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Mathematics of Eternity Prove The Universe Must Have Had A Beginning
MIT Technology Review ^ | 04/26/2012

Posted on 04/26/2012 3:13:30 PM PDT by SeekAndFind

Cosmologists use the mathematical properties of eternity to show that although universe may last forever, it must have had a beginning

kfc 04/24/2012


The Big Bang has become part of popular culture since the phrase was coined by the maverick physicist Fred Hoyle in the 1940s. That's hardly surprising for an event that represents the ultimate birth of everything.

However, Hoyle much preferred a different model of the cosmos: a steady state universe with no beginning or end, that stretches infinitely into the past and the future. That idea never really took off.

In recent years, however, cosmologists have begun to study a number of new ideas that have similar properties. Curiously, these ideas are not necessarily at odds with the notion of a Big Bang.

For instance, one idea is that the universe is cyclical with big bangs followed by big crunches followed by big bangs in an infinite cycle. 

Another is the notion of eternal inflation in which different parts of the universe expand and contract at different rates. These regions can be thought of as different universes in a giant multiverse. 

So although we seem to live in an inflating cosmos,  other universes may be very different. And while our universe may look as if it has a beginning, the multiverse need not have a beginning.

Then there is the idea of an emergent universe which exists as a kind of seed for eternity and then suddenly expands. 

So these modern cosmologies suggest that the observational evidence of an expanding universe is consistent with a cosmos with no beginning or end. That may be set to change.

Today, Audrey Mithani and Alexander Vilenkin at Tufts University in Massachusetts say that these models are mathematically incompatible with an eternal past. Indeed, their analysis suggests that these three models of the universe must have had a beginning too.

Their argument focuses on the mathematical properties of eternity--a universe with no beginning and no end. Such a universe must contain trajectories that stretch infinitely into the past. 

However, Mithani and Vilenkin point to a proof dating from 2003 that these kind of past trajectories cannot be infinite if they are part of a universe that expands in a specific way. 

They go on to show that cyclical universes and universes of eternal inflation both expand in this way. So they cannot be eternal in the past and must therefore have had a beginning. "Although inflation may be eternal in the future, it cannot be extended indefinitely to the past," they say.

They treat the emergent model of the universe differently, showing that although it may seem stable from a classical point of view, it is unstable from a quantum mechanical point of view. "A simple emergent universe model...cannot escape quantum collapse," they say.

The conclusion is inescapable. "None of these scenarios can actually be past-eternal," say Mithani and Vilenkin. 

Since the observational evidence is that our universe is expanding, then it must also have been born in the past. A profound conclusion (albeit the same one that lead to the idea of the big bang in the first place).  

Ref: arxiv.org/abs/1204.4658: Did The Universe Have A Beginning?


TOPICS: History; Science
KEYWORDS: creation; eternity; evolution; universe
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1 posted on 04/26/2012 3:13:40 PM PDT by SeekAndFind
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To: SeekAndFind

I don’t believe it is expanding. I beieve it is undulating


2 posted on 04/26/2012 3:15:43 PM PDT by Sacajaweau
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To: SeekAndFind
a- is where Obama was elected.
3 posted on 04/26/2012 3:18:17 PM PDT by the invisib1e hand
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To: SeekAndFind

“In the beginning, God created the Universe. This made many people upset and was generally regarded a bad move.” - Hitchhikers Guide to the Galaxy.


4 posted on 04/26/2012 3:19:32 PM PDT by dfwgator (Don't wake up in a roadside ditch. Get rid of Romney.)
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To: SeekAndFind

my head hurts...


5 posted on 04/26/2012 3:19:42 PM PDT by pricilla (one should always try to be smarter than the equipment one is operating - Amajato)
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To: Sacajaweau

Writhing.


6 posted on 04/26/2012 3:20:24 PM PDT by cripplecreek (What does it profit a man if he gains the whole world but loses his soul?)
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To: SeekAndFind

This is too complicated for me. I’ll just believe that God created the universe and ask him to explain the dynamics of creation when I see him.


7 posted on 04/26/2012 3:20:24 PM PDT by Son-Joshua (son-joshua)
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To: All

They keep using a strait line method. I wonder what the results would be like if the theory emulated nature...as in cycles.


8 posted on 04/26/2012 3:25:11 PM PDT by PrairieLady2
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To: onedoug

ping


9 posted on 04/26/2012 3:25:16 PM PDT by windcliff
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To: SeekAndFind
r instance, one idea is that the universe is cyclical with big bangs followed by big crunches followed by big bangs in an infinite cycle.

Or something else.

10 posted on 04/26/2012 3:26:37 PM PDT by Noumenon ("I tell you, gentlemen, we have a problem on our hands." Col. Nicholson-The Bridge on the River Qwai)
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To: Sacajaweau

actually, the bible says it was expanded, and I think implies this is continuing.

http://www.creationists.org/God-streched-out-the-universe-bible-verses.html

Keep in mind these verses were written LONG before the invention of the telescope!

Also, the bible mentions a part of the heavens that are empty. Since the invention of the telescope, we have confirmed that it exists, and the location (to the north, relative from the earth, or looking from the earth’s view toward our north polar region).


11 posted on 04/26/2012 3:36:57 PM PDT by BereanBrain
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To: Sacajaweau
I beieve it is undulating

Or breathing.

12 posted on 04/26/2012 3:44:04 PM PDT by UCANSEE2 (Lame and ill-informed post)
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To: SeekAndFind
There are three certainties in this.

The Infinite exists.

Reality exists.

And all that exists now defines a temporal, non-eternal, limited time touch of Reality.

13 posted on 04/26/2012 3:48:35 PM PDT by OldNavyVet
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To: BereanBrain
Also, the bible mentions a part of the heavens that are empty. Since the invention of the telescope, we have confirmed that it exists, and the location (to the north, relative from the earth, or looking from the earth’s view toward our north polar region).

Then how do you explain Open cluster NGC 188? Or Galaxy NGC 3172 among other objects?

14 posted on 04/26/2012 3:49:02 PM PDT by dragnet2 (Diversion and evasion are tools of deceit)
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To: PrairieLady2

It would be the basic sine wave.

The basis of all existence in the physical world. The movement away from zero , back and forth between positive and negative.


15 posted on 04/26/2012 3:49:25 PM PDT by UCANSEE2 (Lame and ill-informed post)
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To: SeekAndFind
mathematical properties of eternity


16 posted on 04/26/2012 3:53:01 PM PDT by caveat emptor (Zippity Do Dah)
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To: dfwgator

So... the answer to “Did the Universe have a beginning?” ... is 41 ?


17 posted on 04/26/2012 3:53:38 PM PDT by UCANSEE2 (Lame and ill-informed post)
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To: caveat emptor

Can we have that in ‘graph’ form?


18 posted on 04/26/2012 3:55:28 PM PDT by UCANSEE2 (Lame and ill-informed post)
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To: PrairieLady2
Even 'ancient' civilizations knew about it.


19 posted on 04/26/2012 3:58:50 PM PDT by UCANSEE2 (Lame and ill-informed post)
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To: BereanBrain

Only a small fraction of the stuff in the universe is visible.


20 posted on 04/26/2012 4:06:42 PM PDT by DManA
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To: UCANSEE2
How about this complex graph with considerably more than null curvature.


21 posted on 04/26/2012 4:06:56 PM PDT by caveat emptor (Zippity Do Dah)
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To: UCANSEE2

Sounds Great!...except for those dang pesky Laws of Thermodynamics.


22 posted on 04/26/2012 4:20:49 PM PDT by Imnidiot (THIS SPACE FOR RENT)
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To: SeekAndFind
I'll say it again... Logic is the most major tool which God has given us for understanding our world. If a science claim or theory cannot pass a simple test for basic logic, the claim of theory is junk science.

"Big Bang" is bad science and bad theology rolled into a package. Having the entire mass of the universe collapsed to a point would be the mother of all black holes, nothing would ever "bang" its way out of that.

Likewise for a supposedly omnipotent and omniscient God to suddenly determine that it would be cool or necessary to create a universe at a particular point in time while the idea had never occurred to him previously is clearly unworkable and is not compatible with anybody's system of logic. It doesn't even matter whether this supposed creation was 6000 years ago as per Bishop Usher or 17B years ago as per the evolosers and big-bangers.

In real life, the RNA/DNA code which is the basis of meaningful life has to be the work of a single pair of hands; the physical universe logically has to be eternal like God; the creation stories we read in ancient literature have to refer to the creation of our own local environment, and not to the creation of the universe.

23 posted on 04/26/2012 4:22:06 PM PDT by varmintman
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To: UCANSEE2

I believe the answer you’re looking for is actually 42...


24 posted on 04/26/2012 4:23:30 PM PDT by pricilla (one should always try to be smarter than the equipment one is operating - Amajato)
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To: pricilla

What’s the question?


25 posted on 04/26/2012 4:24:45 PM PDT by dfwgator (Don't wake up in a roadside ditch. Get rid of Romney.)
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To: SeekAndFind
The Big Bang has become part of popular culture since the phrase was coined by the maverick physicist Fred Hoyle in the 1940s.

Got to love how they don't mention the Catholic priest Georges Lemaitre who actually came up with the theory, Hoyle's term 'big bang' was in fact said in derision because he thought the universe having a beginning sounded too religious.
26 posted on 04/26/2012 4:37:20 PM PDT by battousai (Conservatives are racist? YES, I hate stupid white liberals.)
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To: varmintman

I think you’re missing the fact that God created the universe, therefore the universe has a beginning. God is eternal. Matter is not.

The relevant point the research seems to point to is that all the popular theories that have been designed to evade the “universe-has-a-beginning” argument actually argue the opposite - the sort of expansion that is theorized by multiverse proponents, and undulating universe proponents, and sudden expansion proponents... each of them mathematically require the universe to have a beginning.


27 posted on 04/26/2012 4:41:25 PM PDT by SquarePants
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To: varmintman
Likewise for a supposedly omnipotent and omniscient God to suddenly determine that it would be cool or necessary to create a universe at a particular point in time while the idea had never occurred to him previously is clearly unworkable and is not compatible with anybody's system of logic.

It is compatible with my logic. My God can can do what He wants when He wants to do it on His time schedule. The universe is not eternally old. It had a starting point. And time is relative.

28 posted on 04/26/2012 4:41:33 PM PDT by BipolarBob ("Oh no, I'm not sick, well I'm not physically sick anyway. Mentally I'm sick beyond any doctor's abi)
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To: SeekAndFind

In infinity there is no such thing as time. It just is.


29 posted on 04/26/2012 4:41:40 PM PDT by Starstruck
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To: BereanBrain
Also, the bible mentions a part of the heavens that are empty. Since the invention of the telescope, we have confirmed that it exists, and the location (to the north, relative from the earth, or looking from the earth’s view toward our north polar region).

Psa 75:6 For promotion cometh neither from the east, nor from the west, nor from the south.
Psa 75:7 But God is the judge: he putteth down one, and setteth up another.

East, West South, and God...

30 posted on 04/26/2012 4:44:40 PM PDT by Iscool (You mess with me, you mess with the WHOLE trailerpark...)
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To: Son-Joshua

Recognizing that this one has its faults, I’m wondering if he didn’t also create others to improve on this one.......like we didn’t already have enough to think about.


31 posted on 04/26/2012 4:47:18 PM PDT by Hot Tabasco (My 6 pack abs are now a full keg......)
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To: PrairieLady2

There are versions of the theory that involve cycles, and the researcher used the same method to disprove those as well.


32 posted on 04/26/2012 4:55:03 PM PDT by Boogieman
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33 posted on 04/26/2012 4:58:12 PM PDT by TheOldLady (FReepmail me to get ON or OFF the ZOT LIGHTNING ping list)
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To: Imnidiot; UCANSEE2

Well, what UCANSEE2 said isn’t contradicted by the laws of thermodynamics. If the universe is a closed system, then it is going to tend towards entropy, which is simply the equilibrium state, or the point where the sine wave crosses zero. It’s perfectly logical that a sine wave can continue vibrating while at the same time tending towards zero. Just look at what happens when you throw a rock in the water: the waves spread out, the amplitude continually decreases, but they never stop being waves.


34 posted on 04/26/2012 5:02:41 PM PDT by Boogieman
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To: pricilla

?
35 posted on 04/26/2012 5:05:25 PM PDT by Chode (American Hedonist - *DTOM* -ww- NO Pity for the LAZY)
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To: varmintman

“Likewise for a supposedly omnipotent and omniscient God to suddenly determine that it would be cool or necessary to create a universe at a particular point in time while the idea had never occurred to him previously is clearly unworkable and is not compatible with anybody’s system of logic.”

You were doing great up until this point. Yes, God has given us logic so that we can inspect His handiwork and glean understanding about the universe, ourselves, and perhaps something about Him as well. However, to imagine that the logic we are given to understand this universe is equipped to give us understanding of anything outside this universe is a non sequiter. If God created this universe, then he must not be bound by it, and must be outside of it. So, we have no evidence that our logic is equipped to judge whether any of God’s possible actions or motivations are plausible. We can make some guesses, and hope that we are correct, but we cannot use our logic to draw a conclusion such as yours with any degree of certainty.


36 posted on 04/26/2012 5:10:49 PM PDT by Boogieman
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To: Hot Tabasco

Well, if you say this universe has “faults”, then either God must have wanted a universe with those faults, or God is not omnipotent. Can’t have it both ways.


37 posted on 04/26/2012 5:14:27 PM PDT by Boogieman
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To: SeekAndFind

Maybe some genius scientist out there can help me reconcile the Big Bang theory against Newton’s First Law of Physics.

I’m an old fart so I’ll term it the way we used to say it, “An object at rest will stay at rest and an object in motion will stay in motion, unless acted on by a force”.

So if the universe had a beginning, and all of the mass in the universe was collected in one body at rest, what set it in motion?

If this is true, and it may well be, what more possible proof do you need for God?

The object at rest could not possibly have been set into motion unless God set it into motion.

I wonder how the athiest scientists would respond to that?


38 posted on 04/26/2012 5:14:40 PM PDT by Freedom_Is_Not_Free (REPEAL OBAMACARE. Nothing else matters.)
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To: Boogieman

IF the universe “bounced” and it did oscillate like a sine wave, the peaks would grow smaller and smaller, eventually resting in a flat, heat death universe. Nothing goes on and on without losing energy...except for that one perpetual motion machine that guy down in Florida wants to sell me.


39 posted on 04/26/2012 5:20:55 PM PDT by Imnidiot (THIS SPACE FOR RENT)
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To: dragnet2
Then how do you explain Open cluster NGC 188? Or Galaxy NGC 3172 among other objects?

Galaxy NGC 3172 makes Galaxy NGC 1586 look like a cap pistol.

40 posted on 04/26/2012 5:26:08 PM PDT by 6SJ7 (Meh.)
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To: SeekAndFind
If there's a clock there's a clock maker.
41 posted on 04/26/2012 5:51:08 PM PDT by Gay State Conservative (Unlike Mrs Obama,I've Been Proud Of This Country My *Entire* Life!)
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To: dfwgator
“In the beginning, God created the Universe. This made many people upset and was generally regarded a bad move.” - Hitchhikers Guide to the Galaxy.

Wait, was this generally regarded a bad move by the miserable people with digital watches or by the small green pieces of paper? So long, and thanks for the expanding universe.

42 posted on 04/26/2012 6:00:28 PM PDT by Freedom_Is_Not_Free (REPEAL OBAMACARE. Nothing else matters.)
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To: the invisib1e hand

Anywhere there is an a-hole, that’s where Obama is.


43 posted on 04/26/2012 6:12:50 PM PDT by Secret Agent Man (I'd like to tell you, but then I'd have to kill you.)
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To: Boogieman

As nearly as I’ve ever been able to tell by reading, God works entirely within the laws of mathematics, probability, and physics. If you want violations of mathematical and probabilistic laws and particularly if you need them in wholesale lots, you need to be talking to the evolutionites, they specialize in that sort of thing.


44 posted on 04/26/2012 6:20:09 PM PDT by varmintman
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To: 6SJ7; BereanBrain
Also, the bible mentions a part of the heavens that are empty. Since the invention of the telescope, we have confirmed that it exists, and the location (to the north, relative from the earth, or looking from the earth’s view toward our north polar region).

Then how do you explain Open cluster NGC 188? Or Galaxy NGC 3172 among other objects?

Galaxy NGC 3172 makes Galaxy NGC 1586 look like a cap pistol.

The point of my post was not comparing the size of objects, but the posters claim the northern/polar region from earth, was, "Empty".

45 posted on 04/26/2012 6:40:38 PM PDT by dragnet2 (Diversion and evasion are tools of deceit)
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To: SeekAndFind

I suspect the correct question is not “When did the universe begin?”, but “when did time-space begin?”

Time-space can be imagined as an ‘x’ and a ‘y’ axis on a graph. But you *must* have both a multiplicand and a multiplier to get a product. That is, if you have time, but zero space, the universe does not exist. Or if you have space, but zero time, the universe does not exist. Only when you have both does the universe come into being.

And as Einstein showed, when mass-energy is put into time-space, it distorts the product of time-space in a third, or ‘z’ axis, perpendicular to both ‘x’ and ‘y’.

So until this point, until time and space and mass-energy interact, there is no universe.


46 posted on 04/26/2012 7:15:08 PM PDT by yefragetuwrabrumuy ("It is already like a government job," he said, "but with goats." -- Iranian goat smuggler)
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To: varmintman

“As nearly as I’ve ever been able to tell by reading, God works entirely within the laws of mathematics, probability, and physics.”

Yes, exactly my point. As near as you’ve been able to tell, because the things of this universe, such as math, probability, and physics, are the only things which we are designed to conceive. We cannot, through such means, know what, if anything lies outside the universe, how it works, or if the same rules of logic, math, and science apply at all. You are assuming that they do, but you have no evidence to support that and no means to procure such evidence.


47 posted on 04/26/2012 7:22:57 PM PDT by Boogieman
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To: dragnet2
Galaxy NGC 3172 makes Galaxy NGC 1586 look like a cap pistol.

Obscure reference to Seinfeld quote about a 12 gauge shotgun making an 11 gauge look like a cap pistol. 1586 is 1/2 of 3172!

48 posted on 04/26/2012 8:41:44 PM PDT by 6SJ7 (Meh.)
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To: Boogieman

Regarding Cycles : They always tend to be cyclical.


49 posted on 04/26/2012 9:08:10 PM PDT by Don@VB (Power Corrupts)
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To: SeekAndFind
Since the observational evidence is that our universe is expanding, then it must also have been born in the past...and its parents were???.....
50 posted on 04/26/2012 9:57:00 PM PDT by Intolerant in NJ
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