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I Helped Build Russia's Internet. Now Putin Wants to Destroy It.
New Republic ^ | May 15, 2014 | Anton Nossik

Posted on 05/18/2014 7:32:43 PM PDT by annalex

I Helped Build Russia's Internet. Now Putin Wants to Destroy It.

By Anton Nossik

It’s hard to believe now, given his recent attacks on Internet freedoms, but, in December 1999, three days before he became acting president of Russia, Vladimir Putin made a solemn pledge to honor and protect Internet freedom of speech and commerce, recognizing the importance of this new industry for Russia’s modernization and general development. He summoned all the heads of Russia’s nascent Internet industry for a meeting, including me. At that time, I was known as the founder, chief editor, and CEO of Russia’s leading news websites, such as Gazeta.Ru, Lenta.Ru, Vesti.Ru, NTV.Ru (now I was also the planet’s first Russian blogger.

In his brief but passionate speech that day, Putin made special mention of Chinese and Vietnamese models of Internet regulation, stating that he viewed them as unacceptable. “Whenever we’ll have to choose between excessive regulation and protection of online freedom, we’ll definitely opt for freedom,” he concluded to the puzzlement and disbelief of everyone in the room. We all knew of his record as a KGB operative in charge of hunting down dissidents in Leningrad during the 1980s. Frankly, many of us thought that Putin’s words were more of a smokescreen than proof of serious intent. We were wary of the government, and expecting the worst.

Luckily, we were wrong.

It should be noted that, back then, the entire Russian Internet had less than 2 million users, and that’s including academics, bankers, IT professionals and some 200,000 home users nationwide. These were the netizens affluent enough to afford exorbitant prices for unreliable and lossy dialup access over the copper wires of urban telephone networks. Nowadays, Russia has 80 million users, and most of them have access to broadband.

As for Putin’s solemn oath to protect the Russian Internet from any undue and arbitrary attempts at government regulation, well, he honored it for the next 13 years. As keen as Putin was to control the federal nationwide TV channels, he seemed absolutely uninterested in regulating the Internet, be it the content, the cables, or the e-commerce. Any attempts by overzealous Russian lawmakers, ministers or law enforcement (the infamous siloviki, or strongmen) to regulate the Net were routinely aborted by Putin’s administration. Anyone who proposed such legislation to please the Kremlin soon found out that the Kremlin was very far from pleased. Internet regulation bills sponsored by everyone from Moscow mayor Yuri Luzhkov, to government ordinance drafts by ministers, and dozens of other proposals to regulate the Net had been quickly buried and forgotten for lack of presidential support between 2000 and 2012.

As a result, the Internet developed into Russia's only competitive industry. Companies like Yandex and VKontakte easily outperformed international competition (Google and Facebook, respectively) in Russian-speaking markets. These Russian start-ups did not copy successful American models, but rather the other way round: Almost every Yandex service (maps, payments, webmail, contextual advertising, etc.) was launched several years ahead of its Google-based analog. The VKontakte social network has many services and features that Facebook badly lacks, such as social music and video hosting and an advertising exchange, allowing any popular page or group to monetize its traffic almost automatically.

The Internet also became Russia’s only territory of unlimited free speech. Opposition figures, banned elsewhere in mass media, found easy access to their audiences by going online. Moreover, privately owned online media sources, such as Lenta.Ru, Gazeta.Ru, and RBC News, used to outperform traditional mass media outlets in terms of audience and pageviews. Alexey Navalny, Russia's most prominent independent politician and Kremlin-basher, found millions of followers all over the country, despite being banned from all nationwide TV channels and radio stations for almost half a decade.

Several explanations have been offered for this strange phenomenon of Putin acting as the guardian angel of Internet freedom while curbing free speech in all other types of mass media. Either the president was convinced that the Russian Internet (known as RuNet) would always remain too small to be important, or he just didn’t want to embarrass himself in front of other G8 members by acting too Chinese. Or maybe he was truly confident in his advisors’ strategy of creating pro-government websites instead of shutting down anti-government ones. (That strategy, it should be added, served the advisors’ own financial interests to embezzle tons of government cash on phony online propaganda projects.)

In any case, when Putin had made his initial pledge not to interfere, he lived up to his promise for almost 13 years. Unfortunately, those 13 happy years are over now and we’re witnessing a fast and ruthless destruction of online freedom.

No one can say what subsequently made Putin change his mind about the dangers of online freedom. Some say he was impressed by the Twitter-fueled revolution in Moldova that brought down the pro-Russian communist government in 2009. I strongly doubt this assumption, because Putin wouldn’t have waited for three years after the Chisinau events to make his move. Others point to the Arab Spring as the turning point (Putin’s close associate and KGB crony Victor Sechin once officially and publicly blamed Google for masterminding the revolution in Egypt and “being behind” it). I disagree with this theory, too. Mubarak was no friend of Putin, and the guy who was (Colonel Qaddafi) was overthrown and killed by tribal warriors with no apparent Internet influence.

We should blame the 2011-2012 Moscow protests for Putin’s unexpected and instant conversion into a paranoid Internet-hater.

He made his change of mind public during a speech on April 24. Putin shocked the entire world with his epiphany that the Internet was initially created as a special CIA project, and is still run as such. Putin went on to claim that Yandex, Russia’s biggest and most successful Internet startupranked fourth in the world by number of search requests, valued at about $15 billion on NASDAQ in mid-February 2014, earning more revenues and profits in 2013 than any other media company in Russiais also controlled by foreign intelligence seeking to harm Russia’s interests. Those remarks instantly brought Yandex shares down 5.5 percent. As of this writing, the company is now worth $9.19 billion, nearly $6 billion off its mid-February mark.

Putin’s new approach to the Internet helps explain the recent spate of online censorship laws passed by the Duma (the lower chamber of Russian parliament), and routinely rubberstamped by the Federation Council (Russia’s Senate). According to these new laws, any local or foreign website may be banned in Russia without explanation; and any blogger with a total audience over 3,000 readers must register as a mass-media institution with the government (this was included as part of the “antiterrorist legislation package” compiled after the Volgograd bus and railway bombings just ahead of the Olympics). Another law, proposed by deputy Irina Yarovaya of United Russia, would require anyone wishing to broadcast his or her views online to obtain a permit from the government. Yet another, proposed by one of her colleagues, would require anyone wishing to register a webpage to pay 1,000 roubles up front.

Nor have companies like Twitter, Facebook and Google escaped Putin’s crackdown. Under the new laws, any social media platform that wishes to serve a Russian audience will be obliged to retain all user data for at least six months and to surrender this information to Russian security services upon request, without a court ruling or any other form of justification or explanation. Moreover, any foreign social media platform serving Russian users has to physically keep all sensible user data within the boundaries of the Russian Federation. And we’re not talking Russian user data, but rather all personal information of any user who happens to have some readers from Russialike, say, Barack Obama, who has no less than 3,000 Russian nationals among the 40.5 million subscribers to his Facebook page. Twitter should also prepare to move all of Obama’s personal data to Russia and hand it over to the FSB, since both Putin and Medvedev are his followers on Twitter. Ditto for Google. If any of these companies don’t comply they would be subject to administrative fines, up to 500,000 roubles ($14,000), and Russian ISPs would have to block access to these platforms.

This Orwellian masterpiece of legislation was signed into law by Vladimir Putin on May 5, 2014, and it will be enforced from August 1, 2014. Will that be the last day of Russian Internet? Maybe. Unless a new law kills it even faster.

TOPICS: Foreign Affairs; Russia

1 posted on 05/18/2014 7:32:43 PM PDT by annalex
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To: A.A. Cunningham; andyk; AlexW; BatGuano; bayliving; Belteshazzar; bert; Bibman; Bigg Red; ...

If you want to be on this right wing, monarchy, paleolibertarianism and nationalism ping list, but are not, please let me know. If you are on it and want to be off, also let me know. This ping list is not used for Catholic-Protestant debates; all confessions are welcome.

2 posted on 05/18/2014 7:33:18 PM PDT by annalex (fear them not)
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To: annalex

Whines like the only comrade with a dictator. We all know he didn’t build it by himself, like AlGore. If you like your Barack you can keep your Vlad. Obamacare says so.

3 posted on 05/18/2014 8:04:48 PM PDT by Steamburg (Other people's money is the only language a politician respects)
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To: annalex

Maybe Google should just invade Russia and takeover their government.

4 posted on 05/18/2014 8:10:19 PM PDT by UCANSEE2 (Lost my tagline on Flight MH370. Sorry for the inconvenience.)
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To: annalex
>>>>>No one can say what subsequently made Putin change his mind about the dangers of online freedom<<<<<<

One word: Snowden.

5 posted on 05/18/2014 8:49:51 PM PDT by DTA
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To: Steamburg

Even yet, he hates to see it go.

This could be called tsonsalg... glasnost gone backwards. It will end up punishing itself.

6 posted on 05/18/2014 9:11:29 PM PDT by HiTech RedNeck (Embrace the Lion of Judah and He will roar for you and teach you to roar too. See my page.)
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To: annalex; Steamburg; UCANSEE2; DTA; HiTech RedNeck

Interesting link regarding internet use by country... sortable list...

7 posted on 05/18/2014 10:14:50 PM PDT by PieterCasparzen (We have to fix things ourselves)
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Maybe Google should just invade Russia and takeover their government.

First Google needs to win a Crusade in Europe: EU Orders Google to Let Users Erase Past

8 posted on 05/18/2014 10:49:58 PM PDT by cynwoody
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To: PieterCasparzen; Steamburg; UCANSEE2; DTA; HiTech RedNeck

This is not exactly “per user” if the US has over 4,000 IP addresses per thousand. Of those many would be phones and routers.

9 posted on 05/19/2014 5:06:16 AM PDT by annalex (fear them not)
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To: Steamburg

No, not by himself, but Nosik is a well-read blogger.

The point, of course, is Internet censorship that is literally shutting down political blogs.

10 posted on 05/19/2014 5:08:30 AM PDT by annalex (fear them not)
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You are sure? Nothing prevents Putin from building more routers on the Russian soil and collect any information he wants.

11 posted on 05/19/2014 5:11:49 AM PDT by annalex (fear them not)
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To: annalex

Anton Nossik....Must be a good friend of Al Gores.

12 posted on 05/19/2014 5:21:06 AM PDT by DaveA37
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To: DaveA37
What do you know about Nossik?

Start-up manager, social activist and a popular blogger (10'th place in Runet according to Yandex). Someteimes called the "Father of the RuNet". Was the editor of the largest internet new publications,, Gazeta.tu and One of the former managers of Rambler and blog service SUP, founder of «Помоги.org». Till March 2011 was the chief editor is Since mid 2009 was deputy chief director of "Consolidated Media" ...(etc)


No comparison to our boastful former ex-vice-pres who made a PowerPoint presentation about something once.

13 posted on 05/19/2014 5:31:29 AM PDT by annalex (fear them not)
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To: annalex
Exactly, this is just IP addresses.

It's an interesting statistic, IMHO. Of course it would include IPs used by phones, also the server side, i.e., data centers.

I sorted the list by the per user.

Some tiny countries come up high on that list because they do quite a bit of web hosting under their top-level domain (TLD).

Russia is very far down that list at about 309 per thousand - that's only .3 IP addresses per person !

China is even farther down at 245.

Who's ahead of both Russia and China in that measure ?

Latvia at 757, Kuwait at 712 per thousand.

Getting up to about 1 or more addresses per person:

Cyprus at 998.

Guam at 1,149.

Slovenia at 1,264.
14 posted on 05/19/2014 6:41:21 AM PDT by PieterCasparzen (We have to fix things ourselves)
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To: PieterCasparzen

You also have to take into account the character of the country. Russia and China have a lot of population in remote regions where you can’t get a phone to work. Latvia, Slovenia, etc. are small urbanized countries with developed infrasructure.

15 posted on 05/19/2014 5:47:46 PM PDT by annalex (fear them not)
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