougars here as well even though officials won’t admit it."

Why wouldn't they admit it!


30 posted on 05/17/2012 7:11:04 PM PDT by CapnJack
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To: SJackson
And coyote bite!

In the Maine winter, coyote hunt in packs and feed off of the yarded deer.

31 posted on 05/17/2012 7:23:12 PM PDT by Daffynition (Our forefathers would be shooting by now.)
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To: afraidfortherepublic

Pix here: http://www.nbcbayarea.com/news/local/WIly-Coyotes-Wild-California-Ride-64802542.html


32 posted on 05/17/2012 7:28:39 PM PDT by Daffynition (Our forefathers would be shooting by now.)
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To: SJackson

The Coyotes here in New York are, according to DNA analysis, 60% wolf. They’re about 1/3 larger than typical coyotes and have no trouble hunting in packs.


33 posted on 05/17/2012 8:56:55 PM PDT by PzLdr ("The Emperor is not as forgiving as I am" - Darth Vader)
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To: harpseal; TexasCowboy; nunya bidness; AAABEST; Travis McGee; Squantos; wku man; SLB; ...
I foresee an upswing in sales of AR-15 uppers in 300 AAC Blackout with supressors to match.

Click the Gadsden flag for pro-gun resources!

34 posted on 05/18/2012 7:33:52 AM PDT by Joe Brower (Sheep have three speeds: "graze", "stampede" and "cower".)
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To: Joe Brower

I sometimes hear a coyote but except for rarely seeing one crossing the road, I never see them. There is just too much cover around here.

I have thought about calling them up but I just don’t have the right gun. I have high powered rifles but they are too much for a coyote and a .22 magnum may be a little light.

I guess I could use a .40 S&W or 9mm.


35 posted on 05/18/2012 7:44:38 AM PDT by yarddog
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To: yarddog
If they're within pistol range, I'd go for a shotgun with #4 buck. A red dot for fast aquistion would be a plus. So would a foreend light -- at night, it's as easy as "if they're in the flashlight beam, they're in the dispersion zone".

Of course, all of this depends on where you live. If you have neighbors close by they may not like this approach. $;-) Not to mention the local constabulary.

36 posted on 05/18/2012 7:48:59 AM PDT by Joe Brower (Sheep have three speeds: "graze", "stampede" and "cower".)
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To: Joe Brower

Nothing wrong with that...but why?


37 posted on 05/18/2012 9:44:44 AM PDT by Durus (You can avoid reality, but you cannot avoid the consequences of avoiding reality. Ayn Rand)
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To: SJackson

Look for more of them to be taken down via the long guns.


38 posted on 05/18/2012 10:38:32 AM PDT by Biggirl ("Jesus talked to us as individuals"-Jim Vicevich/Thanks JimV!)
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To: SJackson; dixiechick2000; null and void
Some Coyotes adapt very well to urban life like this Portland, Or. Coyote, which hitched a ride/rides on a Portland Metro Train to go the PDX airport. http://www.buzzfeed.com/edithzimmerman/coyote-on-a-train-y7


39 posted on 05/18/2012 11:05:22 AM PDT by Grampa Dave (ILLEGAL IMMIGRATION IS DESTROYING AMERICA-LOOK AT WHAT IT DID TO THE WHITE HOUSE!)
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To: Durus
So one can dispose of these predators if & when the opportunity arises, without making a lot of noise.
40 posted on 05/18/2012 11:16:57 AM PDT by Joe Brower (Sheep have three speeds: "graze", "stampede" and "cower".)
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To: StayAt HomeMother; Ernest_at_the_Beach; decimon; 1010RD; 21twelve; 24Karet; 2ndDivisionVet; ...

 GGG managers are SunkenCiv, StayAt HomeMother & Ernest_at_the_Beach
Note: this topic is dated 5/17/2012.

Blast from the Past.

Thanks SJackson.

To all -- please ping me to other topics which are appropriate for the GGG list.


41 posted on 05/27/2013 7:28:15 PM PDT by SunkenCiv (Romney would have been worse, if you're a dumb ass.)
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To: Joe Brower

Crossbow.


42 posted on 05/27/2013 7:37:48 PM PDT by Rebelbase (1929-1950's, 20+years for full recovery. How long this time?)
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To: SJackson

In Orange County California we had a few miles of degraded coastal “wetlands” but they were mostly dry.

Bolsa Chica to the north, and a half-mile wide strip between Beach Blvd. and the Santa Ana River, to the south.

During the last few years, those wetlands have been largely “restored” by introducing tidal flushing, making them mostly wet.

The change drove the coyotes to move inland, to the residential neighborhoods, where family pet cats have become one of their main meals, ours included.

I saw a youtube video of a coyote strolling down the sidewalk with somebody’s cat in its mouth. Effortless, no fear of humans.


43 posted on 05/27/2013 7:46:43 PM PDT by truth_seeker
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To: SJackson

Seen a coyote in my neighborhood just outside of Boston last month that I would guess was about 60 pounds. Most coyotes in the northeast are part wolf. One killed in NH several years ago had over 80% wolf DNA.


44 posted on 05/27/2013 7:58:46 PM PDT by LongWayHome
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To: SJackson

Here in Toronto they’re everywhere.


45 posted on 05/27/2013 8:58:03 PM PDT by Squawk 8888 (True North- Strong Leader, Strong Dollar)
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To: Grampa Dave

Awwwww....

He’s cute!


46 posted on 05/28/2013 2:52:05 AM PDT by djf (Rich widows: My Bitcoin address is... 1ETDmR4GDjwmc9rUEQnfB1gAnk6WLmd3n6)
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To: GraceG
"Nobody is sad though, as coyotes are nasty and have no redeeming virtues."

Oh, I wouldn't say that. After coyotes moved into our area, groundhogs gradually disappeared. I'd much rather have the coyotes than the groundhogs. I'm old enough to remember when it was just about impossible to raise a garden because of those damned groundhogs.

47 posted on 05/28/2013 3:23:25 AM PDT by Renfield (Turning apples into venison since 1999!)
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To: SJackson

I love the use of the term ‘climate change’ to describe events occurring 13,000 years ago. The left is losing control over that term and it’s for the better.


48 posted on 05/28/2013 4:28:31 AM PDT by 1010RD (First, Do No Harm)
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To: yarddog

22 mag is good if you’re good with 22 mag.


49 posted on 05/28/2013 4:45:38 AM PDT by ThanhPhero (Khach hanh huong den La Vang)
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To: Rebelbase

AR-15 in .300 BLK w/supressor (tuned to subsonic), PVS-14, and Aimpoint Comp-M3. $:-)


50 posted on 05/28/2013 5:24:32 AM PDT by Joe Brower (The "American People" are no longer capable of self-governance.)
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