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Keyword: huntergatherers

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  • Family Tree of Dogs and Wolves Is Found to Split Earlier Than Thought

    05/21/2015 10:13:44 PM PDT · by nickcarraway · 14 replies
    New York Times ^ | MAY 21, 2015 | JAMES GORMAN
    The ancestors of modern wolves and dogs split into different evolutionary lineages 27,000 to 40,000 years ago, much earlier than some other research has suggested, scientists reported Thursday. The new finding is based on a bone fragment found on the Taimyr Peninsula in Siberia several years ago. When scientists studied the bone and reconstructed its genome — the first time that had been done for an ancient wolf, or any kind of ancient carnivore — they found it was a new species that lived 35,000 years ago. Based on the differences between the genome of the new species, called the...
  • Dogs have been man's best friend 'for 40,000 years'

    05/21/2015 10:15:08 AM PDT · by C19fan · 63 replies
    UK Telegraph ^ | May 21, 2015 | Staff
    Dogs have been man's best friend for up to 40,000 years, suggests new research. The study shows dogs' special relationship with humans might date back 27,000 to 40,000 years. The findings, published in the journal Current Biology, come from genomic analysis of an ancient Taimyr wolf bone.
  • Alaska's first full mammoth skeleton may be lurking under Arctic lake

    05/09/2015 8:12:29 PM PDT · by skeptoid · 31 replies
    Alaska Dispatch ^ | Yereth Rosen
    Alaska's first full mammoth skeleton may be lurking under Arctic lake. When an aquatic ecologist was surveying shallow lakes in Northwest Alaska three years ago, she and the pilot who traveled with her came upon an unusual sight in the treeless Arctic region: a pair of terns that kept flying around and perching on what appeared to be a log sticking out of a muddy area. The protruding object, it turns out, was no log. It was the large and well-preserved leg bone of a woolly mammoth. Right by it was another bone, perfectly articulated, that was clearly from the...
  • Tales teeth can tell: Dental enamel reveals surprising migration patterns in ancient Indus civ...

    05/09/2015 6:20:25 PM PDT · by SunkenCiv · 6 replies
    University of Florida ^ | April 29, 2015 | Gigi Marino [Sources: John Krigbaum, George Kamenov]
    When tooth enamel forms, it incorporates elements from the local environment -- the food one eats, the water one drinks, the dust one breathes. When the researchers looked at remains from the ancient city of Harappa, located in what is known today as the Punjab Province of Pakistan, individuals' early molars told a very different story than their later ones, meaning they hadn't been born in the city where they were found... The text of the Indus Valley Civilization remains undeciphered, and known and excavated burial sites are rare. A new study, published in today's PLOS ONE, illuminates the lives...
  • Tree Grown From 2,000-Year-Old Seed Has Reproduced

    03/29/2015 5:41:32 PM PDT · by EBH · 44 replies
    Smithsonianmag.com ^ | 3/26/2015 | Laura Clark
    et out the cigars—Methuselah, a Judean date palm tree that was grown from a 2,000 year old seed, has become a papa plant. Elaine Solowey, of the Arava Institute for Environmental Studies at Kibbutz Ketura in Israel, recently broke the good news to National Geographic: “He is over three meters [ten feet] tall, he's got a few offshoots, he has flowers, and his pollen is good," she says. "We pollinated a female with his pollen, a wild [modern] female, and yeah, he can make dates." Methuselah sprouted back in 2005, when agriculture expert Solowey germinated his antique seed. It had...
  • Prehistoric stone tools bear 500,000-year-old animal residue

    03/21/2015 6:02:42 PM PDT · by SunkenCiv · 60 replies
    Eurekalert! ^ | March 19, 2015 | American Friends of Tel Aviv University
    Tel Aviv University discovers first direct evidence early flint tools were used to butcher animal carcasses. Some 2.5 million years ago, early humans survived on a paltry diet of plants. As the human brain expanded, however, it required more substantial nourishment - namely fat and meat - to sustain it. This drove prehistoric man, who lacked the requisite claws and sharp teeth of carnivores, to develop the skills and tools necessary to hunt animals and butcher fat and meat from large carcasses. Among elephant remains some 500,000 years old at a Lower Paleolithic site in Revadim, Israel, Prof. Ran Barkai...
  • Discoveries Challenge Beliefs on Humans’ Arrival in the Americas

    03/28/2014 9:09:21 AM PDT · by Theoria · 68 replies
    The New York Times ^ | 27 Mar 2014 | SIMON ROMERO
    Niede Guidon still remembers her astonishment when she glimpsed the paintings. Preserved amid the bromeliad-encrusted plateaus that tower over the thorn forests of northeast Brazil, the ancient rock art depicts fierce battles among tribesmen, orgiastic scenes of prehistoric revelry and hunters pursuing their game, spears in hand. “These were stunning compositions, people and animals together, not just figures alone,” said Dr. Guidon, 81, remembering what first lured her and other archaeologists in the 1970s to this remote site where jaguars still prowl. Hidden in the rock shelters where prehistoric humans once lived, the paintings number in the thousands. Some are...
  • A Carpet of Stone Tools in the Sahara

    03/14/2015 4:01:07 AM PDT · by SunkenCiv · 34 replies
    Past Horizons ^ | March 11, 2015 | editors
    A new intensive survey of the Messak Settafet escarpment, a massive outcrop of sandstone in the middle of the Saharan desert, has shown that stone tools occur "ubiquitously" across the entire landscape: averaging 75 artefacts per square metre, or 75 million per square kilometre. Researchers say the vast 'carpet' of stone-age tools -- extracted from and discarded onto the escarpment over hundreds of thousands of years -- is the earliest known example of an entire landscape being modified by hominins: the group of creatures that include us and our ancestral species. The Messak Settafet runs a total length of 350...
  • Ancient Africans used 'no fly zones' to bring herds south

    03/12/2015 7:02:39 AM PDT · by SunkenCiv · 9 replies
    Washington University ^ | March 9, 2015 | Gerry Everding
    Once green, the Sahara expanded 5,500 years ago, leading ancient herders to follow the rain and grasslands south to eastern Africa. But about 2,000 years ago, their southward migration stalled out, stopped in its tracks, archaeologists presumed, by tsetse-infested bush and disease. As the theory goes, the tiny tsetse fly altered the course of history, stopping the spread of domesticated animal herding with a bite that carries sleeping sickness and nagana, diseases often fatal for the herder and the herded. Now, isotopic research on animal remains from a nearly 2,000-year-old settlement near Gogo Falls in the present-day bushy woodlands of...
  • Researchers: We know secret of Joseph's biblical pest control

    04/21/2008 3:57:10 PM PDT · by Between the Lines · 17 replies · 124+ views
    Haaretz ^ | 4/21/08 | Ran Shapira
    The remains of a burnt beetle found in a grain of wheat about 3,500 years old provided a group of researchers from Bar-Ilan University with a key to a question the Bible left without a definite answer: How did Joseph the Dreamer, who became the viceroy to the king of Egypt, succeed in preserving the grain during the seven lean years and prevent Egypt's population from starving? According to the description in the book of Genesis, during the seven years of plenty in Egypt, Joseph had all the wheat collected in silos. "And he gathered up all the food of...
  • How hunting with wolves helped humans outsmart the Neanderthals

    02/28/2015 7:20:56 PM PST · by E. Pluribus Unum · 80 replies
    The Guardian ^ | 02/28/2015
    Dogs are humanity’s oldest friends, renowned for their loyalty and abilities to guard, hunt and chase. But modern humans may owe even more to them than we previously realised. We may have to thank them for helping us eradicate our caveman rivals, the Neanderthals.
  • Britain Imported Wheat 2,000 Years Before Growing It

    02/26/2015 6:45:03 PM PST · by BenLurkin · 18 replies
    scientificamerican.com ^ | Cynthia Graber
    Early farming began in the Near East about 10,500 years ago. Farming first reached the Balkans in Europe some 8 to 9,000 years ago, and then crept westward. Locals in Britain, separated from the mainland by the relatively newly formed English Channel, did not start farming until about 6,000 years ago. But an analysis of sediment from a submerged British archaeological site called Bouldner Cliff found something unexpected. “Amongst our Bouldner Cliff samples we found ancient DNA evidence of wheat at the site, which was not seen in mainland Britain for another 2,000 years.” Robin Allaby of the University of...
  • Letter from Ireland: Mystery of the Fulacht Fiadh

    02/19/2015 2:24:40 PM PST · by SunkenCiv · 20 replies
    Archaeology ^ | January/February 2012 | Erin Mullally
    On a typically misty morning in the west of Ireland, just outside the medieval town of Athenry, County Galway, archaeologist Declan Moore... is taking me to visit an unexcavated fulacht fiadh (pronounced FULL-ahk FEE-add), or fulachtaí fia in plural, the most common type of prehistoric archaeological site in Ireland. Better known as a "burnt mound" in the neighboring United Kingdom, where they are also found, there are nearly 6,000 recorded fulacht fiadh sites dotted around Ireland alone... When we arrive at the site, Moore shows me the basic features of a fulacht fiadh -- a horseshoe-shaped mound of soil and...
  • Ancient artefacts at Tullaghoge [Ireland, 5000 BC]

    02/19/2015 1:31:39 PM PST · by SunkenCiv · 13 replies
    Belfast Telegraph ^ | February 15, 2015 | unattributed
    An archaeological bid to discover more about the hilltop where Ulster chieftains were crowned 700 years ago has uncovered artefacts dating back more than 7,000 years. Tullaghoge Fort in rural Co Tyrone was the place leaders of the dominant O'Neill clan came to be crowned from around the 14th Century to just before the arrival of the planters at the start of the 17th Century. Targeted excavation work around the picturesque tree encircled earthen mound ahead of the planned development of new visitor facilities hoped to find and preserve buried artefacts from that period -- but it ended up unearthing...
  • Ancient Caribou hunting site found underneath Lake Huron

    04/29/2014 7:43:08 AM PDT · by BenLurkin · 39 replies
    An elaborate array of linear stone lanes and V-shaped structures has been discovered on an underwater ridge in Lake Huron, marking what is thought to be the most complex set of ancient hunting structures ever found beneath the Great Lakes, according to a new report. Researchers based at the University of Michigan think the roughly 9,000-year-old-structure helped natives corral caribou herds migrating across what was then an exposed land-corridor the so-called Alpena-Amberley Ridge connecting northeast Michigan to southern Ontario. The area is now covered by 120 feet of water, but at the time, was exposed due to dry conditions of...
  • Archeological evidence of human activity found beneath Lake Huron

    06/08/2009 2:21:10 PM PDT · by decimon · 28 replies · 1,218+ views
    University of Michigan ^ | Jun 8, 2009 | Unknown
    ANN ARBOR, Mich.---More than 100 feet deep in Lake Huron, on a wide stoney ridge that 9,000 years ago was a land bridge, University of Michigan researchers have found the first archeological evidence of human activity preserved beneath the Great Lakes. The researchers located what they believe to be caribou-hunting structures and camps used by the early hunters of the period. "This is the first time we've identified structures like these on the lake bottom," said John O'Shea, curator of Great Lakes Archaeology in the Museum of Anthropology and professor in the Department of Anthropology. "Scientifically, it's important because the...
  • Origins of underwater stones a mystery

    02/09/2009 11:42:11 AM PST · by SunkenCiv · 23 replies · 1,521+ views
    United Press International ^ | Monday, February 9, 2009 | unattributed
    An archaeologist says it remains a mystery how a circle of stones initially arrived at the floor of Michigan's Grand Traverse Bay. Underwater archeologist Mark Holley said while he first discovered the underwater stones in 2007, no one has been able to prove whether the rocks were placed there by nature or by mankind, the Chicago Tribune reported Sunday. "The first thing I said when I came out of the water was, 'Oh no, I wish we wouldn't have found this,'" Holley said of his discovery. "This is going to invite so much controversy that this is where we're going...
  • Stonehenge in Lake Michigan?(Potentially pre-historic stone formation discovered deep underwater)

    01/13/2009 5:24:22 PM PST · by Free ThinkerNY · 26 replies · 2,116+ views
    nbcchicago.com ^ | January 8, 2009 | MATT BARTOSIK
    The iconic Stonehenge in the UK is one of the most famous prehistoric monuments in the world, but it is not the only stone formation of its kind. Similar stone alignments have been found throughout England, Ireland, Scotland, and Wales… and now, it seems, in Lake Michigan. According to BLDGBLOG, in 2007, Mark Holley, professor of underwater archeology at Northwestern Michigan College, discovered a series of stones arranged in a circle 40 feet below the surface of Lake Michigan. One stone outside the circle seems to have carvings that resemble a mastodon—an elephant-like animal that went extinct about 10,000 years...
  • Stonehenge Beneath the Waters of Lake Michigan

    01/08/2009 12:15:48 PM PST · by BGHater · 54 replies · 2,641+ views
    BLDG Blog ^ | 05 Jan 2009 | BLDG Blog
    In a surprisingly under-reported story from 2007, Mark Holley, a professor of underwater archaeology at Northwestern Michigan University College, discovered a series of stones – some of them arranged in a circle and one of which seemed to show carvings of a mastodon – 40-feet beneath the surface waters of Lake Michigan. [Image: Standing stones beneath Lake Michigan? View larger]. If verified, the carvings could be as much as 10,000 years old – coincident with the post-Ice Age presence of both humans and mastodons in the upper midwest. [Image: The stones beneath Lake Michigan; view larger]. In a PDF assembled by...
  • Underwater Archaeologists Find Possible Mastodon Carving On Lake Michigan Rock

    09/05/2007 10:26:08 AM PDT · by blam · 84 replies · 1,937+ views
    AHN ^ | 9-4-2007 | Nidhi Sharma
    Underwater Archaeologists Find Possible Mastodon Carving On Lake Michigan Rock September 4, 2007 11:51 p.m. EST Nidhi Sharma - AHN News Writer Traverse City, MI (AHN) - Underwater archaeologists in Lake Michigan's Grand Traverse Bay are speculating a boulder they found in a June ship wreck to be engraved with a prehistoric carvings. Mark Holley, a scientist with the Grand Traverse Bay Underwater Preserve Council, believes that the granite rock, which was found hidden at a depth of about 12 metres, has markings that resemble a mastodon. A mastodon is an elephant-like creature that once inhabited parts of North America....
  • Butchered Bones Found in Yukon Cave Bear Marks of Early Americans, Study Finds

    02/13/2015 12:15:11 PM PST · by SunkenCiv · 10 replies
    Western Digs ^ | February 12, 2015 | Blake de Pastino
    They're probably about half as old as scientists once thought they were. But a pair of butchered bones found in a cave near the Alaska-Yukon border are "definite" evidence of human presence in North America just after the end of the last Ice Age, perhaps as much as 14,000 years ago, according to a new study. The bones were originally discovered in the late 1970s by Canadian archaeologist Dr. Jacques Cinq-Mars at a site known as Bluefish Caves, high in northwestern Yukon Territory. In one of the caves, dubbed Cave 2, archaeologists found more than 18,000 fragments of bones from...
  • Ancient Romans ate meals most Americans would recognize.

    02/10/2015 1:07:35 AM PST · by 2ndDivisionVet · 35 replies
    Inside Science ^ | February 3, 2015 | Joel N. Shurkin
    Let's pretend it is 56 B.C. and you have been fortunate enough to be invited to a party at the home of Lucius Calpurnius Piso Caesoninus, a great social coup. Piso, after all, was Julius Caesar's father-in-law and a consul of Rome. What's for dinner? You need to prepare for pig. Archaeologists studying the eating habits of ancient Etruscans and Romans have found that pork was the staple of Italian cuisine before and during the Roman Empire. Both the poor and the rich ate pig as the meat of choice, although the rich, like Piso, got better cuts, ate meat...
  • When did dogs become man's best friend?

    02/07/2015 12:25:26 PM PST · by BenLurkin · 32 replies
    CBS News ^ | February 6, 2015, 6:30 PM | By/Michael Casey//
    Using sophisticated 3D imaging to analyze several fossil skulls, a study in this week's Nature Scientific Reports found dogs emerged much more recently than previously thought. Other studies in recent years had suggested dogs evolved as early as 30,000 years ago, a period known as the late Paleolithic, when humans were hunter-gatherers. Abby Grace Drake, a biologist at Skidmore College and one of the co-authors of the latest study, said there is an abundance of evidence -- including the skulls as well as genetic and cultural evidence -- to show dogs arrived instead in the more recent period known as...
  • Malocclusion and dental crowding arose 12,000 years ago with earliest farmers

    02/07/2015 10:06:25 AM PST · by SunkenCiv · 13 replies
    Phys dot org ^ | February 4, 2015 | University College Dublin
    Hunter-gatherers had almost no malocclusion and dental crowding, and the condition first became common among the world's earliest farmers some 12,000 years ago in Southwest Asia... By analysing the lower jaws and teeth crown dimensions of 292 archaeological skeletons from the Levant, Anatolia and Europe, from between 28,000-6,000 years ago, an international team of scientists have discovered a clear separation between European hunter-gatherers, Near Eastern/Anatolian semi-sedentary hunter-gatherers and transitional farmers, and European farmers, based on the form and structure of their jawbones... In the case of hunter-gatherers, the scientists from University College Dublin, Israel Antiquity Authority, and the State University...
  • Dinner At Piso's: Ancient Romans ate meals most Americans would recognize

    02/07/2015 9:01:27 AM PST · by SunkenCiv · 62 replies
    Inside Science ^ | Tuesday, February 3, 2015 | Joel N. Shurkin, Contributor
    Let's pretend it is 56 B.C. and you have been fortunate enough to be invited to a party at the home of Lucius Calpurnius Piso Caesoninus, a great social coup. Piso, after all, was Julius Caesar's father-in-law and a consul of Rome... You need to prepare for pig. Archaeologists studying the eating habits of ancient Etruscans and Romans have found that pork was the staple of Italian cuisine before and during the Roman Empire. Both the poor and the rich ate pig as the meat of choice, although the rich, like Piso, got better cuts, ate meat more often and...
  • Cats' Family Tree Rooted In Fertile Crescent, Study Confirms

    02/01/2008 2:55:53 PM PST · by blam · 27 replies · 130+ views
    Science Daily ^ | 2-1-2008 | University of California - Davis.
    Cats' Family Tree Rooted In Fertile Crescent, Study ConfirmsCats, with their penchant for hunting mice, rats and other rodents, became useful companions as people domesticated, grew and stored wild grains and grasses. Eventually, cats also became pets but were never fully domesticated. Even today, most domestic cats remain self-sufficient, if necessary, and continue to be efficient hunters, even when provided with food. (Credit: Michele Hogan) ScienceDaily (Jan. 29, 2008) — The Fertile Crescent of the Middle East has long been identified as a "cradle of civilization" for humans. In a new genetic study, researchers at the University of California, Davis,...
  • Scientists believe cats 'sort of domesticated themselves'

    06/29/2007 8:02:15 AM PDT · by DogByte6RER · 185 replies · 6,883+ views
    SignOnSanDiego.com ^ | June 29, 2007 | THE WASHINGTON POST
    Scientists believe cats 'sort of domesticated themselves' THE WASHINGTON POST June 29, 2007 WASHINGTON – Your hunch is correct. Your cat decided to live with you, not the other way around. The sad truth is, it may not be a final decision. But don't take this feline diffidence personally. It runs in the family. And it goes back a long way – about 12,000 years, actually. Those are among the inescapable conclusions of a genetic study of the origins of the domestic cat, being published today in the journal Science. The findings, drawn from the analysis of nearly a thousand...
  • Biologist Drake helps answer key question in canine history [Dog Domestication]

    02/06/2015 11:03:34 PM PST · by SunkenCiv · 60 replies
    Skidmore College ^ | February 5, 2015 | press release (via Archaeology)
    When did dogs first become domesticated? A sophisticated new 3D fossil analysis by biologists Abby Grace Drake, visiting assistant professor of biology at Skidmore, and Michael Coquerelle of the University Rey Juan Carlos contradicts the suggested domestication of dogs during the late Paleolithic era (about 30,000 years ago), and reestablishes the date of domestication to around 15,000 years ago... Whether dogs were domesticated during the Paleolithic era, when humans were hunter-gatherers, or the Neolithic era, when humans began to form permanent settlements and take up farming, is a subject of ongoing scientific debate. Original fossil finds placed dog domestication in...
  • Opinion: We Didn’t Domesticate Dogs. They Domesticated Us.

    03/03/2013 4:02:35 PM PST · by nickcarraway · 47 replies
    National Geographic News ^ | March 3, 2013 | Brian Hare and Vanessa Woods
    Scientists argue that friendly wolves sought out humans.In the story of how the dog came in from the cold and onto our sofas, we tend to give ourselves a little too much credit. The most common assumption is that some hunter-gatherer with a soft spot for cuteness found some wolf puppies and adopted them. Over time, these tamed wolves would have shown their prowess at hunting, so humans kept them around the campfire until they evolved into dogs. (See "How to Build a Dog.") But when we look back at our relationship with wolves throughout history, this doesn't really make...
  • Animal Connection: New Hypothesis for Human Evolution and Human Nature

    07/23/2010 3:11:21 PM PDT · by SunkenCiv · 26 replies · 1+ views
    ScienceDaily ^ | July 20, 2010 | adapted from Penn State material written by Kevin Stacey
    It's no secret to any dog-lover or cat-lover that humans have a special connection with animals.... paleoanthropologist Pat Shipman of Penn State University argues that this human-animal connection goes well beyond simple affection. Shipman proposes that the interdependency of ancestral humans with other animal species... played a crucial and beneficial role in human evolution over the last 2.6 million years... "Having sharp tools transformed wimpy human ancestors into effective predators who left many cut marks on the fossilized bones of their prey," Shipman said. Becoming a predator also put our ancestors into direct competition with other carnivores for carcasses and...
  • Experts: Dogs originated in ancient Asia

    02/17/2004 2:20:26 PM PST · by presidio9 · 38 replies · 410+ views
    AP ^ | Tuesday, February 17, 2004
    <p>From Yorkshire terriers the size of a teacup to Irish wolfhounds near the size of a small pony, all dogs originated from a single species, probably an East Asian wolf seeking the warmth of the human hearth and an easy meal.</p>
  • Cats Are Finally Getting Geneticists' Attention

    01/24/2015 3:27:14 PM PST · by SunkenCiv · 42 replies
    January 15, 2015 ^ | January 15, 2015 | Carl Engelking
    Consumer doggie DNA testing is old hat at this point, having been around since 2007. But cat-lovers who wish to decipher their pet's breed are out of luck -- no such tests exist for felines. That fact reflects the state of the underlying science. Since the first full dog genome was sequenced ten years ago, geneticists have identified hundreds of genes behind canine diseases and physical traits. By comparison, just a handful of such genes have been identified in cats. But a group of geneticists is working to close this gap by sequencing 99 domestic cats. This week the researchers...
  • Tuberculosis genomes track human history

    01/21/2015 6:34:38 AM PST · by SunkenCiv · 10 replies
    Nature ^ | 19 January 2015 Corrected: 20 January 2015 | Ewen Callaway
    Although M. tuberculosis probably first emerged some 40,000 years ago in Africa, the disease did not take hold until humans took to farming... A previous analysis by his team had shown that the common ancestor of all the M. bacterium strains circulating today began spreading around 10,000 years ago in the ancient Fertile Crescent, a region stretching from Mesopotamia to the Nile Delta that was a cradle of agriculture... 4,987 samples of the Beijing lineage from 99 countries... the information to date the expansion of the lineage and show how the strains are related... the Beijing lineage did indeed emerge...
  • Study of ancient dogs in the Americas yields insights into human, dog migration

    01/08/2015 3:52:23 PM PST · by SunkenCiv · 15 replies
    University of Illinois ^ | 1/7/2015 | Diana Yates, Life Sciences Editor
    A new study suggests that dogs may have first successfully migrated to the Americas only about 10,000 years ago, thousands of years after the first human migrants crossed a land bridge from Siberia to North America. The study, which looked at the genetic characteristics of 84 individual dogs from more than a dozen sites in North and South America, is the largest analysis so far of ancient dogs in the Americas. The findings appear in the Journal of Human Evolution. Unlike their wild wolf predecessors, ancient dogs learned to tolerate human company and generally benefitted from the association: They gained...
  • Three cheers for the onion

    01/04/2015 1:26:00 AM PST · by moose07 · 73 replies
    BBC ^ | 4 January 2015 | BBC
    Onions are eaten and grown in more countries than any other vegetable but rarely seem to receive much acclaim. It's time to stop taking the tangy, tear-inducing bulb for granted and give it a round of applause, writes the BBC's Marek Pruszewicz. Deep in the archives of Yale University's Babylonian Collection lie three small clay tablets with a particular claim to fame - they are the oldest known cookery books. Covered in minute cuneiform writing, they did not give-up their secrets until 1985, nearly 4,000 years after they were written. The French Assyriologist and gourmet cook Jean Bottero - a...
  • Eggs of intestinal parasites identified in Late Iron Age site

    01/02/2015 2:26:39 PM PST · by SunkenCiv · 12 replies
    Past Horizons ^ | December 30, 2014 | from Journal of Archaeological Science
    The settlement was inhabited around 100 B.C. and is one of the most significant Late La Tene sites in Central Europe. The team found the durable eggs of roundworms (Ascaris sp.), whipworms, (Trichuris sp.) and liver flukes (Fasciola sp.). The eggs of these intestinal parasites were discovered in the backfill of 2000 year-old storage and cellar pits from the Iron Age. The presence of the parasite eggs was not, as is usually the case, established by wet sieving of the soil samples. Instead, a novel geoarchaeology-based method was applied using micromorphological thin sections, which enable the parasite eggs to be...
  • Is eating behavior manipulated by the gastrointestinal microbiota?

    12/27/2014 12:18:08 PM PST · by 2ndDivisionVet · 42 replies
    Wiley Online Library ^ | August 7, 2014 | Joe Alcock, Carlo C. Maley and C. Athena Aktipis
    Abstract Microbes in the gastrointestinal tract are under selective pressure to manipulate host eating behavior to increase their fitness, sometimes at the expense of host fitness. Microbes may do this through two potential strategies: (i) generating cravings for foods that they specialize on or foods that suppress their competitors, or (ii) inducing dysphoria until we eat foods that enhance their fitness. We review several potential mechanisms for microbial control over eating behavior including microbial influence on reward and satiety pathways, production of toxins that alter mood, changes to receptors including taste receptors, and hijacking of the vagus nerve, the neural...
  • A Carolina Dog (The Dixie Dingo)

    12/27/2014 2:48:28 AM PST · by blam · 46 replies
    Bitter Southerner ^ | 12-27-2014 | Cy Brown
    Story by Cy Brown Photos by Kaylinn GilstrapDeember 27, 2014 He got Penny for Christmas. He didn’t know he would get a trip into the deepest reaches of the 14,000-year history of dogs in North America.Things we love in the South: Moon Pies, SEC football, Otis Redding, Flannery O’Connor, Cheerwine and, probably more than anything else, our dogs. What is it about Southerners and our dogs? Maybe it's because in the South, we're a bit more country than our cousins to the north. Perhaps we are a generation or two fewer removed from the time when having a dog was...
  • Hunter-gatherer diet caused tooth decay

    01/12/2014 3:03:25 PM PST · by SunkenCiv · 23 replies
    Past Horizons ^ | Tuesday, January 7, 2014 | Natural History Museum
    ...The results published in PNAS (Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences) also suggest tooth decay was more prevalent in earlier societies than previously estimated. The results also suggest that the hunter-gatherer society studied may have developed a more sedentary lifestyle than previously thought, relying on nut harvesting. Dental disease was thought to have originated with the introduction of farming and changes in food processing around 10,000 years ago. A greater reliance on cultivated plant foods, rich in fermentable carbohydrates, resulted in rotting teeth.High level of decayNow, the analysis of 52 adult dentitions from hunter-gatherer skeletons found in a cave...
  • Neanderthals Had Knowledge Of Plant Healing Qualities

    07/19/2012 9:56:13 PM PDT · by SunkenCiv · 24 replies
    redOrbit Staff & Wire Reports ^ | Thursday, July 19, 2012 | Naturwissenschaften
    A team of researchers has provided the first molecular evidence that Neanderthals not only ate a range of cooked plant foods, but also understood their nutritional and medicinal qualities... The researchers, led by the Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona and the University of York, combined pyrolysis gas-chromatography-mass spectrometry with morphological analysis of plant microfossils to identify material trapped in dental calculus (calcified dental plaque) from five Neanderthals from the north Spanish site of El Sidrón. Their results provide another twist to the story -- the first molecular evidence for medicinal plants being used by a Neanderthal individual. According to a prepared...
  • The oldest farming village in the Mediterranean islands is discovered in Cyprus

    05/15/2012 7:39:27 PM PDT · by SunkenCiv · 14 replies
    PhysOrg ^ | May 15, 2012 | CNRS
    Previously it was believed that, due to the island's geographic isolation, the first Neolithic farming societies did not reach Cyprus until a thousand years after the birth of agriculture in the Middle East... However, the discovery of Klimonas, a village that dates from nearly 9000 years before Christ, proves that early cultivators migrated to Cyprus from the Middle Eastern continent shortly after the emergence of agriculture there, bringing with them wheat as well as dogs and cats... The archaeologists have found a few votive offerings inside the building, including flint arrowheads and green stone beads. A great many remnants of...
  • Humanity's Best Friend: How Dogs May Have Helped Humans Beat the Neanderthals

    05/15/2012 11:00:12 AM PDT · by Theoria · 44 replies
    The Atlantic ^ | 14 May 2012 | Megan Garber
    Over 20,000 years ago, humans won the evolutionary battle against Neanderthals. They may have had some assistance in that from their best friends. One of the most compelling -- and enduring -- mysteries in archaeology concerns the rise of early humans and the decline of Neanderthals. For about 250,000 years, Neanderthals lived and evolved, quite successfully, in the area that is now Europe. Somewhere between 45,000 and 35,000 years ago, early humans came along.They proliferated in their new environment, their population increasing tenfold in the 10,000 years after they arrived; Neanderthals declined and finally died away. What happened? What went...
  • Neolithic farmers brought deer to Ireland

    05/14/2012 3:13:40 PM PDT · by SunkenCiv · 11 replies
    Past Horizons Archaeology ^ | April 18, 2012 | School of Biology and Environmental Science, University College Dublin
    By comparing DNA from ancient bone specimens to DNA obtained from modern animals, the researchers discovered that the Kerry red deer are the direct descendants of deer present in Ireland 5000 years ago. Further analysis using DNA from European deer proves that Neolithic people from Britain first brought the species to Ireland. Although proving the red deer is not native to Ireland, researchers believe that the Kerry population is unique as it is directly related to the original herd and are worthy of special conservation status. Fossil bone samples from the National Museum of Ireland, some up to 30,000 years...
  • Did humans devastate Easter Island on arrival?

    03/10/2006 4:17:24 AM PST · by S0122017 · 27 replies · 482+ views
    New Scientist ^ | 9 March 2006 | Bob Holmes
    Did humans devastate Easter Island on arrival? 19:00 09 March 2006 Bob Holmes Early settlers to the remote Easter Island stripped the island’s natural resources to erect towering stone statues (Image: Terry L Hunt)Related Articles What caused the collapse of Easter Island civilisation? 25 September 2004 Last of the great migrations 24 April 2004 Histories: Carteret's South Sea trouble 11 February 2006 The first humans may have arrived on Easter Island several centuries later than previously supposed, suggests a new study. If so, these Polynesian settlers must have begun destroying the island's forests almost immediately after their arrival. Easter Island...
  • Tracking the Ancestry of Corn Back 9,000 Years

    05/25/2010 6:22:11 PM PDT · by SunkenCiv · 73 replies · 1,099+ views
    New York Times ^ | Monday, May 24, 2010 | Sean B. Carroll
    Many botanists did not see any connection between maize and other living plants. Some concluded that the crop plant arose through the domestication by early agriculturalists of a wild maize that was now extinct, or at least undiscovered. However, a few scientists working during the first part of the 20th century uncovered evidence that they believed linked maize to what, at first glance, would seem to be a very unlikely parent, a Mexican grass called teosinte... George W. Beadle, while a graduate student at Cornell University in the early 1930s, found that maize and teosinte had very similar chromosomes....
  • Maize may have fueled ancient Andean civilization [ update of sorts ]

    07/10/2009 5:32:03 AM PDT · by SunkenCiv · 27 replies · 787+ views
    Science News ^ | Bruce Bower
    Prehistoric communities in one part of Peru's Andes Mountains may have gone from maize to amazingly complex. Bioarchaeologist Brian Finucane's analyses of human skeletons excavated in this region indicate that people living there 2,800 years ago regularly ate maize. This is the earliest evidence for maize as a staple food in the rugged terrain of highland Peru, he says. Maize agriculture stimulated ancient population growth in the Andes and allowed a complex society, the Wari, to develop, Finucane contends in the August Current Anthropology. Wari society included a central government and other elements of modern states. It lasted from around...
  • Cultivation changed monsoon in Asia

    06/02/2009 10:57:21 PM PDT · by neverdem · 9 replies · 518+ views
    Science News ^ | June 1st, 2009 | Sid Perkins
    Loss of forests in India, China during the 1700s led to a decline in monsoon precipitation The dramatic expansion of agriculture in India and southeastern China during the 18th century — a sprawl that took place at the expense of forests — triggered a substantial drop in precipitation in those regions, a new study suggests. Winds that blow northeast from the Indian Ocean into southern Asia each summer bring abundant rain to an area that’s home to more than half the world’s population. But those seasonal winds, known as monsoons, brought about 20 percent less rainfall each year to India...
  • Superdirt Made Lost Amazon Cities Possible

    11/30/2008 3:36:23 PM PST · by JoeProBono · 22 replies · 1,067+ views
    Centuries-old European explorers' tales of lost cities in the Amazon have long been dismissed by scholars, in part because the region is too infertile to feed a sprawling civilization. But new discoveries support the idea of an ancient Amazonian urban network—and ingeniously engineered soil may have made it all possible.
  • Scientists find ancient lost settlements in Amazon

    08/28/2008 5:54:59 PM PDT · by decimon · 25 replies · 192+ views
    Reuters ^ | Aug 28, 2008 | Reporting by Will Dunham; Editing by Maggie Fox
    WASHINGTON (Reuters) - A vast region of the Amazon forest in Brazil was home to a complex of ancient towns in which about 50,000 people lived, according to scientists assisted by satellite images of the region. The scientists, whose findings were published on Thursday in the journal Science, described clusters of towns and smaller villages connected by complex road networks and housing a society doomed by the arrival of Europeans five centuries ago. < > The existence of the ancient settlements in the Upper Xingu region of the Amazon in north-central Brazil means what many experts had considered virgin tropical...
  • Maize (Corn) May Have Been Domesticated In Mexico As Early As 10,000 Years Ago

    06/29/2008 2:03:58 PM PDT · by blam · 29 replies · 305+ views
    Science Daily ^ | 6-27-2008 | American Society of Plant Biologists
    Maize (Corn) May Have Been Domesticated In Mexico As Early As 10,000 Years AgoVarious unusually colored and shaped maize from Latin America. (Credit: Photo by Keith Weller / courtesy of USDA/Agricultural Research Service) ScienceDaily (June 27, 2008) — The ancestors of maize originally grew wild in Mexico and were radically different from the plant that is now one of the most important crops in the world. While the evidence is clear that maize was first domesticated in Mexico, the time and location of the earliest domestication and dispersal events are still in dispute. Now, in addition to more traditional macrobotanical...