Skip to comments.Catholic Caucus: Sunday Mass Readings, 04-14-19, Palm Sunday of the Lord's Passion
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From: Luke 19:28-40 (At the Procession with Palms)
The Messiah enters the Holy City
28. Normally in the Gospels when there is mention of going to the Holy City it is
in terms of “going up” to Jerusalem (cf. Mt 20:18; Jn 7:8), probably because geo-
graphically the city is located on Mount Zion. Besides, since the temple was the
religious and political centre, going up to Jerusalem had also a sacred meaning
of ascending to the holy place, where sacrifices were offered to God.
Particularly in the Gospel of St Luke, our Lord’s whole life is seen in terms of a
continuous ascent towards Jerusalem, where his self-surrender reaches its high
point in the redemptive sacrifice of the cross. Here Jesus is on the point of ente-
ring the city, conscious of the fact that his passion and death are imminent.
30-35. Jesus makes use of a donkey for his entry into Jerusalem, thereby fulfil-
ling an ancient prophecy: “Rejoice greatly, O daughter of Zion! Shout aloud, O
daughter of Jerusalem! Lo, your king comes to you; triumphant and victorious is
he, humble and riding on an ass, on a colt the foal of an ass” (Zech 9:9).
The people, and particularly the Pharisees, were quite aware of this prophecy.
Therefore, despite its simplicity of form, there was a certain solemnity about the
whole episode which impressed those present, stirring the hearts of the people
and irritating the Pharisees. By fulfilling the prophecy our Lord was showing eve-
ryone that he was the Messiah prophesied in the Old Testament. Other aspects
of this episode are commented on in connexion with Mk 11:3.
38. Christ is greeted with the prophetic words referring to the enthronement of the
Messiah, contained in Psalm 118:26: “Blessed be he who enters in the name of
the Lord!” But the people also acclaim him as king. This is a great messianic
demonstration, which infuriates the Pharisees. One of the acclamations, “Peace
in heaven and glory in the highest”, echoes the announcement made by the an-
gel to the shepherds on Christmas night (cf. Lk 2:14).
40. To the reproaches of the Pharisees, who are scandalized by the people’s
shouts, our Lord replies in a phrase which sounds like a proverb: so obvious is
his messiahship that if men refused to recognize it nature would proclaim it. In
fact, when his friends were cowed on the hill of Calvary the earth trembled and
the rocks split (cf. Mt 27:51). At other times our Lord imposed silence on those
who want to proclaim him King or Messiah, but now he adopts a different atti-
tude: the moment has come for his dignity and his mission to be made public.
Source: “The Navarre Bible: Text and Commentaries”. Biblical text from the
Revised Standard Version and New Vulgate. Commentaries by members of
the Faculty of Theology, University of Navarre, Spain.
Published by Four Courts Press, Kill Lane, Blackrock, Co. Dublin, Ireland, and
by Scepter Publishers in the United States.
From: Isaiah 50:4-7
Third Song of the Servant of the Lord
 For the Lord GOD helps me; therefore I have not been confounded; there-
fore I have set my face like a flint, and I know that I shall not be put to shame;
50:4-9. The second song dealt with the servants mission (cf. 49:6); the third
song focuses on the servant himself. The term “servant” as such does not
appear here, and therefore some commentators read the passage as being a
description of a prophet and not part of the songs. Still, the context (cf. 50:10)
does suggest that the protagonist is the servant. The poem is neatly construc-
ted in three stanzas, each beginning with the words, “The Lord God” (vv. 4, 5, 7),
and it has a conclusion containing that same wording (v. 9). The first stanza em-
phasizes the servants docility to the word of God; that is, he is not depicted as
a self-taught teacher with original ideas, but as an obedient disciple. The second
(vv. 5-6) speaks of the suffering that that docility has brought him, without his ut-
tering a word of complaint. The third (vv. 7-8) shows how determined the servant
is: if he suffers in silence, it is not out of cowardice but because God helps him
and makes him stronger than his persecutors. The conclusion (v. 9) is like the
verdict of a trial: when all is said and done, the servant will stand tall, and all his
enemies will be struck down.
The evangelists saw the words of this song as finding fulfillment in Jesus — espe-
cially what the song has to say about the suffering and silent fortitude of the ser-
vant. The Gospel of John, for example, quotes Nicodemus acknowledgment of
Christs wisdom: “Rabbi, we know that you are a teacher come from God; for no
one can do these signs that you do, unless God is with him” (Jn 3:21). But the
description of the servants sufferings was the part that most impressed the ear-
ly Christians; that part of the song was recalled when they meditated on the pas-
sion of Jesus and how “they spat in his face; and struck him; and some slapped
him” (Mt 26:67) and later how the Roman soldiers “spat upon him, and took the
reed and struck him on the head” (Mt 27:30; cf. also Mk 15:19; Jn 19:3). St Paul
refers to v. 9 when applying to Christ Jesus the role of intercessor on behalf of
the elect in the suit pressed constantly against them by the enemies of the soul:
“Who shall bring any charge against Gods elect?” (Rom 8:33).
St Jerome sees the servants docility as a reference to Christ: “His self-discipline
and wisdom enabled him to communicate to us the knowledge of the Father. And
he was obedient onto death, death on the cross; he offered his body to the blows
they struck, his shoulders to the lash; and though he was wounded on the chest
and on his face, he did not try to turn away and escape their violence” (”Commen-
tarii In Isaiam”, 50, 4). This passage is used in the liturgy of Palm Sunday (along
with Psalm 22 and St Pauls hymn in the Letter to the Philippians 2:6-11), before
the reading of our Lords passion.
Source: “The Navarre Bible: Text and Commentaries”. Biblical text from the
Revised Standard Version and New Vulgate. Commentaries by members of
the Faculty of Theology, University of Navarre, Spain.
Published by Four Courts Press, Kill Lane, Blackrock, Co. Dublin, Ireland, and
by Scepter Publishers in the United States.
From: Philippians 2:6-11
Hymn in Praise of Christ’s Self-Emptying
5. The Apostle’s recommendation, “’Have this mind among yourselves, which
was in Christ Jesus, requires all Christians, so far as human power allows, to re-
produce in themselves the sentiments that Christ had when He was offering Him-
self in sacrifice—sentiments of humility, of adoration, praise, and thanksgiving to
the divine majesty. It requires them also to become victims, as it were; cultiva-
ting a spirit of self-denial according to the precepts of the Gospel, willingly doing
works of penance, detesting and expiating their sins. It requires us all, in a word,
to die mystically with Christ on the Cross, so that we may say with the same
Apostle: ‘I have been crucified with Christ’ (Galatians 2:19)” (Pius XII, “Mediator
6-11. In what he says about Jesus Christ, the Apostle is not simply proposing
Him as a model for us to follow. Possibly transcribing an early liturgical hymn
(and) adding some touches of his own, he is — under the inspiration of the Holy
Spirit — giving a very profound exposition of the nature of Christ and using the
most sublime truths of faith to show the way Christian virtues should be prac-
This is one of the earliest New Testament texts to reveal the divinity of Christ.
The epistle was written around the year 62 (or perhaps before that, around 55)
and if we remember that the hymn of Philippians 2:6-11 may well have been in
use prior to that date, the passage clearly bears witness to the fact that Chris-
tians were proclaiming, even in those very early years, that Jesus, born in Beth-
lehem, crucified, died and buried, and risen from the dead, was truly both God
The hymn can be divided into three parts. The first (verses 6 and the beginning
of 7) refers to Christ’s humbling Himself by becoming man. The second (the end
of verse 7 and verse 8) is the center of the whole passage and proclaims the ex-
treme to which His humility brought Him: as man He obediently accepted death
on the cross. The third part (verses 9-11) describes His exaltation in glory.
Throughout St. Paul is conscious of Jesus’ divinity: He exists from all eternity.
But he centers his attention on His death on the cross as the supreme example
of humility. Christ’s humiliation lay not in His becoming a man like us and cloa-
king the glory of His divinity in His sacred humanity: it also brought Him to lead
a life of sacrifice and suffering which reached its climax on the cross, where He
was stripped of everything He had, like a slave. However, now that He has ful-
filled His mission, He is made manifest again, clothed in all the glory that befits
His divine nature and which His human nature has merited.
The man-God, Jesus Christ, makes the cross the climax of His earthly life;
through it He enters into His glory as Lord and Messiah. The Crucifixion puts
the whole universe on the way to salvation.
Jesus Christ gives us a wonderful example of humility and obedience. “We
should learn from Jesus’ attitude in these trials,” St. Escriva reminds us. “During
His life on earth He did not even want the glory that belonged to Him. Though He
had the right to be treated as God, He took the form of a servant, a slave (cf. Phi-
lippians 2:6-7). And so the Christian knows that all glory is due God and that he
must not use the sublimity and greatness of the Gospel to further his own inte-
rests or human ambitions.
“We should learn from Jesus. His attitude in rejecting all human glory is in per-
fect balance with the greatness of His unique mission as the beloved Son of
God who becomes incarnate to save men” (”Christ Is Passing By”, 62).
6-7. “Though He was in the form of God” or “subsisting in the form of God”:
“form” is the external aspect of something and manifests what it is. When refer-
ring to God, who is invisible, His “form” cannot refer to things visible to the sen-
ses; the “form of God” is a way of referring to Godhead. The first thing that St.
Paul makes clear is that Jesus Christ is God, and was God before the Incarna-
tion. As the “Nicene-Constantinopolitan Creed” professes it, “the only-begotten
Son of God, born of the Father before time began, light from light, true God from
“He did not count equality with God as something to be grasped”: the Greek
word translated as “equality” does not directly refer to equality of nature but ra-
ther the equality of rights and status. Christ was God and He could not stop
being God; therefore, He had a right to be treated as God and to appear in all
His glory. However, He did not insist on this dignity of His as if it were a treasure
which He possessed and which was legally His: it was not something He clung
to and boasted about. And so He took “the form of a servant”. He could have
become man without setting His glory aside — He could have appeared as He
did, momentarily, as the Transfiguration (cf. Matthew 17:1ff); instead He chose
to be like men, in all things but sin (cf. verse 7). By becoming man in the way
He did, He was able, as Isaiah prophesied in the Song of the Servant of Yah-
weh, to bear our sorrows and to be stricken (cf. Isaiah 53:4).
“He emptied Himself”, He despoiled Himself: this is literally what the Greek verb
means. But Christ did not shed His divine nature; He simply shed its glory, its
aura; if He had not done so it would have shone out through His human nature.
From all eternity He exists as God and from the moment of the Incarnation He
began to be man. His self-emptying lay not only in the fact that the Godhead
united to Himself (that is, to the person of the Son) something which was cor-
poreal and finite (a human nature), but also in the fact that this nature did not it-
self manifest the divine glory, as it “ought” to have done. Christ could not cease
to be God, but He could temporarily renounce the exercise of rights that be-
longed to Him as God—which was what He did.
Verses 6-8 bring the Christian’s mind the contrast between Jesus and Adam.
The devil tempted Adam, a mere man, to “be like God” (Genesis 3:5). By trying
to indulge this evil desire (pride is a disordered desire for self-advancement) and
by committing the sin of disobeying God (cf. Genesis 3:6), Adam drew down the
gravest misfortunes upon himself and on his whole line (present potentially in
him): this is symbolized in the Genesis passage by his expulsion from Paradise
and by the physical world’s rebellion against his lordship (cf. Genesis 3:16-24).
Jesus Christ, on the contrary, who enjoyed divine glory from all eternity, “emptied
Himself”: He chooses the way of humility, the opposite way to Adam’s (opposite,
too, to the way previously taken by the devil). Christ’s obedience thereby makes
up for the disobedience of the first man; it puts mankind in a position to more
than recover the natural and supernatural gifts with which God endowed human
nature at the Creation. And so, after focusing on the amazing mystery of Christ’s
humiliation or self-emptying (”kenosis” in Greek), this hymn goes on joyously to
celebrate Christ’s exaltation after death.
Christ’s attitude in becoming man is, then, a wonderful example of humility.
“What is more humble”, St. Gregory of Nyssa asks, “than the King of all crea-
tion entering into communion with our poor nature? The King of kings and Lord of
lords clothes Himself with the form of our enslavement; the Judge of the universe
comes to pay tribute to the princes of this world; the Lord of creation is born in a
cave; He who encompasses the world cannot find room in the inn...; the pure and
incorrupt one puts on the filthiness of our nature and experiences all our needs,
experiences even death itself” (”Oratio I In Beatitudinibus”).
This self-emptying is an example of God’s infinite goodness in taking the initiative
to meet man: “Fill yourselves with wonder and gratitude at such a mystery and
learn from it. All the power, all the majesty, all the beauty, all the infinite harmony
of God, all His great and immeasurable riches. God whole and entire was hidden
for our benefit in the humanity of Christ. The Almighty appears determined to ec-
lipse His glory for a time, so as to make it easy for His creatures to approach
their Redeemer.” (St. J. Escriva, “Friends of God”, 111).
8. Jesus Christ became man “for us men and for our salvation”, we profess in the
Creed. Everything He did in the course of His life had a salvific value; His death
on the cross represents the climax of His redemptive work for, as St. Gregory of
Nyssa says, “He did not experience death due to the fact of being born; rather,
He took birth upon Himself in order to die” (”Oratio Catechetica Magna”, 32).
Our Lord’s obedience to the Father’s saving plan, involving as it did death on the
cross, gives us the best of all lessons in humility. For, in the words of St. Tho-
mas Aquinas, “obedience is the sign of true humility” (”Commentary on Phil.,
ad loc.”). In St. Paul’s time death by crucifixion was the most demeaning form
of death, for it was inflicted only on criminals. By becoming obedient “unto death,
even death on a cross”, Jesus was being humble in the extreme. He was perfect-
ly within His rights to manifest Himself in all His divine glory, but He chose in-
stead the route leading to the most ignominious of deaths.
His obedience, moreover, was not simply a matter of submitting to the Father’s
will, for, as St. Paul points out, He made Himself obedient: His obedience was
active; He made the Father’s salvific plans His own. He chose voluntarily to give
Himself up to crucifixion in order to redeem mankind. “Debasing oneself when
one is forced to do so is not humility”, St. John Chrysostom explains; “humility
is present when one debases oneself without being obliged to do so” (”Hom. on
Phil., ad loc.”).
Christ’s self-abasement and his obedience unto death reveals His love for us, for
“greater love has no man than this, that a man lay down his life for his friends”
(John 15:13). His loving initiative merits a loving response on our part: we should
show that we desire to be one with Him, for love “seeks union, identification with
the beloved. United to Christ, we will be drawn to imitate His life of dedication,
His unlimited love and His sacrifice unto death. Christ brings us face to face with
the ultimate choice: either we spend our life in selfish isolation, or we devote our-
selves and all our energies to the service of others” (St. J. Escriva, “Friends of
9-11. “God highly exalted Him”: the Greek compounds the notion of exaltation,
to indicate the immensity of His glorification. Our Lord Himself foretold this when
He said, “He who humbles himself will be exalted” (Luke 14:11).
Christ’s sacred humanity was glorified as a reward for His humiliation. The
Church’s Magisterium teaches that Christ’s glorification affects his human nature
only, for “in the form of God the Son was equal to the Father, and between the
Begetter and the Only-begotten there was no difference in essence, no difference
in majesty; nor did the Word, through the mystery of incarnation, lose anything
which the Father might later return to Him as a gift” (St. Leo the Great, “Promi-
sisse Me Memini”, Chapter 8). Exaltation is public manifestation of the glory
which belongs to Christ’s humanity by virtue of its being joined to the divine per-
son of the Word. This union to the “form of a servant” (cf. verse 7) meant an im-
mense act of humility on the part of the Son, but it led to the exaltation of the
human nature He took on.
For the Jews the “name that is above every name” is the name of God (Yahweh),
which the Mosaic Law required to be held in particular awe. Also, they regarded
a name given to someone, especially if given by God, as not just a way of refer-
ring to a person but as expressing something that belonged to the very core of
his personality. Therefore, the statement that God “bestowed on Him the name
which is above every name” means that God the Father gave Christ’s human na-
ture the capacity to manifest the glory of divinity which was His by virtue of the
hypostatic union: therefore, it is to be worshipped by the entire universe.
St. Paul describes the glorification of Jesus Christ in terms similar to those used
by the prophet Daniel of the Son of Man: “To Him was given dominion and glory
and kingdom, that all peoples, nations and languages should serve His Kingdom,
one that shall not be destroyed” (Daniel 7:14). Christ’s lordship extends to all
created things. Sacred Scripture usually speaks of “heaven and earth” when re-
ferring to the entire created universe; by mentioning here the underworld it is em-
phasizing that nothing escapes His dominion. Jesus Christ can here be seen as
the fulfillment of Isaiah’s prophecy about the universal sovereignty of Yahweh:
“To Me every knee shall bow, every tongue shall swear” (Isaiah 45:23). All crea-
ted things come under His sway, and men are duty-bound to accept the basic
truth of Christian teaching: “Jesus Christ is Lord.” The Greek word “Kyrios” used
here by St. Paul is the word used by the Septuagint, the early Greek version of
the Old Testament, to translate the name of God (”Yahweh”). Therefore, this
sentence means “Jesus Christ is God.”
The Christ proclaimed here as having been raised on high is the man-God who
was born and died for our sake, attaining the glory of His exaltation after under-
going the humiliation of the cross. In this also Christ sets us an example: we
cannot attain the glory of Heaven unless we understand the supernatural value
of difficulties, ill-health and suffering: these are manifestations of Christ’s cross
present in our ordinary life. “We have to die to ourselves and be born again to
a new life. Jesus Christ obeyed in this way, even unto death on a cross (Philip-
pians 2:18); that is why God exalted Him. If we obey God’s will, the cross will
mean our own resurrection and exaltation. Christ’s life will be fulfilled step by
step in our own lives. It will be said of us that we have tried to be good children
of God, who went about doing good in spite of our weakness and personal short-
comings, no matter how many” (St. J. Escriva, “Christ Is Passing By”, 21).
Source: “The Navarre Bible: Text and Commentaries”. Biblical text from the
Revised Standard Version and New Vulgate. Commentaries by members of
the Faculty of Theology, University of Navarre, Spain.
Published by Four Courts Press, Kill Lane, Blackrock, Co. Dublin, Ireland, and
by Scepter Publishers in the United States.
From: Luke 22:14-23:56
(The shorter Passion reading is Luke 23:1-49.)
The Passion of our Lord Jesus Christ according to Luke
The institution of the Eucharist
The treachery of Judas foretold
A dispute among the apostles
 “You are those who have continued with me in my trials;  and I assign to
you, as my Father assigned to me, a kingdom,  that you may eat and drink
at my table in my kingdom, and sit on thrones judging the twelve tribes of Israel.
Peter’s denial foretold
Appeal to the apostles
Jesus’ prayer and agony in the garden
The arrest of Jesus
Jesus abused by the guards
Jesus before the chief priests
Jesus before Pilate
Jesus before Herod
Jesus is condemned to death
 But they all cried out together, “Away with this man, and release to us Ba-
rabbas” —  a man who had been thrown into prison for an insurrection started
in the city, and for murder.  Pilate addressed them once more, desiring to re-
lease Jesus;  but they shouted out, “Crucify, crucify him!”  A third time
he said to them, “Why, what evil has he done? I have found in him no crime de-
serving death; I will therefore chastise him and release him.”  But they were
urgent, demanding with loud cries that he should be crucified. And their voices
prevailed.  So Pilate gave sentence that their demand should be granted. 
He released the man who had been thrown into prison for insurrection and murder,
whom they asked for; but Jesus he delivered up to their will.
The crucifixion and death of Jesus
 One of the criminals who were hanged railed at him, saying, “Are you not
the Christ? Save yourself and us!”  But the other rebuked him, saying, “Do
you not fear God, since you are under the same sentence of condemnation? 
And we indeed justly; for we are receiving the due reward of our deeds; but this
man has done nothing wrong.”  And he said, “Jesus, remember me when
you come into your kingdom.”  And he said to him, “Truly, I say to you, to-
day you will be with me in Paradise.”
 It was now about the sixth hour, and there was darkness over the whole land
until the ninth hour,  while the sun’s light failed; and the curtain of the temple
was torn in two.  Then Jesus, crying with a loud voice, said, “Father, into thy
hands I commit my spirit!” And having said this he breathed his last.  Now
when the centurion saw what had taken place, he praised God, and said, “Cer-
tainly this man was innocent!”  And all the multitudes who assembled to see
the sight, when they saw what had taken place, returned home beating their
breasts.  And all his acquaintances and the women who had followed him
from Galilee stood at a distance and saw these things.
On the sabbath they rested according to the commandment.
1-38. These verses report the events immediately prior to our Lord’s passion,
events rich in meaning. The three Synoptic Gospels all give more or less the
same account, but St Luke omits certain details and adds others which fill out
Mark’s or Matthew’s account. Take, for example, the reporting of the institution
of the Eucharist: while being substantially the same in the three Synoptics and
often word for word, the Matthew and Mark accounts (cf. Mt 26:26-29; Mk 14:
22-25) are quite different from that of Luke taken together with the First Letter to
the Corinthians (cf. Lk 22:15-20; 1 Cor 11:23-25).
1. The feast of the Passover, the most solemn of all the Jewish feasts, was ins-
tituted by God to commemorate the exodus of the Israelites from Egypt and to
remind them of their former slavery from which he saved them (Deut 16:3). It be-
gan with the passover supper on the evening of the fourteenth day of the month
of Nisan (March-April), a little after sundown, and went on until 22 Nisan, the
feast of the unleavened bread. The Mosaic Law laid down (Ex 12:15-20) that on
the evening of 14 Nisan the Jews had to remove any trace of leaven from their
houses and eat unleavened bread for the duration of the feast — reminding them
that when the moment came to leave Egypt they had to leave in such a hurry
that they had no time to prepare leavened bread to take with them (Ex 12:34).
All this was a prefigurement of the renewal which Christ would bring about:
“Cleanse out the old leaven that you may be a new lump, as you really are un-
leavened. For Christ, our paschal lamb, has been sacrificed. Let us, therefore,
celebrate the festival, not with the old leaven, the leaven of malice and evil, but
with the unleavened bread of sincerity and truth” (1 Cor 5:7-8).
3-6. Even prior to the Passion, one can sense that the behaviour of Jesus’ ene-
mies was being orchestrated by the spirit of evil, Satan. This is particularly true
where Judas is concerned. Corrupt human will alone cannot explain the torrent
of hatred unleashed against Jesus.
The passion of our Lord marks the climax of the struggle between God and the
powers of evil. After the third temptation in the desert the devil “departed from
him until an opportune time” (Lk 4:13). The time has now come: it is the hour of
Christ’s enemies and of the power of darkness (cf. Lk 22:53), and it is also the
hour of God’s definitive victory, for he “decreed that man should be saved through
the wood of the cross. The tree of man’s defeat became his tree of victory; where
life was lost, there life has been restored” (”Roman Missal”, Preface of the Tri-
umph of the Cross).
7-13. This scene took place on 14 Nisan. Every Israelite was familiar with the
details of preparations for the Passover: it involved a rite which Jewish tradition,
based on God-given regulations contained in the Law of Moses (cf. the note on
Lk 22:1), had spelt out in minute detail — the unleavened loaves, bitter herbs,
and the lamb to be sacrificed in the courtyard of the temple in the late afternoon.
Peter and John, therefore, were perfectly acquainted with all these details; the
only enquiry concerns where the supper is to be held, and our Lord tells them
exactly how to find the place.
The disciples think that all that is involved is the Passover meal; but Jesus is
also thinking about the institution of the Holy Eucharist and the Sacrifice of the
New Alliance, which will take the place of the sacrifices of the Old Testament.
14. The Last Supper is beginning, the meal at which our Lord is going to institute
the Holy Eucharist, a mystery of faith and love: “We must therefore approach this
mystery, above all, with humble reverence, not following human arguments, which
ought to be hushed, but in steadfast adherence to divine revelation” (Paul VI, “My-
15. St John, the beloved disciple, sums up in a single phrase the sentiments wel-
ling up in Jesus’ soul at the Last Supper: “when Jesus knew that his hour had
come to depart out of this world to the Father, having loved his own who were in
the world, he loved them to the end” (Jn 13:1). Our Lord expresses his burning
desire to spend the hours prior to his death with those whom he loves most on
earth and, as happens when people are taking leave of their nearest and dearest,
very affectionate words are exchanged (cf. Theophylact, “Enarratio in Evangelium
loannis”, in loc.). His love is not confined to the apostles; he is thinking of all
men and women. He knows that this Passover meal marks the beginning of his
passion. He is going to anticipate the Sacrifice of the New Testament, which will
bring such benefits to mankind.
To fulfil his Father’s will, Jesus must necessarily go away, but his love, impelling
him to stay with his own, moves him to institute the Eucharist, in which he stays
behind, in which he remains really and truly present. “Think,” St J. Escrivá writes,
“of the human experience of two people who love each other, and yet are forced
to part. They would like to stay together forever, but duty — in one form or ano-
ther — forces them to separate. They are unable to fulfill their desire of remaining
close to each other, so man’s love — which, great as it may be, is limited seeks
a symbolic gesture. People who make their farewells exchange gifts or perhaps a
photograph with a dedication so ardent that it seems almost enough to burn that
piece of paper. They can do no more, because a creature’s power is not so great
as its desire.
“What we cannot do, our Lord is able to do. Jesus Christ, perfect God and perfect
man, leaves us not a symbol but a reality. He himself stays with us. He will go to
the Father, but he will also remain among men. He will leave us, not simply a gift
that will make us remember him, not an image that becomes blurred with time,
like a photograph that soon fades and yellows, and has no meaning except for
those who were contemporaries. Under the appearances of bread and wine, he
is really present, with his body and blood, with his soul and divinity” (”Christ Is
Passing By”, 83).
16-20. This text contains the three basic truths of faith having to do with the sub-
lime mystery of the Eucharist: 1) the institution of this sacrament and Jesus
Christ’s real presence in it; 2) the institution of the Christian priesthood; and 3)
the Eucharist as the Sacrifice of the New Testament or Holy Mass (cf. the note
on Mt 26:26-29). St Luke’s account is substantially the same as that in the First
Gospel, but it is enhanced by his more detailed description of some points (cf.
the note on v. 17).
Regarding the real presence of Christ in this sacrament, Paul VI stated: “In reli-
ance on this belief of the Church, the Council of Trent ‘openly and simply profes-
ses that in the bountiful sacrament of the Holy Eucharist, after the consecration
of the bread and wine, our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ, true God and true man,
is contained truly, really and substantially under the appearance of the objects
that the senses can perceive’ (”De SS. Eucharistia”, chap. 1). Therefore our Sa-
viour is not only present according to his humanity at the right hand of the Father,
after his natural mode of existence, but at the same time he is present in the sa-
crament of the Eucharist also by that form of existence which is possible to God,
though we can hardly express it in words. With thoughts enlightened by faith we
can reach it and we must believe it with the greatest constancy” (”Mysterium fi-
dei”). In contemplating this ineffable mystery, Christian souls have always per-
ceived its grandeur as deriving from the fact of Christ’s real presence in it. The
sacrament of the Eucharist is not only an efficacious sign of Christ’s loving pres-
ence in an intimate union with the faithful: in it he is present corporeally and sub-
stantially, as God and as man. Certainly, in order to penetrate this mystery one
needs to have faith, because “there is no difficulty about Christ being present in
the Sacrament as a sign; the real difficulty lies in his being as truly in the Sacra-
ment as he is in heaven; therefore, it is very meritorious to believe this” (St Bona-
venture, “In IV Sent.”, d. 10, q. 1, a. 1). This mystery cannot be perceived by the
senses: it can only be grasped by faith in the words of our Saviour who, being
truth itself (cf. Jn 14:6), cannot deceive or be deceived: thus, in a hymn which is
traditionally attributed to St Thomas Aquinas, the “Adoro te devote”, the Chris-
tian people sing: “Seeing, touching, tasting are in thee deceived; how says trus-
ty hearing? that shall be believed; what God’s Son has told me, take for truth I
do; Truth himself speaks truly or there’s nothing true” (translated by G.M. Hop-
“If no one is to misunderstand this mode of presence, which oversteps the laws
of nature and constitutes the greatest miracle of all in its kind, our minds must
be docile and we must follow the voice of the Church through her teaching and
prayer. This voice continually re-echoes the voice of Christ. It informs us that
Christ becomes present in this sacrament precisely by a change of the bread’s
whole substance into his body and the wine’s whole substance into his blood.
This is clearly remarkable, a singular change, and the Catholic Church gives it
the suitable and accurate name of transubstantiation” (Paul VI, “Mysterium fidei”).
After instituting the Eucharist, our Lord instructs the apostles to perpetuate what
he has done: the Church has always taken Christ’s words “Do this in remem-
brance of me” to mean that he thereby made the apostles and their successors
priests of the New Covenant who would renew the Sacrifice of Calvary in an un-
bloody manner in the celebration of Holy Mass.
This means that at the centre of Christ’s entire activity stands the bloody Sacri-
fice he offered on the cross — the Sacrifice of the New Covenant, prefigured in
the sacrifices of the Old Law, in the offerings made by Abel (Gen 4:4), by Abra-
ham (Gen 15:10; 22:13), by Melchizedek (Gen 14:18-20; Heb 7:1-28). The Last
Supper is the very Sacrifice of Calvary performed in advance of the event through
the words of the Consecration. Similarly the Mass renews this sacrifice which
was offered once for all on the altar of the cross. Christ alone is the victim and
the priest at Supper, Calvary and Mass; the only thing that varies is the way he
“We believe that the Mass which is celebrated by the priest in the person of
Christ in virtue of the power he receives in the sacrament of Order, and which is
offered by him in the name of Christ and of the members of his Mystical Body, is
indeed the Sacrifice of Calvary sacramentally realized on our altars” (Paul VI,
Creed of the People of God, 24).
16. The words “I shall not eat it [this Passover] until it is fulfilled in the kingdom
of heaven,” as also those in v. 18, “I shall not drink of the fruit of this vine until the
kingdom of God comes,” do not mean that Jesus Christ will eat the paschal lamb
once his Kingdom is established, but simply that this was the last time he will ce-
lebrate the Jewish Passover. Announcing the New Passover, which is now immi-
nent and which will last until his second coming, Jesus once and for all replaces
the ancient rite with his redemptive sacrifice, which marks the beginning of the
17. The Passover meal always followed a very specific pattern. Before eating the
lamb, the senior person explained, in reply to a question from the youngest pre-
sent, the religious meaning of what was happening. Then the meal proceeded, in-
terspersed with hymns and psalms. At the end came a solemn prayer of thanks-
giving. Throughout the meal, marking its main stages, the diners drank four glas-
ses of wine mixed with water. St Luke refers to two of these, the second being
that which our Lord consecrated.
19. We should note how plainly our Lord speaks: he does not say “here is my bo-
dy,” or “this is the symbol of my body,” but “this is my body”: that is, “this bread
is no longer bread, it is my body”. “Some men, accordingly, not paying heed to
these things, have contended that Christ’s body and blood are present in this sa-
crament only as in a sign: this is to be rejected as heretical, since it is contrary
to Christ’s words” (St Thomas Aquinas, “Summa theologiae”, 3, q. 75, a. 1).
Jesus’ words when he promised the Eucharist reinforce what he says here: “I am
the living bread which came down from heaven; if any one eats of this bread, he
will live for ever; and the bread which I shall give for the life of the world is my
flesh [. . .]. He who eats my flesh and drinks my blood has eternal life, and I will
raise him up at the last day” (Jn 6:51, 54).
“Do this in remembrance of me.” The solemn Magisterium of the Church teaches
us the meaning and scope of these words: “If anyone says that by the words, ‘Do
this in remembrance of me’ Christ did not make his apostles priests, or that he
did not decree that they and other priests should offer his body and blood: let him
be condemned” (Council of Trent, “De SS. Missae sacrificio”, c. 2).
24-30. This was not the first time the apostles brought up this question about
which of them was the greatest. It came up when they were going towards Caper-
naum, after Jesus’ second announcement of his passion. At that time Jesus used
a child as an example of humility (cf. Mt 18:1-5; Mk 9:33-37; Lk 9:46-48). A little
later, when the mother of James and John made her special request, the same
subject arose: the other apostles were very annoyed with the sons of Zebedee,
and our Lord intervened and put himself forward as an example: “The Son of man
also came not to be served but to serve, and to give his life as a ransom for ma-
ny” (Mk 10:45; cf. Mt 20:25-28).
The apostles failed to grasp what Jesus meant. They continue to be blinded by
their human outlook and the same argument starts again. Jesus had invited them
to have a greater sense of responsibility by telling them that one of their number
was going to betray him (vv. 21 and 22) and by charging them to renew the Eu-
charistic Sacrifice (v. 19). As on other occasions when the apostles boasted
about their personal merits, Jesus reminds them again of the example of his
own life: he was their Teacher and Lord (cf. Jn 13:13) and yet he acted as if he
were the least among them and served them. To respond to a calling from God
a person needs humility, which expresses itself in the form of a spirit of service.
“You want to hear all that I think of ‘your way’? Very well, then. . ., listen: if you
respond to the call, you will do your utmost in your work for Christ; if you be-
come a man of prayer, you will be granted the grace necessary to respond and,
hungry for sacrifice, you will seek out the hardest tasks.. . . And you will be hap-
py here, and unspeakably happy hereafter” (St J. Escrivá, “The Way”, 235).
The reward which Jesus promises those who stay faithful to him far exceeds any-
thing human ambition can envisage: the apostles will share in divine friendship in
the Kingdom of heaven and they will sit on twelve thrones to judge the twelve
tribes of Israel. Christ’s word and example are basic norm of government in the
Church; the Second Vatican Council explains our Lord’s commandment as fol-
lows: “The bishops, vicars and legates of Christ, govern the particular Church as-
signed to them by their counsels, exhortations and example, but over and above
that also by the authority and sacred power which indeed they exercise exclusive-
ly for the spiritual development of their flock in truth and holiness, keeping in mind
that he who is greater should become as the lesser, and he who is the leader as
the servant (cf. Lk 22:26-27)” (”Lumen Gentium”, 27).
25-27. By spreading Jesus’ teaching about humility and service to others, we pro-
mote the true brotherhood of man. Pope Paul VI pointed this out in his address to
the United Nations: “Allow me to say this to you, as the representative of a reli-
gion which accomplishes salvation through the humility of its divine Founder: men
cannot be brothers if they are not humble. It is pride, no matter how legitimate it
may seem to be, which provokes tension and struggles for prestige, for predomi-
nance, colonialism, selfishness; it is pride that disrupts brotherhood” (no. 4).
31-34. Our Lord had previously told Peter that he was going to give him a spe-
cially important mission among the apostles — that of being the cornerstone, the
foundation, of the Church he would found. “’So you are Simon the son of John?
You shall be called Cephas’ (which means Peter)” (Jn 1:42), Jesus told him on
the bank of the Jordan. Later, in Caesarea Philippi, after his profession of faith in
the divinity of the Redeemer, Christ again referred to him as being a rock, as ha-
ving a mission to strengthen the Church: “And I tell you, you are Peter, and on
this rock I will build my church, and the powers of death shall not prevail against
it” (Mt 16:18). Now, at this very solemn moment, when his death approaches
and he has just instituted the Sacrifice of the New Testament, our Lord renews
his promise to Peter to give him the primacy: Peter’s faith, despite his fall, can-
not fail because it is supported by the efficacious prayer of our Lord himself.
Jesus Christ is giving Peter a privilege which is both personal and transferable.
Peter will publicly deny his Lord in the high priest’s house, but he will not lose his
faith. As St John Chrysostom comments, it is as if our Lord were saying to Peter,
“I have not prayed that you may not deny me but that your faith may not fail”
(”Hom. on St Matthew”, 3). And Theophylact adds: “For, although St Peter would
have to experience ups and downs he still had the hidden seed of faith, and he
[Christ] adds, ‘And when you have turned again, strengthen your brethren’, as if
to say, ‘After you repent; confirm then your brethren, for I have made you the
leader of the apostles; this is the task given you: you with me are the strength
and the rock of my Church.’ This should be taken not only as applying to the disci-
ples who were present there, for them to be strengthened by Peter: it also refers
to all the faithful who would follow, until the end of the world” (”Enarratio in Evan-
gelium Lucae”, in loc.).
And, as it turned out, as a result of our Lord’s prayer, Peter’s faith did not fail and
he recovered from his fall; he confirmed his brothers and was indeed the corner-
stone of the Church.
Our Lord’s prayer was effective in respect not only to Peter but also to his succes-
sors: their faith will not fail. This indefectibility of the faith of the bishop of Rome,
the successor of St Peter, is to be seen as ensuring that he stay committed to
the faith, a commitment guaranteed by the charism of infallibility: “This infallibility,
with which the divine Redeemer wished to endow his Church in defining doctrine
pertaining to faith and morals, is co-extensive with the deposit of revelation, which
must be religiously guarded and loyally and courageously expounded. The Ro-
man Pontiff, head of the college of bishops, enjoys this infallibility in virtue of his
office, when, as supreme pastor and teacher of all the faithful — who confirms his
brethren in the faith (cf. Lk 22:32) — he proclaims in an absolute decision a doc-
trine pertaining to faith or morals” (Vatican II, “Lumen gentium”, 25).
Therefore, when the Pope speaks ex cathedra (cf. Vatican I, “Pastor aeternus”,
chap. 4) “he enjoys that infallibility with which the divine Redeemer wished to pro-
vide his Church. . . and therefore the definitions of the Roman Pontiff are irreform-
able by their very nature” (see also the note on Mt 16:13-20).
“The supreme power of the Roman Pontiff and his infallibility, when he speaks ex
cathedra, are not a human invention: they are based on the explicit foundational
will of Christ [. . .]. No one in the Church enjoys absolute power by himself, as
man. In the Church there is no leader other than but Christ. And Christ constitu-
ted a vicar of his — the Roman Pontiff — for his wayfaring spouse on earth [ ].
Love for the Pope must be in us a beautiful passion, because in him we see
Christ” (St. J. Escrivá, “In Love with the Church”, 13).
36-38. Jesus announces his passion by applying to himself the Isaiah prophecy
about the Servant of Yahweh (Is 53:12) — “he was numbered with the transgress-
sors” — and by pointing out that all the other prophecies about the sufferings the
Redeemer would undergo will find fulfillment in him. The testing-time is imminent
and our Lord is speaking symbolically when he talks about making provision and
buying weapons to put up a fight. The apostles take him literally, and this leads
him to express a certain indulgent understanding: “It is enough.” “Just in the
same way as we,” Theophylact says, “when we are speaking to someone and
see that he does not understand, say: ‘Very well, leave it’” (”Enarratio in Evange-
lium Lucae”, in loc.).
39-71. Our Lord’s passion is the outstanding proof of God’s love for men: “God
so loved the world that he gave his only Son, that whoever believes in him should
not perish but have eternal life” (Jn 3:16). It also proves beyond doubt that Christ,
true God and true man, loves us, as he said himself: “Greater love has no man
than this, that a man lay down his life for his friends” (Jn 15:13).
“Do you want to accompany Jesus closely, very closely? . . . Open the Holy
Gospel and read the Passion of our Lord. But don’t just read it: live it. There is a
big difference. To read is to recall something that happened in the past; to live is
to find oneself present at an event that is happening here and now, to be some-
one taking part in those scenes. Then, allow your heart to open wide; let it place
itself next to our Lord. And when you notice it trying to slip away — when you
see that you are a coward, like the others — ask forgiveness for your cowardice
and mine” (St. J. Escriva, “The Way of the Cross”, IX, 3).
39-40. It was Jesus’ custom to retire to the garden of Gethsemane, on the Mount
of Olives, in order to pray; this seems to be implied by both St John (Jn 18:1) and
St Luke (21:37). This explains how Judas knew the place (Jn 18:1-2).
As soon as he reaches the garden our Lord prepares to face his agony. Before
going aside to pray, he asks his disciples to pray as well because very soon they
will be tempted to lose faith when they see him being arrested (cf. Mt 26:31). At
the Last Supper Jesus had told them this would happen; now he warns them that
if they are not watchful and prayerful they will not be able to resist the temptation.
He also wants his apostles to keep him company when he suffers — which is why,
when he comes back and finds them sleeping, he sorrowfully complains to Peter:
“Could you not watch with me one hour?” (Mt 26:40).
We should stay close to our Lord and keep him company, even at times of diffi-
culty and tribulation; the command Jesus gives here shows us how to go about
this — by prayer and vigilance.
41. Jesus prays kneeling down. Many Gospel passages refer to our Lord’s prayer
but this is the only time his posture is described. It may well be that he knelt at
other times also. Kneeling is an external expression of a humble attitude toward
42. Jesus Christ is perfect God and perfect man: as God he is equal to the Father,
as man less than the Father. And therefore as man he could pray, he had to pray
— as he did throughout his life. Now, when his spiritual suffering is so intense that
he is in agony, our Lord addresses his Father with a prayer which shows both his
trust and his anguish: he calls him, with immense affection, “Abba”, Father, and
asks him to remove this cup of bitterness. What causes our Lord his intense pain?
Foreknowledge of all the sufferings involved in his passion, which he freely under-
goes; and the weight of all the sins of mankind, the unfaithfulness of the chosen
people and abandonment by his disciples. Christ’s sensitive soul felt the full im-
pact of all this. So intense is our Redeemer’s anguish that he actually sweats
blood, an indication of the extent of his human capacity to suffer. In this connec-
tion St Thomas More comments: “The fear of death and torments carries no stig-
ma of guilt but rather is an affliction of the sort Christ came to suffer, not to es-
cape. We should not immediately consider it cowardice for someone to feel fear
and horror at the thought of torments [. . .]. But to flee because of a fear of torture
and death when the circumstances make it necessary to fight, or to give up all
hope of victory and surrender to the enemy — that, to be sure, is a capital crime
according to the military code. But otherwise, no matter how much the heart of
the soldier is agitated and stricken by fear, if he still comes forward at the com-
mand of the general, goes on, fights and defeats the enemy, he has no reason to
fear that his former fear might lessen his reward in any way. As a matter of fact,
he ought to receive even more praise because of it, since he had to overcome not
only the enemy but also his own fear, which is often harder to conquer than the
enemy itself” (”De tristitia Christi”, in loc.).
Jesus perseveres in his prayer: “Not my will, but thine, be done” — which shows
that he had a human will and that it was in total harmony with the divine will. This
prayer of our Lord is also a perfect lesson in abandonment to and union with the
Will of God — features which should be found in our own prayer, particularly in mo-
ments of difficulty. “Are things going against you? Are you going through a rough
time? Say very slowly, as if relishing it, this powerful and manly prayer: ‘May the
most just and most lovable will of God be done, be fulfilled, be praised and eternal-
ly exalted above all things. Amen, Amen.’ I assure you that you will find peace”
(St. J Escrivá, “The Way”, 691).
43. In the Gospel we often see angels play a part in our Lord’s life. An angel an-
nounces the mystery of the Incarnation to the Blessed Virgin (Lk 1:26); choirs of
angels sing God’s praises when Jesus is born in Bethlehem (Lk 2:13); angels mi-
nister to him after he is tempted in the wilderness (Mt 4:11); and now the Father
sends an angel to comfort him in his agony.
Our Lord, who is God, accepts this consolation. The Creator of all, who is never
in need of the help of his creatures is ready to accept, as man, consolation and
help from those who can give it.
In addition to aiding Jesus in his work as Redeemer, angels also minister to the
Church in a special way. We often see them act in the early days of the Church
(cf. Acts 5:19; 7:30; 8:26; 12:7 27:23; etc.). God has given angels the mission of
accompanying men and helping them as they make their way on earth towards
their heavenly goal. The angels, says Paul VI, “intercede for us and come to the
aid of our weakness in brotherly care” (”Creed of the People of God”, 29). Their
caring presence should move us to rely constantly on our guardian angels, to
have recourse to them in our needs and to show them reverence.
47-48. Judas now gives the prearranged sign (cf. Mt 26:48); he comes forward to
kiss our Lord — a form of friendly greeting normal among the Jews. When greet-
ing someone like this, one would say Shalom, “peace”. In contemplating this sad
betrayal by an apostle, Jesus treats Judas in a very gentle way and yet shows up
the malice and ugliness of his treachery: for the last time he tries to win Judas
There is no limit to the goodness of a merciful God, and not even the greatest
sinner should despair of obtaining forgiveness. “Even to Judas,” St Thomas More
comments, “God gave many opportunities of coming to his senses. He did not
deny him his companionship. He did not take away from him the dignity of his
apostleship. He did not even take the purse-strings from him, even though he was
a thief. He admitted the traitor to the fellowship of his beloved disciples at the last
supper. He deigned to stoop down at the feet of the betrayer and to wash with his
most innocent and sacred hands Judas’ dirty feet, a fit symbol of his filthy mind
[. . .]. Finally when Judas, coming with his crew to seize him, offered him a kiss,
a kiss that was in fact the terrible token of his treachery, Christ received him
calmly and gently [. . .]. Therefore, since God showed his great mercy, in so ma-
ny ways even toward Judas, an apostle turned traitor, since he invited him to for-
giveness so often and did not allow him to perish except through despair alone,
certainly there is no reason why, in this life, anyone should despair of any imita-
tor of Judas. Rather, according to that holy advice of the apostle, ‘Pray for one
another, that you may be healed’ (Jas 5:16), if we see anyone wandering wildly
from the right road, let us hope that he will one day return to the path, and mean-
while let us pray humbly and incessantly that God will hold out to him chances
to come to his senses, and likewise that with God’s help he will eagerly seize
them, and having seized them will hold fast and not throw them away out of ma-
lice or let them slip away from him through wretched sloth” (”De tristitia Christi”,
51. St Luke, who was a physician (cf. Col 4:15), here by divine inspiration records
the last miracle worked by Jesus before his death. Ever merciful, Jesus restores
to Malchus the ear Peter cut off (cf. Jn 18:10) — thereby showing that he is still
in control of events, even in the present situation. Careless of his own safety he
cures one of the people who have come to arrest him. Also, Jesus, who is giving
himself up to death in obedience to his Father, refuses to have violence used in
his defence. In fulfilment of the prophecies he offers no resistance, he goes like a
sheep to the slaughter (cf. Is 52-53. The “captains of the temple” were a military
corps charged with policing the temple precincts; they reported to the high priest.
To them, as well as to the priests and elders, our Lord addresses these words.
“This is your hour,” that is, the time when you, the prince of darkness, can un-
leash all your hatred against me: our Lord shows that he knows his death is at
hand. Previous attempts to arrest him had failed; but this one will succeed, be-
cause, as he explains, God allows it to happen. This is the hour the Father has
fixed to accomplish the redemption of mankind; therefore, Jesus freely lets him-
self be taken prisoner.
55-62. Peter, who has been following the throng of people hustling our Lord, en-
ters the house of the high priest. While Jesus is undergoing his first trial the sad-
dest event in the apostle’s life takes place. The evangelists give vivid accounts of
the scene. Peter is in a state of shock and is all confused. Inevitably, that night,
people would have spoken about Jesus and his disciples a number of times. In
conversation Peter says three times that he does not know Jesus, that he is not
a follower of his. He does want to continue to follow our Lord, but wanting is not
enough: he has a duty not to disguise the fact that he is a disciple, even though
it is obviously risky to do so; that is why his denial is a grave sin. No one is jus-
tified in denying or disguising his faith, the fact that he is a Christian, a follower
After the cock crows Jesus’ glance meets Peter’s. The apostle is moved by this
silent and tender gesture. Peter realizes the seriousness of his sin and the fact
that it fulfils our Lord’s prophecy about his betrayal. “He went out and wept bitter-
ly.” Tears like these are the natural reaction of a noble heart moved by God’s
grace; this lovesorrow, this contrition, when it is sincere, leads a person to make
the firm resolution to do anything necessary to erase the least trace of the sin he
66-71. Our Lord’s first trial, which took place at night, was aimed at establishing
the charges to be laid against him (Mt 26:59-66; Mk 14:53-64). Now, as day
dawns, the Sanhedrin trial begins: this trial was required because Jewish custom
forbade night trials on serious charges — which meant that any decisions taken
at such trials had no legal validity. The authorities want to charge Jesus with a
crime carrying the death penalty, and they decide to establish that he has com-
mitted blasphemy; but the evidence is so inconsistent that it fails to provide a pre-
text for condemning him. Therefore the Sanhedrin endeavours to get our Lord to
say something which will compromise him. Although he knows that his reply pro-
vides the Pharisees with the pretext they are looking for, Jesus solemnly states,
to the indignation of those present, not only that he is the Messiah but that he is
the Son of God, equal to the Father; and he emphasizes that in him the ancient
prophecies are being fulfilled (cf. Dan 7:13; Ps 110:1). The members of the San-
hedrin know exactly what our Lord’s answer means and, tearing their garments
to show their horror, they call for his death: he deserves death because he has
committed the blasphemy of claiming to be on the same level as God.
Recognizing Jesus would involve their doing an about-turn in their attitude to-
wards him — which they would have found very embarrassing. They are too
proud to change, and they close the door on faith — a lesson to us all not to let
pride blind us to our mistakes and sins.
1-2. Jesus underwent two trials — a religious one, following the Jewish system,
and a civil one, following the Roman.
In the first trial, the Jewish authorities condemned Jesus to death on religious
grounds for claiming to be the Son of God; but they could not carry out the sen-
tence because the Romans reserved to themselves the exercise of the death
penalty. The Sanhedrin now arranges a new trial before Pilate in order to get the
Romans to execute the sentence they themselves have already passed. Events
are moving to fulfil Jesus’ prophecy that he will die at the hands of the Gentiles
(cf. Lk 18:32).
Due to the fact that the Romans were very tolerant of religious customs of sub-
ject peoples — and took no interest in them provided they did not lead to public
unrest — the Jewish leaders alter the charges they bring against Jesus: from now
on they accuse him of political crimes — of inciting rebellion against the Romans
and of seeking to become king. And they present these charges in such a way
that a verdict favourable to the accused might be interpreted in Rome as a trea-
cherous act: “If you release this man, you are not Caesar’s friend; every one who
makes himself a king sets himself against Caesar” (Jn 19:12).
2. To give their charges a veneer of credibility, they produce half-truths, taken out
of context and interpreted in the worst possible light. Jesus had taught: “Render
therefore to Caesar the things that are Caesar’s, and to God the things that are
God’s” (Mt 22:21; cf. the note on same), and in his preaching he stated that by
virtue of being the Messiah he was King as well as Prophet and Priest; but he al-
so preached that his was a spiritual kingship and therefore he energetically rejec-
ted all the people’s attempts to proclaim him king (cf. Jn 6:15).
3-4. Jesus openly confesses that he is King, but from what he says he makes
quite clear the spiritual nature of this kingship (Jn 18:33-38). Pilate becomes con-
vinced that he is guilty of no crime (Jn 18:38; 19:4) and that all the charges
brought against him are groundless (Mt 27:18). However, instead of efficiently de-
livering judgment in favour of the accused, he temporizes; he tries to gain popula-
rity at Jesus’ expense and settles for indicating that he is convinced of his inno-
cence — as if inviting the accusers to back off; but this only encourages them to
become vociferous and complicates the situation.
By behaving in this way Pilate becomes the classic example of a compromiser:
“A man, a ‘gentleman’, ready to compromise would condemn Jesus to death
again” (St J. Escrivá, “The Way”, 393).
7. Herod Antipas normally went up to Jerusalem for the Passover, staying in his
own palace in the centre of the city. By sending Jesus to Herod Pilate is trying to
rid himself of a troublesome case and build up a friendship useful to his own pol-
8-11. Our Lord adopts a very different attitude to Herod Antipas compared with
his attitude to Pilate. Herod was superstitious, sensual and adulterous. In spite
of his regard for John the Baptist, he had him beheaded to keep his oath to Salo-
me (cf. Mk 6:14-29). Now he tries to get Jesus to perform a miracle, as if Jesus
were a magician putting on a show for Herod’s entertainment. Jesus does not re-
ply to his flattery. Our Lord’s attitude is simple, stately and also severe. His elo-
quent silence is a perfect example of the way to deal with behaviour of this type.
Herod reacts by dressing Jesus in a rich robe, to make fun of him.
12. Psalm 2 said this in prophecy of the Messiah: “The kings of the earth set
themselves, and the rulers take counsel together, against the Lord and his anoin-
ted.” These words are now fulfilled to the letter, as the Book of the Acts points
out: “For truly in this city there were gathered together against thy holy servant
Jesus, whom thou didst anoint, both Herod and Pontius Pilate, with the Gentiles
and the people of Israel, to do whatever thy hand and thy plan had predestined
to take place” (Acts 4:27f).
17. Verse 17 — “Necesse autem habebat dimittere eis per diem festum, unum”
(in the Old Vulgate) — has not been included in the New Vulgate because it is
absent from most of the better Greek manuscripts.
24-25. Jesus condemned to death and made to carry the cross (cf. Jn 19:16-17)
is devoutly contemplated by Christians in the first and second stations of the Way
of the Cross. Pilate at last gives in to the Sanhedrin and condemns our Lord to
the most ignominious form of punishment, death by crucifixion.
It was customary for people condemned to crucifixion to be made to carry the in-
strument of their own death. Our Lord fulfils in his own person the prophecies of
Isaiah: “By oppression and judgment he was taken away; [. . .] he was cut off
out of the land of the living, stricken for the transgression of my people? And they
made his grave with the wicked” (Is 53:8-9).
26. Christian piety contemplates this episode of the Passion in the fifth station
of the Way of the Cross. The soldiers force Simon to help Jesus carry the cross,
not because they feel pity for our Lord, but because they realize that he is get-
ting weaker and weaker and they are afraid he may die before reaching Calvary.
According to tradition, preserved in the third, seventh and ninth stations, Jesus
fell three times under the weight of the cross; but he got up again and lovingly
embraced it once more in obedience to his heavenly Father’s will, seeing in the
cross the altar on which he would give his life as a propitiatory Victim for the sal-
vation of mankind.
However, our Lord chose to be helped by Simon of Cyrene in order to show us
that we — whom Simon represents — have to become co-redeemers with him.
“Love for God invites us to take up the cross and feel on our own shoulders the
weight of humanity. It leads us to fulfill the clear and loving plans of the Father’s
will in all the circumstances of our work and life” (St J. Escrivá, “Christ Is Pas-
sing By”, 97). God the Father, in his providence, gave his Son this small conso-
lation in the midst of his terrible suffering — just as he sent an angel to comfort
him in his agony in Gethsemane (Lk 22:43).
Other aspects of this scene of the Gospel are commented on in notes on Mt 27:
32 and Mk 15:21.
27-31. The piety of these women shows that Jesus had friends as well as ene-
mies. If we bear in mind that Jewish traditions, as recorded in the Talmud, for-
bade wailing for people condemned to death, we will appreciate the value of
these women’s gesture.
“Among the people watching our Lord as he passes by are a number of women
who are unable to restrain their compassion and break into tears, perhaps recall-
ing those glorious days spent with Jesus, when everyone exclaimed in amaze-
ment: “bene omnia fecit” (Mk 7:37), he has done all things well.
“But our Lord wishes to channel their weeping towards a more supernatural mo-
tive, and he invites them to weep for sins, which are the cause of the Passion
and which will draw down the rigour of divine justice: ‘Daughters of Jerusalem,
do not weep for me, but weep for yourselves and for your children. . . For if they
do this when the wood is green, what will happen when it is dry?’ (Lk 23:28, 31).
“Your sins, my sins, the sins of all men, rise up. All the evil we have done and
the good that we have neglected to do. The desolate panorama of the countless
crimes and iniquities which we would have committed, if he, Jesus, had not
strengthened us with the light of his most loving glance. How little a life is for
making atonement!” (St. J. Escriva, “The Way of the Cross”, VIII).
Christian devotion also includes in the Way of the Cross a pious tradition that a
woman, called Veronica (Berenice), approached Jesus and wiped his face with a
linen cloth — a brave action on her part, in view of the hostility of the crowd (sixth
station). And another station, the fourth, venerates Jesus’ meeting with his bles-
sed Mother on the way to Calvary, a sorrowful meeting which fulfils Simeon’s
prophecy to the Blessed Virgin (cf. Lk 2:35).
On the way to Calvary the only people who give Jesus consolation are women —
evidencing their bravery and religious sensitivity during this painful time in Jesus’
life; whereas only one man John — is to be seen.
In spite of his awful suffering, Jesus is mindful of the terrible times which are ap-
proaching. His words in response to the women’s lament are a prophecy about
the destruction of Jerusalem, which will come about within a few years.
The “green wood” refers to the just and innocent; the “dry wood”, to the sinner,
the guilty one. Jesus, the Son of God, is the only truly just and innocent man.
33. The crucifixion is contemplated in the eleventh station of the Way of the
Cross. The soldiers nail Jesus’ hands and feet to the beams. The purpose of this
punishment is to bring on a slow death, involving maximum suffering: “Now they
are crucifying our Lord, and with him two thieves, one on his right and one on his
left. Meanwhile, Jesus says: ‘Father, forgive them; for they know not what they
do’ (Lk 23:34).
“It is Love that has brought Jesus to Calvary. And once on the Cross, all his ges-
tures and all his words are of love, a love both calm and strong. With a gesture
befitting an Eternal Priest, without father or mother, without lineage (cf. Heb 7:3),
he opens his arms to the whole human race.
“With the hammer blows with which Jesus is being nailed, there resound the pro-
phetic words of Holy Scripture: ‘They have pierced my hands and my feet. I can
count all my bones, and they stare and gloat over me’ (Ps 22:17-18). “’My people,
what have I done to you? In what have I wearied you? Answer me!’ (Mic 6:3).
“And we, our soul rent with sorrow, say to Jesus in all sincerity: I am yours and I
give my whole self to you; gladly do I nail myself to your Cross, ready to be in the
crossroads of this world a soul dedicated to you, to your glory, to the work of Re-
demption, the co-redemption of the whole human race” (St J. Escrivá, “The Way
of the Cross, XI).
“It is good for us to try to understand better the meaning of Christ’s death. We
must get beyond external appearances and clichés. [. . .] Let us, above all, come
close to Jesus in his death and to his cross which stands out in silhouette above
the summit of Golgotha. But we must approach him sincerely and with the interior
recollection that is a sign of Christian maturity. The divine and human events of
the Passion will then pierce our soul as words spoken to us by God to uncover
the secrets of our heart and show us what he expects of our lives” (St. J. Escriva,
“Christ Is Passing By”, 101).
Jesus’ terrible suffering on the cross clearly shows the gravity of the sins of men,
of my sin. This gravity is measured by the infinite greatness and honour of God,
the offended one. God, who is infinitely merciful and at the same time infinitely
just, exercised both these attributes: his infinite justice required an infinite repa-
ration, of which mere man was incapable; his infinite mercy found the solution:
the second person of the Trinity, taking on human nature, becoming truly man
while not ceasing to be true God, suffered the punishment which was man’s due.
In this way, by being represented in Jesus’ sacred humanity, men would be able
to make sufficient atonement to God’s justice. No words can express God’s love
for us as manifested on the cross. A living faith in the mystery of our redemption
will lead us to respond with gratitude and love: “We believe that our Lord Jesus
Christ redeemed us by the sacrifice on the Cross from original sin and from all
those personal sins to which we confess, so that the truth of the apostle’s words
is vindicated that where sin increased, grace abounded all the more’ (Paul VI,
“Creed of the People of God”, 17).
34. Jesus addresses the Father in a tone of supplication (cf. Heb 5:7). We can
distinguish two parts in his prayer — his simple request: “Father, forgive them,”
and the excuse he offers, “for they know not what they do.” We can see him as
one who practises what he preaches (cf. Acts 1:1) and as a model whom we
should imitate. He had taught us that we have a duty to forgive offences (cf. Mt
6:12-15; 18:21-35), and even to love our enemies (cf. Mt 5:44-45; Rom 12:14, 20),
because he had come into the world to offer himself as a victim “for the forgive-
ness of sins” (Mt 26:28; cf. Eph 1:7) and to enable us to obtain pardon.
The excuse which Jesus offers may at first take us by surprise: “for they know
not what they do.” His love, his perfect mercy and justice make maximum allo-
wance for factors rendering our sins less heinous. It is quite clear that the people
directly responsible were perfectly aware that they were condemning an innocent
person to death, that they were guilty of homicide; but they did not realize, in
these moments of passion, that they were also committing deicide. This is what
St Peter means when he tells the Jews, encouraging them to repent, that they
acted “in ignorance” (Acts 3:17), and St Paul adds that if they had understood the
hidden wisdom of God “they would not have crucified the Lord of glory” (1 Cor 2:8).
Jesus in his mercy excuses them on the grounds of ignorance.
In any sinful action there are always areas of darkness, passion, blindness, which
without taking away a person’s freedom and responsibility do enable him to carry
out an evil action through being attracted by apparently good aspects which that
action involves; and this does lessen the evil that we do.
Christ teaches us to forgive those who offend us and to look for excuses for them,
thereby leaving open the door to the hope of their pardon and repentance; only
God can be the ultimate judge of men. This heroic charity was practised by Chris-
tians from the very beginning. Thus, the first martyr, St Stephen, dies begging
God to pardon his executioners (cf. Acts 7:60). “Force yourself, if necessary, al-
ways to forgive those who offend you, from the very first moment. For the greatest
injury or offence that you can suffer from them is as nothing compared with what
God has pardoned you” (St J. Escrivá, “The Way”, 452).
35-37. The Roman governor’s soldiers join the Jewish people and their leaders
in mocking Jesus; thus, everyone — Jews and Gentiles — contributed to making
Christ’s passion even more bitter. But we should not forget that we too make a
mockery of our Lord every time we fall into sin or fail to respond sufficiently to
grace. This is why St Paul says that those who sin “crucify the Son of God on
their own account and hold him up to contempt” (Heb 6:6).
39-43. The episode of the two thieves invites us to admire the designs of divine
providence, of grace and human freedom. Both thieves are in the same position
in the presence of the Eternal High Priest as he offers himself in sacrifice for
them and for all mankind. One of them hardens his heart, despairs and blas-
phemes, while the other repents, prays with confidence to Christ and is promised
immediate salvation. “The Lord,” St Ambrose comments, “always grants more
than one asks: the thief only asked him to remember him, but the Lord says to
him, ‘Truly, I say to you, today you will be with me in Paradise.’ Life consists in
dwelling with Jesus Christ, and where Jesus Christ is there is his Kingdom” (”Ex-
positio Evangelii sec. Lucam”, in loc.). “It is one thing for man to judge someone
he does not know; another, for God, who can see into a person’s conscience.
Among men, confession is followed by punishment; whereas confession to God
is followed by salvation” (St John Chrysostom, “De Cruce et latrine”).
While we make our way through life, we all sin, but we can all repent also. God
is always waiting for us with his arms wide open, ready to forgive us. Therefore,
no one should despair: everyone should try to have a strong hope in God’s mer-
cy. But no one may presume that he will be saved, for none of us can be absolu-
tely certain of our final perseverance (cf. Council of Trent, “De Iustificatione”, can.
16). This relative uncertainty is a spur God gives us to be ever vigilant; this vigi-
lance in turn helps us progress in the work of our sanctification as Christians.
42. “Many times have I repeated that verse of the Eucharistic hymn: “Peto quod
petivit latro poenitens”, and it always fills me with emotion: to ask like the peni-
tent thief did! He recognized that he himself deserved that awful punishment. . . .
And with a word he stole Christ’s heart and ‘opened up for himself’ the gates of
heaven” (St J. Escrivá, “The Way of the Cross”, XII, 4).
43. In responding to the good thief, Jesus reveals that he is God, for he has po-
wer over man’s eternal destiny; and he also shows that he is infinitely merciful
and does not reject the soul who sincerely repents. Similarly by these words
Jesus reveals to us a basic truth of faith: “We believe in eternal life. We believe
that the souls of all those who die in the grace of Christ — whether they must
still make expiation in the fire of purgatory, or whether from the moment they
leave their bodies they are received by Jesus Christ into Paradise like the good
thief go to form that People of God which succeeds death, death which will be
totally destroyed on the day of the Resurrection when these souls are reunited
with their bodies” (Paul VI, “Creed of the People of God”, 28).
45. The darkening of the sun is a sign of the magnitude and gravity of the Lord’s
death (cf. the note on Mk 15:33). The tearing of the curtain of the temple shows
the end of the Old Covenant and the beginning of the New Covenant, sealed in
the blood of Christ (cf. the note on Mk 15:38).
46. The Way of the Cross contemplates Jesus’ death as the twelfth station.
Christ’s life is totally influenced by the fact that he is the only Son of the Father:
“I came from the Father and have come into the world; again, I am leaving the
world and going to the Father” (Jn 16:28). All along, his only desire was to do
the will of him who sent him (cf. Jn 4:34), who, as Christ himself says, “is with
me; he has not left me alone, for I always do what is pleasing to him” (Jn 8:29).
At this, the climax of his life on earth, when he is apparently left totally on his
own, Christ makes an act of supreme confidence, throws himself into his Father’s
arms, and freely gives up his life. He was not forced to die nor did he die against
his will; he died because he wanted to die. “It was the peculiar privilege of Christ
the Lord to have died when he himself decreed to die, and to have died not so
much by external violence as by internal assent. Not only his death, but also its
time and place, were ordained by him. For thus Isaiah wrote: ‘He was offered be-
cause it was his own will’ (Is 53:7). The Lord, before his Passion, declared the
same of himself, ‘I lay down my life, that I may take it again. No one takes it
from me, but I lay it down of my own accord. I have power to lay it down, and I
have power to take it again’ (Jn 10:17f)” (St Pius V, Catechism, 1, 6, 7).
“We know”, says St Paul, “that our old self was crucified with him so that the
sinful body might be destroyed, and we might no longer be enslaved to sin. The
death he died he died to sin, once for all. . . . So you also must consider your-
selves dead to sin and alive to God in Christ Jesus” (Rom 6:6, 10f). Therefore,
Vatican II explains, “This work of redeeming mankind [. . .] Christ the Lord
achieved principally by the paschal mystery of his blessed Passion, Resurrec-
tion from the dead, and glorious Ascension, whereby ‘dying, he destroyed our
death, and rising, he restored our life.’ For it was from the side of Christ as he
slept the sleep of death upon the Cross that there came forth ‘the wondrous sa-
crament of the whole Church’” (”Sacrosanctum Concilium”, 5).
47. The three Synoptic Gospels all report the profound reaction of the centurion,
the reaction of an upright man who, helped by grace, studies these events with
an openness to the mystery of the supernatural. The parallel accounts in Mat-
thew 27: 54 and Mark 15:39 show more clearly that the centurion recognized the
divinity of Jesus Christ. See the note on Mk 15:39.
48. Jesus’ redemptive death on the cross immediately begins to draw people to-
wards God by way of repentance: as he made his way to Calvary there was the
probable conversion of Simon of Cyrene and the lamentations of the women of
Jerusalem; at the cross, the repentance of the good thief, the effect of grace on
the Roman centurion, and the compunction felt by the crowd reported in this
verse. Jesus had prophesied, “When I am lifted up from the earth, I will draw all
men to myself” (Jn 12:32). This prophecy begins to come true on Golgotha, and
it will continue to be fulfilled until the end of time.
“On the Cross hangs our Lord’s — now lifeless — body. The people, ‘when they
saw what had taken place, returned home beating their breasts’ (Lk 23:48).
“Now that you have repented, promise Jesus that, with his help, you will not cru-
cify him again. Say it with faith. Repeat, over and over again: I will love you, my
God, because ever since you were born, ever since you were a child, you aban-
doned yourself in my arms, defenceless, trusting in my loyalty” (St J. Escrivá,
“The Way of the Cross”, XII, 5).
49. We should note here the presence of a number of women, some of whose
names have been recorded by St Matthew (27:56) and St Mark (15:40-41) Ma-
ry Magdalene, Mary the mother of James and Joseph, and Salome. The soldiers
would not have allowed them to approach the cross while Jesus was alive; but
the women would have waited, watching from a distance, and then come up
close to it, and unashamedly stood there (cf. Jn 19:25), impelled by their deep
love for Jesus Christ. “Woman is stronger than man, and more faithful, in the
hour of trial: Mary of Magdala and Mary Cleophas and Salome! With a group of
valiant women like these, closely united to our Lady of Sorrows, what work for
souls could be done in the world!” (St J. Escrivá, “The Way”, 982).
50-54. St John’s Gospel tells us that “Nicodemus also, who had at first come
to him by night, came bringing a mixture of myrrh and aloes, about a hundred
pounds’ weight” (Jn 19:39). “Joseph of Arimathea and Nicodemus visit Jesus
secretly in ordinary times and in the time of triumph. But they are courageous
in the face of authority, declaring their love for Christ audacter boldly — in the
time of cowardice. Learn from them” (”The Way”, 841).
“With them I too will go up to the foot of the Cross; I will press my arms tightly
round the cold Body, the corpse of Christ, with the fire of my love. . .; I will un-
nail it, with my reparation and mortifications . . . ; I will wrap it in the new winding-
sheet of my clean life, and I will bury it in the living rock of my breast, where no
one can tear it away from me, and there, Lord, take your rest!
“Were the whole world to abandon you and to scorn you . . . , serviam!, I will
serve you, Lord” (St J. Escrivá, “The Way of the Cross”, XIV, 1).
Joseph of Arimathea’s and Nicodemus’ love for our Lord leads them to ignore the
Dangers — the hatred of their colleagues in the Sanhedrin, possible reprisals from
fanatics. They show the body of Jesus utmost reverence, doing everything re-
quired for its pious burial and thereby giving an example to every disciple of Christ
who should be ready to risk honour, position and wealth for love for his Lord. In
the thirteenth and fourteenth stations of the Cross Christian piety contemplates
the descent from the cross, and the noble actions of these two men, whose res-
pect God chose to reward by inscribing their names in the Gospel text (cf. the
note on Mt 15:43—46).
55-56. These holy women — who were familiar with the material poverty of our
Lord when he was born in Bethlehem, and in the course of his public ministry and
on the cross — do not skimp in showing veneration for the body of the Lord. When
the Christian people generously endow eucharistic worship they are simply show-
ing that they have learned well the lesson taught by these first disciples.
Source: “The Navarre Bible: Text and Commentaries”. Biblical text from the
Revised Standard Version and New Vulgate. Commentaries by members of
the Faculty of Theology, University of Navarre, Spain.
by Scepter Publishers in the United States.
Liturgical Colour: Red.
This gospel is read at the procession with palms before Mass:
|Gospel||Luke 19:28-40 ©|
|Blessings on him who comes in the name of the Lord.|
The following are the readings at the Mass itself:
|First reading||Isaiah 50:4-7 ©|
|I did not cover my face against insult: I know I shall not be shamed|
|Psalm 21(22):8-9,17-20,23-24 ©|
|Philippians 2:6-11 ©|
|Christ humbled himself but God raised him high|
|Luke 22:14-23:56 ©|
|The Passion of our Lord Jesus Christ according to Luke|
|Alternative Gospel||Luke 23:1-49 ©|
|The Passion of our Lord Jesus Christ according to Luke|
|English: Douay-Rheims||Latin: Vulgata Clementina||Greek NT: Byzantine/Majority Text (2000)|
|28.||And having said these things, he went before, going up to Jerusalem.||Et his dictis, præcedebat ascendens Jerosolymam.||και ειπων ταυτα επορευετο εμπροσθεν αναβαινων εις ιεροσολυμα|
|29.||And it came to pass, when he was come nigh to Bethphage and Bethania, unto the mount called Olivet, he sent two of his disciples,||Et factum est, cum appropinquasset ad Bethphage et Bethaniam, ad montem qui vocatur Oliveti, misit duos discipulos suos,||και εγενετο ως ηγγισεν εις βηθσφαγη και βηθανιαν προς το ορος το καλουμενον ελαιων απεστειλεν δυο των μαθητων αυτου|
|30.||Saying: Go into the town which is over against you, at your entering into which you shall find the colt of an ass tied, on which no man ever hath sitten: loose him, and bring him hither.||dicens : Ite in castellum quod contra est : in quod introëuntes, invenietis pullum asinæ alligatum, cui nemo umquam hominum sedit : solvite illum, et adducite.||ειπων υπαγετε εις την κατεναντι κωμην εν η εισπορευομενοι ευρησετε πωλον δεδεμενον εφ ον ουδεις πωποτε ανθρωπων εκαθισεν λυσαντες αυτον αγαγετε|
|31.||And if any man shall ask you: Why do you loose him? you shall say thus unto him: Because the Lord hath need of his service.||Et si quis vos interrogaverit : Quare solvitis ? sic dicetis ei : Quia Dominus operam ejus desiderat.||και εαν τις υμας ερωτα δια τι λυετε ουτως ερειτε αυτω οτι ο κυριος αυτου χρειαν εχει|
|32.||And they that were sent, went their way, and found the colt standing, as he had said unto them.||Abierunt autem qui missi erant : et invenerunt, sicut dixit illis, stantem pullum.||απελθοντες δε οι απεσταλμενοι ευρον καθως ειπεν αυτοις|
|33.||And as they were loosing the colt, the owners thereof said to them: Why loose you the colt?||Solventibus autem illis pullum, dixerunt domini ejus ad illos : Quid solvitis pullum ?||λυοντων δε αυτων τον πωλον ειπον οι κυριοι αυτου προς αυτους τι λυετε τον πωλον|
|34.||But they said: Because the Lord hath need of him.||At illi dixerunt : Quia Dominus eum necessarium habet.||οι δε ειπον ο κυριος αυτου χρειαν εχει|
|35.||And they brought him to Jesus. And casting their garments on the colt, they set Jesus thereon.||Et duxerunt illum ad Jesum. Et jacentes vestimenta sua supra pullum, imposuerunt Jesum.||και ηγαγον αυτον προς τον ιησουν και επιρριψαντες εαυτων τα ιματια επι τον πωλον επεβιβασαν τον ιησουν|
|36.||And as he went, they spread their clothes underneath in the way.||Eunte autem illo, substernebant vestimenta sua in via :||πορευομενου δε αυτου υπεστρωννυον τα ιματια αυτων εν τη οδω|
|37.||And when he was now coming near the descent of mount Olivet, the whole multitude of his disciples began with joy to praise God with a loud voice, for all the mighty works they had seen,||et cum appropinquaret jam ad descensum montis Oliveti, cperunt omnes turbæ discipulorum gaudentes laudare Deum voce magna super omnibus, quas viderant, virtutibus,||εγγιζοντος δε αυτου ηδη προς τη καταβασει του ορους των ελαιων ηρξαντο απαν το πληθος των μαθητων χαιροντες αινειν τον θεον φωνη μεγαλη περι πασων ων ειδον δυναμεων|
|38.||Saying: Blessed be the king who cometh in the name of the Lord, peace in heaven, and glory on high!||dicentes : Benedictus, qui venit rex in nomine Domini : pax in cælo, et gloria in excelsis.||λεγοντες ευλογημενος ο ερχομενος βασιλευς εν ονοματι κυριου ειρηνη εν ουρανω και δοξα εν υψιστοις|
|39.||And some of the Pharisees, from amongst the multitude, said to him: Master, rebuke thy disciples.||Et quidam pharisæorum de turbis dixerunt ad illum : Magister, increpa discipulos tuos.||και τινες των φαρισαιων απο του οχλου ειπον προς αυτον διδασκαλε επιτιμησον τοις μαθηταις σου|
|40.||To whom he said: I say to you, that if these shall hold their peace, the stones will cry out.||Quibus ipse ait : Dico vobis, quia si hi tacuerint, lapides clamabunt.||και αποκριθεις ειπεν αυτοις λεγω υμιν οτι εαν ουτοι σιωπησωσιν οι λιθοι κεκραξονται|
|English: Douay-Rheims||Latin: Vulgata Clementina||Greek NT: Byzantine/Majority Text (2000)|
|14.||And when the hour was come, he sat down, and the twelve apostles with him.||Et cum facta esset hora, discubuit, et duodecim apostoli cum eo.||και οτε εγενετο η ωρα ανεπεσεν και οι δωδεκα αποστολοι συν αυτω|
|15.||And he said to them: With desire I have desired to eat this pasch with you, before I suffer.||Et ait illis : Desiderio desideravi hoc pascha manducare vobiscum, antequam patiar.||και ειπεν προς αυτους επιθυμια επεθυμησα τουτο το πασχα φαγειν μεθ υμων προ του με παθειν|
|16.||For I say to you, that from this time I will not eat it, till it be fulfilled in the kingdom of God.||Dico enim vobis, quia ex hoc non manducabo illud, donec impleatur in regno Dei.||λεγω γαρ υμιν οτι ουκετι ου μη φαγω εξ αυτου εως οτου πληρωθη εν τη βασιλεια του θεου|
|17.||And having taken the chalice, he gave thanks, and said: Take, and divide it among you:||Et accepto calice gratias egit, et dixit : Accipite, et dividite inter vos.||και δεξαμενος ποτηριον ευχαριστησας ειπεν λαβετε τουτο και διαμερισατε εαυτοις|
|18.||For I say to you, that I will not drink of the fruit of the vine, till the kingdom of God come.||Dico enim vobis quod non bibam de generatione vitis donec regnum Dei veniat.||λεγω γαρ υμιν οτι ου μη πιω απο του γενηματος της αμπελου εως οτου η βασιλεια του θεου ελθη|
|19.||And taking bread, he gave thanks, and brake; and gave to them, saying: This is my body, which is given for you. Do this for a commemoration of me.||Et accepto pane gratias egit, et fregit, et dedit eis, dicens : Hoc est corpus meum, quod pro vobis datur : hoc facite in meam commemorationem.||και λαβων αρτον ευχαριστησας εκλασεν και εδωκεν αυτοις λεγων τουτο εστιν το σωμα μου το υπερ υμων διδομενον τουτο ποιειτε εις την εμην αναμνησιν|
|20.||In like manner the chalice also, after he had supped, saying: This is the chalice, the new testament in my blood, which shall be shed for you.||Similiter et calicem, postquam cnavit, dicens : Hic est calix novum testamentum in sanguine meo, qui pro vobis fundetur.||ωσαυτως και το ποτηριον μετα το δειπνησαι λεγων τουτο το ποτηριον η καινη διαθηκη εν τω αιματι μου το υπερ υμων εκχυνομενον|
|21.||But yet behold, the hand of him that betrayeth me is with me on the table.||Verumtamen ecce manus tradentis me, mecum est in mensa.||πλην ιδου η χειρ του παραδιδοντος με μετ εμου επι της τραπεζης|
|22.||And the Son of man indeed goeth, according to that which is determined: but yet, woe to that man by whom he shall be betrayed.||Et quidem Filius hominis, secundum quod definitum est, vadit : verumtamen væ homini illi per quem tradetur.||και ο μεν υιος του ανθρωπου πορευεται κατα το ωρισμενον πλην ουαι τω ανθρωπω εκεινω δι ου παραδιδοται|
|23.||And they began to inquire among themselves, which of them it was that should do this thing.||Et ipsi cperunt quærere inter se quis esset ex eis qui hoc facturus esset.||και αυτοι ηρξαντο συζητειν προς εαυτους το τις αρα ειη εξ αυτων ο τουτο μελλων πρασσειν|
|24.||And there was also a strife amongst them, which of them should seem to be the greater.||Facta est autem et contentio inter eos, quis eorum videretur esse major.||εγενετο δε και φιλονεικια εν αυτοις το τις αυτων δοκει ειναι μειζων|
|25.||And he said to them: The kings of the Gentiles lord it over them; and they that have power over them, are called beneficent.||Dixit autem eis : Reges gentium dominantur eorum : et qui potestatem habent super eos, benefici vocantur.||ο δε ειπεν αυτοις οι βασιλεις των εθνων κυριευουσιν αυτων και οι εξουσιαζοντες αυτων ευεργεται καλουνται|
|26.||But you not so: but he that is the greater among you, let him become as the younger; and he that is the leader, as he that serveth.||Vos autem non sic : sed qui major est in vobis, fiat sicut minor : et qui præcessor est, sicut ministrator.||υμεις δε ουχ ουτως αλλ ο μειζων εν υμιν γενεσθω ως ο νεωτερος και ο ηγουμενος ως ο διακονων|
|27.||For which is greater, he that sitteth at table, or he that serveth? Is it not he that sitteth at table? But I am in the midst of you, as he that serveth:||Nam quis major est, qui recumbit, an qui ministrat ? nonne qui recumbit ? Ego autem in medio vestrum sum, sicut qui ministrat :||τις γαρ μειζων ο ανακειμενος η ο διακονων ουχι ο ανακειμενος εγω δε ειμι εν μεσω υμων ως ο διακονων|
|28.||And you are they who have continued with me in my temptations:||vos autem estis, qui permansistis mecum in tentationibus meis.||υμεις δε εστε οι διαμεμενηκοτες μετ εμου εν τοις πειρασμοις μου|
|29.||And I dispose to you, as my Father hath disposed to me, a kingdom;||Et ego dispono vobis sicut disposuit mihi Pater meus regnum,||καγω διατιθεμαι υμιν καθως διεθετο μοι ο πατηρ μου βασιλειαν|
|30.||That you may eat and drink at my table, in my kingdom: and may sit upon thrones, judging the twelve tribes of Israel.||ut edatis et bibatis super mensam meam in regno meo, et sedeatis super thronos judicantes duodecim tribus Israël.||ινα εσθιητε και πινητε επι της τραπεζης μου [εν τη βασιλεια μου] και καθισεσθε επι θρονων κρινοντες τας δωδεκα φυλας του ισραηλ|
|31.||And the Lord said: Simon, Simon, behold Satan hath desired to have you, that he may sift you as wheat:||Ait autem Dominus : Simon, Simon, ecce Satanas expetivit vos ut cribraret sicut triticum :||ειπεν δε ο κυριος σιμων σιμων ιδου ο σατανας εξητησατο υμας του σινιασαι ως τον σιτον|
|32.||But I have prayed for thee, that thy faith fail not: and thou, being once converted, confirm thy brethren.||ego autem rogavi pro te ut non deficiat fides tua : et tu aliquando conversus, confirma fratres tuos.||εγω δε εδεηθην περι σου ινα μη εκλιπη η πιστις σου και συ ποτε επιστρεψας στηριξον τους αδελφους σου|
|33.||Who said to him: Lord, I am ready to go with thee, both into prison, and to death.||Qui dixit ei : Domine, tecum paratus sum et in carcerem et in mortem ire.||ο δε ειπεν αυτω κυριε μετα σου ετοιμος ειμι και εις φυλακην και εις θανατον πορευεσθαι|
|34.||And he said: I say to thee, Peter, the cock shall not crow this day, till thou thrice deniest that thou knowest me. And he said to them:||At ille dixit : Dico tibi, Petre, non cantabit hodie gallus, donec ter abneges nosse me. Et dixit eis :||ο δε ειπεν λεγω σοι πετρε ου μη φωνηση σημερον αλεκτωρ πριν η τρις απαρνηση μη ειδεναι με|
|35.||When I sent you without purse, and scrip, and shoes, did you want anything?||Quando misi vos sine sacculo, et pera, et calceamentis, numquid aliquid defuit vobis ?||και ειπεν αυτοις οτε απεστειλα υμας ατερ βαλαντιου και πηρας και υποδηματων μη τινος υστερησατε οι δε ειπον ουθενος|
|36.||But they said: Nothing. Then said he unto them: But now he that hath a purse, let him take it, and likewise a scrip; and he that hath not, let him sell his coat, and buy a sword.||At illi dixerunt : Nihil. Dixit ergo eis : Sed nunc qui habet sacculum, tollat ; similiter et peram : et qui non habet, vendat tunicam suam et emat gladium.||ειπεν ουν αυτοις αλλα νυν ο εχων βαλαντιον αρατω ομοιως και πηραν και ο μη εχων πωλησει το ιματιον αυτου και αγορασει μαχαιραν|
|37.||For I say to you, that this that is written must yet be fulfilled in me: And with the wicked was he reckoned. For the things concerning me have an end.||Dico enim vobis, quoniam adhuc hoc quod scriptum est, oportet impleri in me : Et cum iniquis deputatus est. Etenim ea quæ sunt de me finem habent.||λεγω γαρ υμιν οτι ετι τουτο το γεγραμμενον δει τελεσθηναι εν εμοι το και μετα ανομων ελογισθη και γαρ τα περι εμου τελος εχει|
|38.||But they said: Lord, behold here are two swords. And he said to them, It is enough.||At illi dixerunt : Domine, ecce duo gladii hic. At ille dixit eis : Satis est.||οι δε ειπον κυριε ιδου μαχαιραι ωδε δυο ο δε ειπεν αυτοις ικανον εστιν|
|39.||And going out, he went, according to his custom, to the mount of Olives. And his disciples also followed him.||Et egressus ibat secundum consuetudinem in monte Olivarum. Secuti sunt autem illum et discipuli.||και εξελθων επορευθη κατα το εθος εις το ορος των ελαιων ηκολουθησαν δε αυτω και οι μαθηται αυτου|
|40.||And when he was come to the place, he said to them: Pray, lest ye enter into temptation.||Et cum pervenisset ad locum, dixit illis : Orate ne intretis in tentationem.||γενομενος δε επι του τοπου ειπεν αυτοις προσευχεσθε μη εισελθειν εις πειρασμον|
|41.||And he was withdrawn away from them a stone's cast; and kneeling down, he prayed,||Et ipse avulsus est ab eis quantum jactus est lapidis : et positis genibus orabat,||και αυτος απεσπασθη απ αυτων ωσει λιθου βολην και θεις τα γονατα προσηυχετο|
|42.||Saying: Father, if thou wilt, remove this chalice from me: but yet not my will, but thine be done.||dicens : Pater, si vis, transfer calicem istum a me : verumtamen non mea voluntas, sed tua fiat.||λεγων πατερ ει βουλει παρενεγκειν το ποτηριον τουτο απ εμου πλην μη το θελημα μου αλλα το σον γενεσθω|
|43.||And there appeared to him an angel from heaven, strengthening him. And being in an agony, he prayed the longer.||Apparuit autem illi angelus de cælo, confortans eum. Et factus in agonia, prolixius orabat.||ωφθη δε αυτω αγγελος απ ουρανου ενισχυων αυτον|
|44.||And his sweat became as drops of blood, trickling down upon the ground.||Et factus est sudor ejus sicut guttæ sanguinis decurrentis in terram.||και γενομενος εν αγωνια εκτενεστερον προσηυχετο εγενετο δε ο ιδρως αυτου ωσει θρομβοι αιματος καταβαινοντες επι την γην|
|45.||And when he rose up from prayer, and was come to his disciples, he found them sleeping for sorrow.||Et cum surrexisset ab oratione et venisset ad discipulos suos, invenit eos dormientes præ tristitia.||και αναστας απο της προσευχης ελθων προς τους μαθητας ευρεν αυτους κοιμωμενους απο της λυπης|
|46.||And he said to them: Why sleep you? arise, pray, lest you enter into temptation.||Et ait illis : Quid dormitis ? surgite, orate, ne intretis in tentationem.||και ειπεν αυτοις τι καθευδετε ανασταντες προσευχεσθε ινα μη εισελθητε εις πειρασμον|
|47.||As he was yet speaking, behold a multitude; and he that was called Judas, one of the twelve, went before them, and drew near to Jesus, for to kiss him.||Adhuc eo loquente, ecce turba : et qui vocabatur Judas, unus de duodecim, antecedebat eos, et appropinquavit Jesu ut oscularetur eum.||ετι δε αυτου λαλουντος ιδου οχλος και ο λεγομενος ιουδας εις των δωδεκα προηρχετο αυτους και ηγγισεν τω ιησου φιλησαι αυτον|
|48.||And Jesus said to him: Judas, dost thou betray the Son of man with a kiss?||Jesus autem dixit illi : Juda, osculo Filium hominis tradis ?||ο δε ιησους ειπεν αυτω ιουδα φιληματι τον υιον του ανθρωπου παραδιδως|
|49.||And they that were about him, seeing what would follow, said to him: Lord, shall we strike with the sword?||Videntes autem hi qui circa ipsum erant, quod futurum erat, dixerunt ei : Domine, si percutimus in gladio ?||ιδοντες δε οι περι αυτον το εσομενον ειπον αυτω κυριε ει παταξομεν εν μαχαιρα|
|50.||And one of them struck the servant of the high priest, and cut off his right ear.||Et percussit unus ex illis servum principis sacerdotum, et amputavit auriculam ejus dexteram.||και επαταξεν εις τις εξ αυτων τον δουλον του αρχιερεως και αφειλεν αυτου το ους το δεξιον|
|51.||But Jesus answering, said: Suffer ye thus far. And when he had touched his ear, he healed him.||Respondens autem Jesus, ait : Sinite usque huc. Et cum tetigisset auriculam ejus, sanavit eum.||αποκριθεις δε ο ιησους ειπεν εατε εως τουτου και αψαμενος του ωτιου αυτου ιασατο αυτον|
|52.||And Jesus said to the chief priests, and magistrates of the temple, and the ancients, that were come unto him: Are ye come out, as it were against a thief, with swords and clubs?||Dixit autem Jesus ad eos qui venerant ad se principes sacerdotum, et magistratus templi, et seniores : Quasi ad latronem existis cum gladiis et fustibus ?||ειπεν δε ο ιησους προς τους παραγενομενους επ αυτον αρχιερεις και στρατηγους του ιερου και πρεσβυτερους ως επι ληστην εξεληλυθατε μετα μαχαιρων και ξυλων|
|53.||When I was daily with you in the temple, you did not stretch forth your hands against me: but this is your hour, and the power of darkness.||Cum quotidie vobiscum fuerim in templo, non extendistis manus in me : sed hæc est hora vestra, et potestas tenebrarum.||καθ ημεραν οντος μου μεθ υμων εν τω ιερω ουκ εξετεινατε τας χειρας επ εμε αλλ αυτη υμων εστιν η ωρα και η εξουσια του σκοτους|
|54.||And apprehending him, they led him to the high priest's house. But Peter followed afar off.||Comprehendentes autem eum, duxerunt ad domum principis sacerdotum : Petrus vero sequebatur a longe.||συλλαβοντες δε αυτον ηγαγον και εισηγαγον αυτον εις τον οικον του αρχιερεως ο δε πετρος ηκολουθει μακροθεν|
|55.||And when they had kindled a fire in the midst of the hall, and were sitting about it, Peter was in the midst of them.||Accenso autem igne in medio atrii et circumsedentibus illis, erat Petrus in medio eorum.||αψαντων δε πυρ εν μεσω της αυλης και συγκαθισαντων αυτων εκαθητο ο πετρος εν μεσω αυτων|
|56.||Whom when a certain servant maid had seen sitting at the light, and had earnestly beheld him, she said: This man also was with him.||Quem cum vidisset ancilla quædam sedentem ad lumen, et eum fuisset intuita, dixit : Et hic cum illo erat.||ιδουσα δε αυτον παιδισκη τις καθημενον προς το φως και ατενισασα αυτω ειπεν και ουτος συν αυτω ην|
|57.||But he denied him, saying: Woman, I know him not.||At ille negavit eum, dicens : Mulier, non novi illum.||ο δε ηρνησατο αυτον λεγων γυναι ουκ οιδα αυτον|
|58.||And after a little while, another seeing him, said: Thou also art one of them. But Peter said: O man, I am not.||Et post pusillum alius videns eum, dixit : Et tu de illis es. Petrus vero ait : O homo, non sum.||και μετα βραχυ ετερος ιδων αυτον εφη και συ εξ αυτων ει ο δε πετρος ειπεν ανθρωπε ουκ ειμι|
|59.||And after the space, as it were of one hour, another certain man affirmed, saying: Of a truth, this man was also with him; for he is also a Galilean.||Et intervallo facto quasi horæ unius, alius quidam affirmabat, dicens : Vere et hic cum illo erat : nam et Galilæus est.||και διαστασης ωσει ωρας μιας αλλος τις διισχυριζετο λεγων επ αληθειας και ουτος μετ αυτου ην και γαρ γαλιλαιος εστιν|
|60.||And Peter said: Man, I know not what thou sayest. And immediately, as he was yet speaking, the cock crew.||Et ait Petrus : Homo, nescio quid dicis. Et continuo, adhuc illo loquente, cantavit gallus.||ειπεν δε ο πετρος ανθρωπε ουκ οιδα ο λεγεις και παραχρημα ετι λαλουντος αυτου εφωνησεν αλεκτωρ|
|61.||And the Lord turning looked on Peter. And Peter remembered the word of the Lord, as he had said: Before the cock crow, thou shalt deny me thrice.||Et conversus Dominus respexit Petrum, et recordatus est Petrus verbi Domini, sicut dixerat : Quia priusquam gallus cantet, ter me negabis.||και στραφεις ο κυριος ενεβλεψεν τω πετρω και υπεμνησθη ο πετρος του λογου του κυριου ως ειπεν αυτω οτι πριν αλεκτορα φωνησαι απαρνηση με τρις|
|62.||And Peter going out, wept bitterly.||Et egressus foras Petrus flevit amare.||και εξελθων εξω ο πετρος εκλαυσεν πικρως|
|63.||And the men that held him, mocked him, and struck him.||Et viri qui tenebant illum, illudebant ei, cædentes.||και οι ανδρες οι συνεχοντες τον ιησουν ενεπαιζον αυτω δεροντες|
|64.||And they blindfolded him, and smote his face. And they asked him, saying: Prophesy, who is it that struck thee?||Et velaverunt eum, et percutiebant faciem ejus : et interrogabant eum, dicentes : Prophetiza, quis est, qui te percussit ?||και περικαλυψαντες αυτον ετυπτον αυτου το προσωπον και επηρωτων αυτον λεγοντες προφητευσον τις εστιν ο παισας σε|
|65.||And blaspheming, many other things they said against him.||Et alia multa blasphemantes dicebant in eum.||και ετερα πολλα βλασφημουντες ελεγον εις αυτον|
|66.||And as soon as it was day, the ancients of the people, and the chief priests and scribes, cane together; and they brought him into their council, saying: If thou be the Christ, tell us.||Et ut factus est dies, convenerunt seniores plebis, et principes sacerdotum, et scribæ, et duxerunt illum in concilium suum, dicentes : Si tu es Christus, dic nobis.||και ως εγενετο ημερα συνηχθη το πρεσβυτεριον του λαου αρχιερεις και γραμματεις και ανηγαγον αυτον εις το συνεδριον αυτων λεγοντες|
|67.||And he saith to them: If I shall tell you, you will not believe me.||Et ait illis : Si vobis dixero, non credetis mihi :||ει συ ει ο χριστος ειπε ημιν ειπεν δε αυτοις εαν υμιν ειπω ου μη πιστευσητε|
|68.||And if I shall also ask you, you will not answer me, nor let me go.||si autem et interrogavero, non respondebitis mihi, neque dimittetis.||εαν δε και ερωτησω ου μη αποκριθητε μοι η απολυσητε|
|69.||But hereafter the Son of man shall be sitting on the right hand of the power of God.||Ex hoc autem erit Filius hominis sedens a dextris virtutis Dei.||απο του νυν εσται ο υιος του ανθρωπου καθημενος εκ δεξιων της δυναμεως του θεου|
|70.||Then said they all: Art thou then the Son of God? Who said: You say that I am.||Dixerunt autem omnes : Tu ergo es Filius Dei ? Qui ait : Vos dicitis, quia ego sum.||ειπον δε παντες συ ουν ει ο υιος του θεου ο δε προς αυτους εφη υμεις λεγετε οτι εγω ειμι|
|71.||And they said: What need we any further testimony? for we ourselves have heard it from his own mouth.||At illi dixerunt : Quid adhuc desideramus testimonium ? ipsi enim audivimus de ore ejus.||οι δε ειπον τι ετι χρειαν εχομεν μαρτυριας αυτοι γαρ ηκουσαμεν απο του στοματος αυτου|
|1.||AND the whole multitude of them rising up, led him to Pilate.||Et surgens omnis multitudo eorum, duxerunt illum ad Pilatum.||και ανασταν απαν το πληθος αυτων ηγαγον αυτον επι τον πιλατον|
|2.||And they began to accuse him, saying: We have found this man perverting our nation, and forbidding to give tribute to Caesar, and saying that he is Christ the king.||Cperunt autem illum accusare, dicentes : Hunc invenimus subvertentem gentem nostram, et prohibentem tributa dare Cæsari, et dicentem se Christum regem esse.||ηρξαντο δε κατηγορειν αυτου λεγοντες τουτον ευρομεν διαστρεφοντα το εθνος και κωλυοντα καισαρι φορους διδοναι λεγοντα εαυτον χριστον βασιλεα ειναι|
|3.||And Pilate asked him, saying: Art thou the king of the Jews? But he answering, said: Thou sayest it.||Pilatus autem interrogavit eum, dicens : Tu es rex Judæorum ? At ille respondens ait : Tu dicis.||ο δε πιλατος επηρωτησεν αυτον λεγων συ ει ο βασιλευς των ιουδαιων ο δε αποκριθεις αυτω εφη συ λεγεις|
|4.||And Pilate said to the chief priests and to the multitudes: I find no cause in this man.||Ait autem Pilatus ad principes sacerdotum et turbas : Nihil invenio causæ in hoc homine.||ο δε πιλατος ειπεν προς τους αρχιερεις και τους οχλους ουδεν ευρισκω αιτιον εν τω ανθρωπω τουτω|
|5.||But they were more earnest, saying: He stirreth up the people, teaching throughout all Judea, beginning from Galilee to this place.||At illi invalescebant, dicentes : Commovet populum docens per universam Judæam, incipiens a Galilæa usque huc.||οι δε επισχυον λεγοντες οτι ανασειει τον λαον διδασκων καθ ολης της ιουδαιας αρξαμενος απο της γαλιλαιας εως ωδε|
|6.||But Pilate hearing Galilee, asked if the man were of Galilee?||Pilatus autem audiens Galilæam, interrogavit si homo Galilæus esset.||πιλατος δε ακουσας γαλιλαιαν επηρωτησεν ει ο ανθρωπος γαλιλαιος εστιν|
|7.||And when he understood that he was of Herod's jurisdiction, he sent him away to Herod, who was also himself at Jerusalem, in those days.||Et ut cognovit quod de Herodis potestate esset, remisit eum ad Herodem, qui et ipse Jerosolymis erat illis diebus.||και επιγνους οτι εκ της εξουσιας ηρωδου εστιν ανεπεμψεν αυτον προς ηρωδην οντα και αυτον εν ιεροσολυμοις εν ταυταις ταις ημεραις|
|8.||And Herod, seeing Jesus, was very glad; for he was desirous of a long time to see him, because he had heard many things of him; and he hoped to see some sign wrought by him.||Herodes autem viso Jesu, gavisus est valde. Erat enim cupiens ex multo tempore videre eum, eo quod audierat multa de eo, et sperabat signum aliquod videre ab eo fieri.||ο δε ηρωδης ιδων τον ιησουν εχαρη λιαν ην γαρ θελων εξ ικανου ιδειν αυτον δια το ακουειν πολλα περι αυτου και ηλπιζεν τι σημειον ιδειν υπ αυτου γινομενον|
|9.||And he questioned him in many words. But he answered him nothing.||Interrogabat autem eum multis sermonibus. At ipse nihil illi respondebat.||επηρωτα δε αυτον εν λογοις ικανοις αυτος δε ουδεν απεκρινατο αυτω|
|10.||And the chief priests and the scribes stood by, earnestly accusing him.||Stabant autem principes sacerdotum et scribæ constanter accusantes eum.||ειστηκεισαν δε οι αρχιερεις και οι γραμματεις ευτονως κατηγορουντες αυτου|
|11.||And Herod with his army set him at nought, and mocked him, putting on him a white garment, and sent him back to Pilate.||Sprevit autem illum Herodes cum exercitu suo : et illusit indutum veste alba, et remisit ad Pilatum.||εξουθενησας δε αυτον ο ηρωδης συν τοις στρατευμασιν αυτου και εμπαιξας περιβαλων αυτον εσθητα λαμπραν ανεπεμψεν αυτον τω πιλατω|
|12.||And Herod and Pilate were made friends, that same day; for before they were enemies one to another.||Et facti sunt amici Herodes et Pilatus in ipsa die : nam antea inimici erant ad invicem.||εγενοντο δε φιλοι ο τε πιλατος και ο ηρωδης εν αυτη τη ημερα μετ αλληλων προυπηρχον γαρ εν εχθρα οντες προς εαυτους|
|13.||And Pilate, calling together the chief priests, and the magistrates, and the people,||Pilatus autem, convocatis principibus sacerdotum, et magistratibus, et plebe,||πιλατος δε συγκαλεσαμενος τους αρχιερεις και τους αρχοντας και τον λαον|
|14.||Said to them: You have presented unto me this man, as one that perverteth the people; and behold I, having examined him before you, find no cause in this man, in those things wherein you accuse him.||dixit ad illos : Obtulistis mihi hunc hominem, quasi avertentem populum, et ecce ego coram vobis interrogans, nullam causam inveni in homine isto ex his in quibus eum accusatis.||ειπεν προς αυτους προσηνεγκατε μοι τον ανθρωπον τουτον ως αποστρεφοντα τον λαον και ιδου εγω ενωπιον υμων ανακρινας ουδεν ευρον εν τω ανθρωπω τουτω αιτιον ων κατηγορειτε κατ αυτου|
|15.||No, nor Herod neither. For I sent you to him, and behold, nothing worthy of death is done to him.||Sed neque Herodes : nam remisi vos ad illum, et ecce nihil dignum morte actum est ei.||αλλ ουδε ηρωδης ανεπεμψα γαρ υμας προς αυτον και ιδου ουδεν αξιον θανατου εστιν πεπραγμενον αυτω|
|16.||I will chastise him therefore, and release him.||Emendatum ergo illum dimittam.||παιδευσας ουν αυτον απολυσω|
|17.||Now of necessity he was to release unto them one upon the feast day.||Necesse autem habebat dimittere eis per diem festum unum.||αναγκην δε ειχεν απολυειν αυτοις κατα εορτην ενα|
|18.||But the whole multitude together cried out, saying: Away with this man, and release unto us Barabbas:||Exclamavit autem simul universa turba, dicens : Tolle hunc, et dimitte nobis Barabbam :||ανεκραξαν δε παμπληθει λεγοντες αιρε τουτον απολυσον δε ημιν βαραββαν|
|19.||Who, for a certain sedition made in the city, and for a murder, was cast into prison.||qui erat propter seditionem quamdam factam in civitate et homicidium missus in carcerem.||οστις ην δια στασιν τινα γενομενην εν τη πολει και φονον βεβλημενος εις φυλακην|
|20.||And Pilate again spoke to them, desiring to release Jesus.||Iterum autem Pilatus locutus est ad eos, volens dimittere Jesum.||παλιν ουν ο πιλατος προσεφωνησεν θελων απολυσαι τον ιησουν|
|21.||But they cried again, saying: Crucify him, crucify him.||At illi succlamabant, dicentes : Crucifige, crucifige eum.||οι δε επεφωνουν λεγοντες σταυρωσον σταυρωσον αυτον|
|22.||And he said to them the third time: Why, what evil hath this man done? I find no cause of death in him. I will chastise him therefore, and let him go.||Ille autem tertio dixit ad illos : Quid enim mali fecit iste ? nullam causam mortis invenio in eo : corripiam ergo illum et dimittam.||ο δε τριτον ειπεν προς αυτους τι γαρ κακον εποιησεν ουτος ουδεν αιτιον θανατου ευρον εν αυτω παιδευσας ουν αυτον απολυσω|
|23.||But they were instant with loud voices, requiring that he might be crucified; and their voices prevailed.||At illi instabant vocibus magnis postulantes ut crucifigeretur : et invalescebant voces eorum.||οι δε επεκειντο φωναις μεγαλαις αιτουμενοι αυτον σταυρωθηναι και κατισχυον αι φωναι αυτων και των αρχιερεων|
|24.||And Pilate gave sentence that it should be as they required.||Et Pilatus adjudicavit fieri petitionem eorum.||ο δε πιλατος επεκρινεν γενεσθαι το αιτημα αυτων|
|25.||And he released unto them him who for murder and sedition, had been cast into prison, whom they had desired; but Jesus he delivered up to their will.||Dimisit autem illis eum qui propter homicidium et seditionem missus fuerat in carcerem, quem petebant : Jesum vero tradidit voluntati eorum.||απελυσεν δε τον δια στασιν και φονον βεβλημενον εις την φυλακην ον ητουντο τον δε ιησουν παρεδωκεν τω θεληματι αυτων|
|26.||And as they led him away, they laid hold of one Simon of Cyrene, coming from the country; and they laid the cross on him to carry after Jesus.||Et cum ducerent eum, apprehenderunt Simonem quemdam Cyrenensem venientem de villa : et imposuerunt illi crucem portare post Jesum.||και ως απηγαγον αυτον επιλαβομενοι σιμωνος τινος κυρηναιου ερχομενου απ αγρου επεθηκαν αυτω τον σταυρον φερειν οπισθεν του ιησου|
|27.||And there followed him a great multitude of people, and of women, who bewailed and lamented him.||Sequebatur autem illum multa turba populi et mulierum, quæ plangebant et lamentabantur eum.||ηκολουθει δε αυτω πολυ πληθος του λαου και γυναικων αι και εκοπτοντο και εθρηνουν αυτον|
|28.||But Jesus turning to them, said: Daughters of Jerusalem, weep not over me; but weep for yourselves, and for your children.||Conversus autem ad illas Jesus, dixit : Filiæ Jerusalem, nolite flere super me, sed super vos ipsas flete et super filios vestros.||στραφεις δε προς αυτας ο ιησους ειπεν θυγατερες ιερουσαλημ μη κλαιετε επ εμε πλην εφ εαυτας κλαιετε και επι τα τεκνα υμων|
|29.||For behold, the days shall come, wherein they will say: Blessed are the barren, and the wombs that have not borne, and the paps that have not given suck.||Quoniam ecce venient dies in quibus dicent : Beatæ steriles, et ventres qui non genuerunt, et ubera quæ non lactaverunt.||οτι ιδου ερχονται ημεραι εν αις ερουσιν μακαριαι αι στειραι και κοιλιαι αι ουκ εγεννησαν και μαστοι οι ουκ εθηλασαν|
|30.||Then shall they begin to say to the mountains: Fall upon us; and to the hills: Cover us.||Tunc incipient dicere montibus : Cadite super nos ; et collibus : Operite nos.||τοτε αρξονται λεγειν τοις ορεσιν πεσετε εφ ημας και τοις βουνοις καλυψατε ημας|
|31.||For if in the green wood they do these things, what shall be done in the dry?||Quia si in viridi ligno hæc faciunt, in arido quid fiet ?||οτι ει εν τω υγρω ξυλω ταυτα ποιουσιν εν τω ξηρω τι γενηται|
|32.||And there were also two other malefactors led with him to be put to death.||Ducebantur autem et alii duo nequam cum eo, ut interficerentur.||ηγοντο δε και ετεροι δυο κακουργοι συν αυτω αναιρεθηναι|
|33.||And when they were come to the place which is called Calvary, they crucified him there; and the robbers, one on the right hand, and the other on the left.||Et postquam venerunt in locum qui vocatur Calvariæ, ibi crucifixerunt eum : et latrones, unum a dextris, et alterum a sinistris.||και οτε απηλθον επι τον τοπον τον καλουμενον κρανιον εκει εσταυρωσαν αυτον και τους κακουργους ον μεν εκ δεξιων ον δε εξ αριστερων|
|34.||And Jesus said: Father, forgive them, for they know not what they do. But they, dividing his garments, cast lots.||Jesus autem dicebat : Pater, dimitte illis : non enim sciunt quid faciunt. Dividentes vero vestimenta ejus, miserunt sortes.||ο δε ιησους ελεγεν πατερ αφες αυτοις ου γαρ οιδασιν τι ποιουσιν διαμεριζομενοι δε τα ιματια αυτου εβαλον κληρον|
|35.||And the people stood beholding, and the rulers with them derided him, saying: He saved others; let him save himself, if he be Christ, the elect of God.||Et stabat populus spectans, et deridebant eum principes cum eis, dicentes : Alios salvos fecit, se salvum faciat, si hic est Christus Dei electus.||και ειστηκει ο λαος θεωρων εξεμυκτηριζον δε και οι αρχοντες συν αυτοις λεγοντες αλλους εσωσεν σωσατω εαυτον ει ουτος εστιν ο χριστος ο του θεου εκλεκτος|
|36.||And the soldiers also mocked him, coming to him, and offering him vinegar,||Illudebant autem ei et milites accedentes, et acetum offerentes ei,||ενεπαιζον δε αυτω και οι στρατιωται προσερχομενοι και οξος προσφεροντες αυτω|
|37.||And saying: If thou be the king of the Jews, save thyself.||et dicentes : Si tu es rex Judæorum, salvum te fac.||και λεγοντες ει συ ει ο βασιλευς των ιουδαιων σωσον σεαυτον|
|38.||And there was also a superscription written over him in letters of Greek, and Latin, and Hebrew: THIS IS THE KING OF THE JEWS.||Erat autem et superscriptio scripta super eum litteris græcis, et latinis, et hebraicis : Hic est rex Judæorum.||ην δε και επιγραφη γεγραμμενη επ αυτω γραμμασιν ελληνικοις και ρωμαικοις και εβραικοις ουτος εστιν ο βασιλευς των ιουδαιων|
|39.||And one of those robbers who were hanged, blasphemed him, saying: If thou be Christ, save thyself and us.||Unus autem de his, qui pendebant, latronibus, blasphemabat eum, dicens : Si tu es Christus, salvum fac temetipsum et nos.||εις δε των κρεμασθεντων κακουργων εβλασφημει αυτον λεγων ει συ ει ο χριστος σωσον σεαυτον και ημας|
|40.||But the other answering, rebuked him, saying: Neither dost thou fear God, seeing thou art condemned under the same condemnation?||Respondens autem alter increpabat eum, dicens : Neque tu times Deum, quod in eadem damnatione es.||αποκριθεις δε ο ετερος επετιμα αυτω λεγων ουδε φοβη συ τον θεον οτι εν τω αυτω κριματι ει|
|41.||And we indeed justly, for we receive the due reward of our deeds; but this man hath done no evil.||Et nos quidem juste, nam digna factis recipimus : hic vero nihil mali gessit.||και ημεις μεν δικαιως αξια γαρ ων επραξαμεν απολαμβανομεν ουτος δε ουδεν ατοπον επραξεν|
|42.||And he said to Jesus: Lord, remember me when thou shalt come into thy kingdom.||Et dicebat ad Jesum : Domine, memento mei cum veneris in regnum tuum.||και ελεγεν τω ιησου μνησθητι μου κυριε οταν ελθης εν τη βασιλεια σου|
|43.||And Jesus said to him: Amen I say to thee, this day thou shalt be with me in paradise.||Et dixit illi Jesus : Amen dico tibi : Hodie mecum eris in paradiso.||και ειπεν αυτω ο ιησους αμην λεγω σοι σημερον μετ εμου εση εν τω παραδεισω|
|44.||And it was almost the sixth hour; and there was darkness over all the earth until the ninth hour.||Erat autem fere hora sexta, et tenebræ factæ sunt in universam terram usque ad horam nonam.||ην δε ωσει ωρα εκτη και σκοτος εγενετο εφ ολην την γην εως ωρας ενατης|
|45.||And the sun was darkened, and the veil of the temple was rent in the midst.||Et obscuratus est sol, et velum templi scissum est medium.||και εσκοτισθη ο ηλιος και εσχισθη το καταπετασμα του ναου μεσον|
|46.||And Jesus crying out with a loud voice, said: Father, into thy hands I commend my spirit. And saying this, he gave up the ghost.||Et clamans voce magna Jesus ait : Pater, in manus tuas commendo spiritum meum. Et hæc dicens, expiravit.||και φωνησας φωνη μεγαλη ο ιησους ειπεν πατερ εις χειρας σου παραθησομαι το πνευμα μου και ταυτα ειπων εξεπνευσεν|
|47.||Now the centurion, seeing what was done, glorified God, saying: Indeed this was a just man.||Videns autem centurio quod factum fuerat, glorificavit Deum, dicens : Vere hic homo justus erat.||ιδων δε ο εκατονταρχος το γενομενον εδοξασεν τον θεον λεγων οντως ο ανθρωπος ουτος δικαιος ην|
|48.||And all the multitude of them that were come together to that sight, and saw the things that were done, returned striking their breasts.||Et omnis turba eorum, qui simul aderant ad spectaculum istud, et videbant quæ fiebant, percutientes pectora sua revertebantur.||και παντες οι συμπαραγενομενοι οχλοι επι την θεωριαν ταυτην θεωρουντες τα γενομενα τυπτοντες εαυτων τα στηθη υπεστρεφον|
|49.||And all his acquaintance, and the women that had followed him from Galilee, stood afar off, beholding these things.||Stabant autem omnes noti ejus a longe, et mulieres, quæ secutæ eum erant a Galilæa, hæc videntes.||ειστηκεισαν δε παντες οι γνωστοι αυτου μακροθεν και γυναικες αι συνακολουθησασαι αυτω απο της γαλιλαιας ορωσαι ταυτα|
|50.||And behold there was a man named Joseph, who was a counsellor, a good and just man,||Et ecce vir nomine Joseph, qui erat decurio, vir bonus et justus :||και ιδου ανηρ ονοματι ιωσηφ βουλευτης υπαρχων ανηρ αγαθος και δικαιος|
|51.||(The same had not consented to their counsel and doings;) of Arimathea, a city of Judea; who also himself looked for the kingdom of God.||hic non consenserat consilio, et actibus eorum, ab Arimathæa civitate Judææ, qui exspectabat et ipse regnum Dei :||ουτος ουκ ην συγκατατεθειμενος τη βουλη και τη πραξει αυτων απο αριμαθαιας πολεως των ιουδαιων ος και προσεδεχετο και αυτος την βασιλειαν του θεου|
|52.||This man went to Pilate, and begged the body of Jesus.||hic accessit ad Pilatum et petiit corpus Jesu :||ουτος προσελθων τω πιλατω ητησατο το σωμα του ιησου|
|53.||And taking him down, he wrapped him in fine linen, and laid him in a sepulchre that was hewed in stone, wherein never yet any man had been laid.||et depositum involvit sindone, et posuit eum in monumento exciso, in quo nondum quisquam positus fuerat.||και καθελων αυτο ενετυλιξεν αυτο σινδονι και εθηκεν αυτο εν μνηματι λαξευτω ου ουκ ην ουδεπω ουδεις κειμενος|
|54.||And it was the day of the Parasceve, and the sabbath drew on.||Et dies erat parasceves, et sabbatum illucescebat.||και ημερα ην παρασκευη σαββατον επεφωσκεν|
|55.||And the women that were come with him from Galilee, following after, saw the sepulchre, and how his body was laid.||Subsecutæ autem mulieres, quæ cum eo venerant de Galilæa, viderunt monumentum, et quemadmodum positum erat corpus ejus.||κατακολουθησασαι δε γυναικες αιτινες ησαν συνεληλυθυιαι αυτω εκ της γαλιλαιας εθεασαντο το μνημειον και ως ετεθη το σωμα αυτου|
|56.||And returning, they prepared spices and ointments; and on the sabbath day they rested, according to the commandment.||Et revertentes paraverunt aromata, et unguenta : et sabbato quidem siluerunt secundum mandatum.||υποστρεψασαι δε ητοιμασαν αρωματα και μυρα και το μεν σαββατον ησυχασαν κατα την εντολην|
Pray for Pope Francis.
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