Skip to comments.Artificial 'superatoms' for a new periodic table
Posted on 06/09/2013 12:09:23 AM PDT by neverdem
'Superatoms' can be used to make ionic-esque lattices using C60 (black) and metal chalcogenides © Science/AAAS
Could a new periodic table be on the horizon, populated not by conventional elements but by new superatoms designed in the lab? This is the intriguing implication of new work by US chemists, who have made structural analogues of simple ionic compounds such as sodium chloride and cadmium iodide by interacting large molecular clusters instead of individual atoms.
The new compounds have unexpected electronic and magnetic properties, opening the prospect for the design of bespoke solid state materials whose properties can be tuned by the selection of the constituent superatoms.
The research team, led by Colin Nuckolls and Michael Steigerwald at Columbia University in New York, wondered what would happen if electron-rich molecular clusters were introduced to similarly sized electron-poor clusters. They mixed the metal chalcogenide Co6Se8(PEt3)6 with C60 clusters also known as buckyballs in toluene. The result was pretty spectacular, says Steigerwald. When we came back there were enormous black crystals. I was convinced it was the C60 recrystallising. But x-ray diffraction studies showed that the crystals consisted of one chalcogenide combined with two C60 clusters in a geometry analogous to cadmium iodide. Raman spectroscopy showed that charge had been transferred between the two components, effectively forming an ionic solid, with similar structural ordering to its conventional counterpart.
Once we had one structure it was obvious to start mixing other clusters together, says Nuckolls. They tried Cr6Te8(PEt3)6 with buckyballs and obtained a crystal with a similar CdI2 architecture. The third electron-rich cluster the team mixed with C60 was Ni9Te6(PEt3)8. Here the crystals were quite small and looked like tiny cubes, says Nuckolls. And indeed the two superatomic components had combined in a 1:1 ratio and the crystal lattice resembled that of rock salt, NaCl.
Each of the three materials were electrically conductive, and the third material, made with the nickel-based superatom, had magnetic characteristics that were present in neither of its two constituent superatoms.
The researchers are convinced that the opportunities for such new superatomic combinations are almost limitless. We think this isnt even the tip of the iceberg it is the ice cube on the tip of the iceberg, says Nuckolls. Steigerwald adds, This could become the third dimension of the two-dimensional periodic table.
The team is seeking new super-atomic materials and, says Nuckolls, already has a few in our back pocket.
Commenting on the work, Christopher Murray of the University of Pennsylvania, US, who researches nanocrystalline systems, says: This is a really elegant piece of work, and it represents significant step forward in the design of cluster-assembled materials. Murray notes that while the use of molecular clusters as nanoscale surrogates for atomic building blocks has excited many researchers, producing single crystals with clearly delocalised electronic structure is really extraordinary. The properties of these nanoscale atoms could be widely tuned by synthetic methods and the resulting opportunities to engineer new crystalline materials with tailored optical, electrical and magnetic properties are extensive.
Murray adds: This work provides a powerful example that the building blocks of solid state chemistry are not longer limited to natures periodic table, as tailored molecular clusters can serve as artificial atoms in a greatly expanded building set.
X Roy et al, Science, 2013, DOI: 10.1126/science.1236259
Jeez, I wish I was young and in school again!
Call me when they ave developed “Dilithium” “Durainium” and “Tritanium” I wanna build me a starship...
Superatomic transparent aluminum- someone ping me when this happens.
But it is goofy to talk about a new periodic table
The periodic table groups ‘elements’
Each element is defined by the number of protons in its nucleus
The paper describes compounds that share electrons in a unique way, but there is no change in the nucleus
BTW - the periodic table is already three dimensional. Each element has different isotopes...different numbers of neutrons in the nucleus
Dilithium already exists, but only in the gaseous phase.
Those look like the little candies they used to put in the toy doctors’ kits...sometimes located next to the candy cigarettes.
Great! now we can build a portable nuclear (how do I pronounce that?) reactor.
Was thinking the same thing...
I have been eagerly anticipating the "island of stability" predicted by further stability of nuclei around Z=247.
We called these molecules when I was in school.
How old would you be if you did not know how old you are?
Also - teaching company DVDs are at many libraries.
Why should the snot nose kids have all the fun?
Correct. I'm not sure what the 'Et' is in Co6Se8(PEt3)6.
I think it’s a triethyl phosphate moiety, IMHO.
I have no significant background in chemistry, but my imagination is running wild here... Why hasn't the Pentagon clamped a lid on this research? Does the research have no application, say, to explosives, among other things of interest to the Pentagon? Seems to me it potentially could have, especially when the researchers begin talking about a "limitless" number of possibilities and applications.
Do you, really?
Not me. I hated math and was lackadaisical about science. It wasn’t till I was older that I could frame what seems, to me, a good theory linking the scientific method to The Bible. Were I younger again too, I couldn’t have spent all the great years with my wife, nor known my grand-daughter.
It was enough for me that in my early sixties, I could still play baseball well enough to have coached a few seasons of high school baseball. During practice, standing out there in center field again shagging flies from teenagers, waiting for that next pitch, smelling the leather of my glove with my face buried in it to my eyes.... God, I was a kid again...just this time with the years to truly appreciate it all!