I watched a youtube video on Midway maybe a year ago. It was done by a German who seemed to know everything about the battle.
After about 10 minutes I noticed that it was going to last 48 minutes. Normally will not watch anything that long but decided to stick it out.
He eventually gave his opinion as to why the Americans won. There were a lot of different things but it boiled down to the Japanese had no idea that the Americans would be so aggressive.
The Americans simply fought with great determination and aggressiveness.
Another youtuber that did a Midway study pointed out that all the failed early American attacks (particularly the torpedo bombers) burned up the Japanese CAP: fatigued their pilots, exhausted their fuel, and—critically—brought it down to a low level. When McCluskey’s dive bombers finally appeared high above the Japanese carrier group, there was nothing in place to intercept their strike.