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Strongest Material Ever Found in Atom-Thick Carbyne Chains
Science World Report ^ | Oct 11, 2013

Posted on 10/12/2013 12:44:48 PM PDT by Straight Vermonter

The strongest material ever could be carbyne, atom-thick chains of carbon, according to theoretical calculations by Rice University Physicists. The big question is now if and when anyone can make it in bulk.

Carbyne is a chain of carbon atoms held together by either double or alternating single and triple atomic bonds. That makes it a true one-dimensional material, unlike atom-thin sheets of graphene, which have a top and a bottom, or hollow nanotubes, which have an inside and outside.

These carbyne nanorods or nanoropes, if they can be made, would have a host of remarkable and useful properties, as described in a new paper by Rice University theoretical physicist Boris Yakobson and his group:

Carbyne’s tensile strength — the ability to withstand stretching — surpasses “that of any other known material” and is double that of graphene. (Scientists have calculated it would take an elephant on a pencil to break through a sheet of graphene.) It has twice the tensile stiffness of graphene and carbon nanotubes and nearly three times that of diamond. Stretching carbyne as little as 10 percent alters its electronic band gap significantly. If outfitted with molecular handles at the ends, it can also be twisted to alter its band gap. With a 90-degree end-to-end rotation, it becomes a magnetic semiconductor. Carbyne chains can take on side molecules that may make the chains suitable for energy storage. The material is stable at room temperature, largely resisting crosslinks with nearby chains.

“You could look at it as an ultimately thin graphene ribbon, reduced to just one atom, or an ultimately thin nanotube,” Yakobson said.. It could be useful for nanomechanical systems, in spintronic devices, as sensors, as strong and light materials for mechanical applications, or for energy storage.

Based on the calculations, he said carbyne might be the highest energy state for stable carbon.

Theories about carbyne first appeared in the 19th century, and an approximation of the material was first synthesized in the USSR in 1960. Carbyne has since been seen in compressed graphite, has been detected in interstellar dust, and has been created in small quantities by experimentalists.

Yakobson said the researchers were surprised to find that the band gap in carbyne was so sensitive to twisting. “It will be useful as a sensor for torsion or magnetic fields, if you can find a way to attach it to something that will make it twist,” he said.

Another finding of great interest was the energy barrier that keeps atoms on adjacent carbyne chains from collapsing into each other. “When you’re talking about theoretical material, you always need to be careful to see if it will react with itself,” Artyukhov said. “This has never really been investigated for carbyne.”

Rice University researchers have determined from first-principle calculations that carbyne would be the strongest material yet discovered. The carbon-atom chains would be difficult to make but would be twice as strong as two-dimensional graphene sheets. The literature seemed to indicate carbyne “was not stable and would form graphite or soot,” he said. Instead, the researchers found carbon atoms on separate strings might overcome the barrier in one spot, but the rods’ stiffness would prevent them from coming together in a second location, at least at room temperature.

“Bundles might stick to each other, but they wouldn’t collapse completely,” Yakobson added. “That could make for a highly porous, random net that may be good for adsorption.”

Rice graduate student Fangbo Xu and former postdoctoral researcher Hoonkyung Lee, now a professor at Konkuk University in South Korea, are co-authors of the paper. Yakobson is Rice’s Karl F. Hasselmann Professor of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, a professor of chemistry and a member of the Richard E. Smalley Institute for Nanoscale Science and Technology.

The Air Force Office of Scientific Research and the Welch Foundation supported the research. Calculations were performed on the National Science Foundation-supported DaVinCI supercomputer, administered by Rice’s Ken Kennedy Institute for Information Technology.

Reference:

Mingjie Liu et al., Carbyne from First Principles: Chain of C Atoms, a Nanorod or a Nanorope, ACS Nano, 2013, DOI: 10.1021/nn404177r


TOPICS: Science
KEYWORDS: carbyne; graphene; stringtheory
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1 posted on 10/12/2013 12:44:48 PM PDT by Straight Vermonter
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To: Straight Vermonter

Maybe I will finally get my space elevator.


2 posted on 10/12/2013 12:46:36 PM PDT by Straight Vermonter (Posting from deep behind the Maple Curtain)
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To: Straight Vermonter

Maybe, finally, I can get a jock strap that works.


3 posted on 10/12/2013 12:46:44 PM PDT by Jack Hammer (American)
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To: Straight Vermonter

I thought it was unobtainium.


4 posted on 10/12/2013 12:49:55 PM PDT by Tula Git (There IS a coup in America and it's on track and almost complete.)
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To: Straight Vermonter

You know everything you buy will be packaged in this stuff. Try to get that open.


5 posted on 10/12/2013 12:50:31 PM PDT by Starstruck (If my reply offends, you probably don't understand sarcasm or criticism...or do.)
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To: Straight Vermonter
With a 90-degree end-to-end rotation, it becomes a magnetic semiconductor.

Replacement for transistors? Only if better, faster and more heat-resistant.

6 posted on 10/12/2013 12:51:16 PM PDT by jeffc (The U.S. media are our enemy)
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To: Straight Vermonter
Carbyne is a chain of carbon atoms held together by either double or alternating single and triple atomic bonds. That makes it a true one-dimensional material...

Maybe that's what they implanted in Obama's brain!


7 posted on 10/12/2013 12:52:23 PM PDT by COBOL2Java (I'm a Christian, pro-life, pro-gun, Reaganite. The GOP hates me. Why should I vote for them?)
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To: Straight Vermonter

I don’t care what anyone says there ain’t no such thing as a one dimensional chain of anything.Theoretical physicists and their mental masturbatory dreams be damned.


8 posted on 10/12/2013 12:53:26 PM PDT by Cyman (kes the life out of them as they are in the throwsof mutual passion.)
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To: Straight Vermonter
That makes it a true one-dimensional material

That would make it a *point object*, don't think so.

9 posted on 10/12/2013 12:55:03 PM PDT by The Cajun (Sarah Palin, Mark Levin, Ted Cruz......Nuff said.)
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To: Cyman

Not literally one dimensional but about the closest thing possible in the physical world.


10 posted on 10/12/2013 12:55:09 PM PDT by Straight Vermonter (Posting from deep behind the Maple Curtain)
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To: Starstruck

It will become the packaging.


11 posted on 10/12/2013 12:55:49 PM PDT by Jonty30 (What Islam and secularism have in common is that they are both death cults)
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To: Starstruck

I’ll be dead before Graphene is used,now there talking Carbyne,I’ll stick with Duct Tape;)


12 posted on 10/12/2013 1:00:40 PM PDT by mdittmar
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To: Straight Vermonter

great stuff!


13 posted on 10/12/2013 1:00:47 PM PDT by dadfly
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To: The Cajun

One dimension is a line not a point.


14 posted on 10/12/2013 1:01:30 PM PDT by Straight Vermonter (Posting from deep behind the Maple Curtain)
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To: Straight Vermonter

Light weight bullet proof vest?


15 posted on 10/12/2013 1:02:16 PM PDT by Kent1957
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To: Kent1957
Light weight bullet proof vest?

I'm always amazed at how people with different perspectives look at a new technology. That never occurred to me.

16 posted on 10/12/2013 1:06:27 PM PDT by Straight Vermonter (Posting from deep behind the Maple Curtain)
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To: Straight Vermonter

Densest material known to Man.

17 posted on 10/12/2013 1:06:49 PM PDT by martin_fierro (< |:)~)
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To: Straight Vermonter

Sounds like a Sinclair molecule chain.


18 posted on 10/12/2013 1:07:37 PM PDT by philetus (Keep doing what you always do and you'll eventually get what you deserve)
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To: Kent1957
The vest was my first thought. But also the opposite -- some science fiction discusses a weapon created through a mono-molecular sword. It's basically a strong, impossibly thin weapon which simply slices through anything at all.

As a sheet, this stuff could stop any bullet.
As a string, it could cut a steel girder (perhaps).

19 posted on 10/12/2013 1:08:22 PM PDT by ClearCase_guy (21st century. I'm not a fan.)
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To: ClearCase_guy
It's basically a strong, impossibly thin weapon which simply slices through anything at all.

In "Fountains of Paradise" Arthur C. Clarke used the idea of a super-thin, super-strong material that could be used to create a space elevator. At one point the man who wanted to build the elevator slices him thumb off with it.

20 posted on 10/12/2013 1:13:05 PM PDT by Straight Vermonter (Posting from deep behind the Maple Curtain)
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To: Kent1957
Light weight bullet proof vest?

It might prevent the bullet pentetratation, but it's not going to do anything to dissipate kinetic energy.

21 posted on 10/12/2013 1:15:03 PM PDT by tacticalogic ("Oh, bother!" said Pooh, as he chambered his last round.)
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To: Kent1957

Carbyne coated aluminum gun barrels?


22 posted on 10/12/2013 1:17:48 PM PDT by 353FMG ( I don't say whether I am serious or sarcastic -- I respect FReepers too much.)
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To: Straight Vermonter

“Carbyne’s tensile strength — the ability to withstand stretching ....”

That’s an overly-simplified statement. The tensile strength of a material is the maximum amount of tensile stress (pulling force) it can withstand before failure. Some materials are ductile (stretch under tension), others are brittle (don’t stretch before breaking). A ductile material may have the same tensile strength as a brittle material — it would just stretch a lot more before failure. I won’t mention modulus of elasticity.


23 posted on 10/12/2013 1:24:49 PM PDT by USFRIENDINVICTORIA
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To: Straight Vermonter

“Maybe I will finally get my space elevator.”

That would be a game-changing application.


24 posted on 10/12/2013 1:26:01 PM PDT by USFRIENDINVICTORIA
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To: USFRIENDINVICTORIA

The writer is but an ignorati...... trying to enlighten others ofhis ilk.

He also thinks concrete is cement


25 posted on 10/12/2013 1:27:05 PM PDT by bert ((K.E. N.P. N.C. +12 ..... Travon... Felony assault and battery hate crime)
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To: Straight Vermonter

I just want to see that elephant on a pencil.


26 posted on 10/12/2013 1:29:59 PM PDT by mkmensinger
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To: mdittmar
I’ll stick with Duct Tape

By George....someone who actually knows the correct spelling of the term! I thought I was the only one left :-)

27 posted on 10/12/2013 1:36:50 PM PDT by Windflier (To anger a conservative, tell him a lie. To anger a liberal, tell him the truth.)
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To: Straight Vermonter

This is a big reason not to despair about the future: technology changes everything.


28 posted on 10/12/2013 1:37:05 PM PDT by MUDDOG
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To: Straight Vermonter

Is this a workable material?

Looking for a hollow sphere, 1 mm or so, with a number (probably less tnan a dozen) nanothickness spikes.


29 posted on 10/12/2013 1:38:34 PM PDT by Hardraade (http://junipersec.wordpress.com/2013/10/04/nicolae-hussein-obama/)
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To: ClearCase_guy

It’s basically a strong, impossibly thin weapon which simply slices through anything at all.


Does your vorpal blade go “Snicker-Snack?”


30 posted on 10/12/2013 1:39:57 PM PDT by Rides_A_Red_Horse (Why do you need a fire extinguisher when you can call the fire department?)
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To: 353FMG

I’ll trade you a sack full of Higgs Bosons for two of those.


31 posted on 10/12/2013 1:41:36 PM PDT by Hugh the Scot
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To: Straight Vermonter

From the article: “Scientists have calculated it would take an elephant on a pencil to break through a sheet of graphene...”

I apologize for my fellow physicists. Apparently, in all that excitement, they forgot to calculate the piss-poor compressive strength of a pencil...

Cheers!


32 posted on 10/12/2013 1:43:15 PM PDT by DoctorBulldog (I can't be a racist because, I can't stand Biden and Pelosi, either!)
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To: 353FMG

I’ll trade you a sack full of Higgs Bosons for two of those.


33 posted on 10/12/2013 1:43:26 PM PDT by Hugh the Scot
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To: Tula Git

Unobtanium? Is that a Green Lantern animated series reference?


34 posted on 10/12/2013 1:46:21 PM PDT by Personal Responsibility (Government: Slimy used car salesmen writing laws forcing you to buy their cars)
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To: martin_fierro

Winner!


35 posted on 10/12/2013 1:47:18 PM PDT by Personal Responsibility (Government: Slimy used car salesmen writing laws forcing you to buy their cars)
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To: Straight Vermonter
Existing carbine


36 posted on 10/12/2013 1:47:36 PM PDT by bert ((K.E. N.P. N.C. +12 ..... Travon... Felony assault and battery hate crime)
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To: Straight Vermonter
One dimension is a line not a point.

True that, my mistake.

Was thinking a little too small :)
Guess, paraphrasing what you said, it would be as close as you could get to a 1 dimensional object composed of atoms in the real world.

37 posted on 10/12/2013 1:48:01 PM PDT by The Cajun (Sarah Palin, Mark Levin, Ted Cruz......Nuff said.)
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To: Straight Vermonter

Not literally one dimensional but about the closest thing possible in the physical world.

In quantum physics, dimensions one atom thick are comparable to the proportional dimensions of the known universe


38 posted on 10/12/2013 1:50:34 PM PDT by Cyman (kes the life out of them as they are in the throwsof mutual passion.)
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To: Straight Vermonter

Just pulling your carbyne chain


39 posted on 10/12/2013 1:52:41 PM PDT by Cyman (kes the life out of them as they are in the throwsof mutual passion.)
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To: 353FMG

gun barrels? I didn’t see anything about abrasion resistance so I’m guessing we just have to look around for the guys with the blacky fingers to figger out who’s been playing with the graphite. So far it looks like a coating with no thickness would be good for one shot and a 911 call. One of those deals where your wife punches the 9 and the 1 and waits for the shot to punch the the other 1.


40 posted on 10/12/2013 1:58:18 PM PDT by cherokee1 (skip the names---just kick the buttz)
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To: Straight Vermonter
Carbine?


41 posted on 10/12/2013 2:00:30 PM PDT by llevrok (Democrats are LAW-LESS because the GOP is Ball-Less)
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To: ClearCase_guy; philetus
The vest was my first thought. But also the opposite -- some science fiction discusses a weapon created through a mono-molecular sword. It's basically a strong, impossibly thin weapon which simply slices through anything at all.

Larry Niven had stuff like that in several stories. Stiffened by a force field, it's a sword. Flexible, it can be used to cut through things if you have a handle on each end (or a weight on one end which allows you to swing it).

42 posted on 10/12/2013 2:04:21 PM PDT by PapaBear3625 (You don't notice it's a police state until the police come for you.)
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To: llevrok; bert

I have a couple. Dad carried one in the pacific during WW 2. Good for small Japanese in jungle clothing. Did not work as well on bigger N Koreans and ChiComs with heavy quilted coats.

I like em. Lot of fun to plink with.


43 posted on 10/12/2013 2:06:30 PM PDT by Vaquero ( Don't pick a fight with an old guy. If he is too old to fight, he'll just kill you.)
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To: 353FMG
Carbyne coated aluminum gun barrels?

Fiberglass is a strong material made by putting very thin fibers of glass in a plastic resin matrix.

How strong might steel become if a given amount of Carbyne was mixed in?

44 posted on 10/12/2013 2:09:31 PM PDT by PapaBear3625 (You don't notice it's a police state until the police come for you.)
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To: 6SJ7; AdmSmith; AFPhys; Arkinsaw; allmost; aristotleman; autumnraine; backwoods-engineer; ...

Thanks Straight Vermonter.
carbyne, atom-thick chains of carbon

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45 posted on 10/12/2013 4:09:09 PM PDT by SunkenCiv (It's no coincidence that some "conservatives" echo the hard left.)
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To: Cyman
there ain’t no such thing as a one dimensional chain of anything.

Henry Kroto, winner of the noble prize for the discovery of fullerenes writes: "common (chemical) sense suggests that any attempt to condense a pure linear sp -carbon chain into a solid will result in an explosion as the chains, if they get close, will crosslink exothermically."

The claim is based upon a computer calculation, not a measurement of the properties of a real material synthesized in the laboratory.

46 posted on 10/12/2013 4:28:32 PM PDT by AndyJackson
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To: philetus

Niven came up with some great uses for it too.


47 posted on 10/12/2013 4:41:02 PM PDT by Harold Shea (RVN `70 - `71)
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To: Personal Responsibility
Unobtanium? Is that a Green Lantern animated series reference?

Actually, it was the super duper mineral the fought over in Avatar.

It's also the substance they found when they biopsied a part of AlGore's brain looking for brain matter.

48 posted on 10/12/2013 4:48:12 PM PDT by Tula Git (There IS a coup in America and it's on track and almost complete.)
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To: Straight Vermonter

one atom thin... and you can put handles on it?

it’d cut thru anything


49 posted on 10/12/2013 5:19:30 PM PDT by sten (fighting tyranny never goes out of style)
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To: Cyman
I don’t care what anyone says there ain’t no such thing as a one dimensional chain of anything.

Pffft, you haven't been listening to zer0bama or dim-bulb-biden for the last 5 years.

50 posted on 10/12/2013 6:42:32 PM PDT by theymakemesick (Please join the corpse, please!)
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