That's MY question. It seems as though an English Spelling Bee should feature words that are used in English discussion. If the object is to merely trip up a speller, one could easily substitute a compound Turkish or German word, but neither such examples would be used in English conversation. Unless, as noted, they had come into such wide use in English-speaking circles that they would be included in the current dictionary. The winner says he "studied" pococurante, so perhaps it has come into wide enough usage to be in the dictionary.
The Spelling Bee, as she is constituted, does exhibit an aptitude bias which keeps SOME excellent spellers out of the staged competition. To win (or do well), the spellers must be able to ORALLY spell a word without being able to SEE what it looks like. Many excellent spellers and grammarians don't have the aptitude that allows them to do this - they need to write out the spelling. I know. I'm one of them. I can spell correctly just about anything, but I rely on the visual image of the word to verify its correctness. People like me make excellent judges, but not competitors, in this type of competition.
I'm not complaining, mind you. We all have different aptitude sets. But the ability to spell, per se, is not what is being tested in a Spelling Bee. What IS being tested is the ability to spell a word without being able to write it. Unless some rule I've never heard of allows contestants to write the word out on paper and then read the spelling to the judges.