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Strongest Material Ever Found in Atom-Thick Carbyne Chains
Science World Report ^ | Oct 11, 2013

Posted on 10/12/2013 12:44:48 PM PDT by Straight Vermonter

The strongest material ever could be carbyne, atom-thick chains of carbon, according to theoretical calculations by Rice University Physicists. The big question is now if and when anyone can make it in bulk.

Carbyne is a chain of carbon atoms held together by either double or alternating single and triple atomic bonds. That makes it a true one-dimensional material, unlike atom-thin sheets of graphene, which have a top and a bottom, or hollow nanotubes, which have an inside and outside.

These carbyne nanorods or nanoropes, if they can be made, would have a host of remarkable and useful properties, as described in a new paper by Rice University theoretical physicist Boris Yakobson and his group:

Carbyne’s tensile strength — the ability to withstand stretching — surpasses “that of any other known material” and is double that of graphene. (Scientists have calculated it would take an elephant on a pencil to break through a sheet of graphene.) It has twice the tensile stiffness of graphene and carbon nanotubes and nearly three times that of diamond. Stretching carbyne as little as 10 percent alters its electronic band gap significantly. If outfitted with molecular handles at the ends, it can also be twisted to alter its band gap. With a 90-degree end-to-end rotation, it becomes a magnetic semiconductor. Carbyne chains can take on side molecules that may make the chains suitable for energy storage. The material is stable at room temperature, largely resisting crosslinks with nearby chains.

“You could look at it as an ultimately thin graphene ribbon, reduced to just one atom, or an ultimately thin nanotube,” Yakobson said.. It could be useful for nanomechanical systems, in spintronic devices, as sensors, as strong and light materials for mechanical applications, or for energy storage.

Based on the calculations, he said carbyne might be the highest energy state for stable carbon.

Theories about carbyne first appeared in the 19th century, and an approximation of the material was first synthesized in the USSR in 1960. Carbyne has since been seen in compressed graphite, has been detected in interstellar dust, and has been created in small quantities by experimentalists.

Yakobson said the researchers were surprised to find that the band gap in carbyne was so sensitive to twisting. “It will be useful as a sensor for torsion or magnetic fields, if you can find a way to attach it to something that will make it twist,” he said.

Another finding of great interest was the energy barrier that keeps atoms on adjacent carbyne chains from collapsing into each other. “When you’re talking about theoretical material, you always need to be careful to see if it will react with itself,” Artyukhov said. “This has never really been investigated for carbyne.”

Rice University researchers have determined from first-principle calculations that carbyne would be the strongest material yet discovered. The carbon-atom chains would be difficult to make but would be twice as strong as two-dimensional graphene sheets. The literature seemed to indicate carbyne “was not stable and would form graphite or soot,” he said. Instead, the researchers found carbon atoms on separate strings might overcome the barrier in one spot, but the rods’ stiffness would prevent them from coming together in a second location, at least at room temperature.

“Bundles might stick to each other, but they wouldn’t collapse completely,” Yakobson added. “That could make for a highly porous, random net that may be good for adsorption.”

Rice graduate student Fangbo Xu and former postdoctoral researcher Hoonkyung Lee, now a professor at Konkuk University in South Korea, are co-authors of the paper. Yakobson is Rice’s Karl F. Hasselmann Professor of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, a professor of chemistry and a member of the Richard E. Smalley Institute for Nanoscale Science and Technology.

The Air Force Office of Scientific Research and the Welch Foundation supported the research. Calculations were performed on the National Science Foundation-supported DaVinCI supercomputer, administered by Rice’s Ken Kennedy Institute for Information Technology.

Reference:

Mingjie Liu et al., Carbyne from First Principles: Chain of C Atoms, a Nanorod or a Nanorope, ACS Nano, 2013, DOI: 10.1021/nn404177r


TOPICS: Science
KEYWORDS: carbyne; graphene; stringtheory
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1 posted on 10/12/2013 12:44:48 PM PDT by Straight Vermonter
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To: Straight Vermonter

Maybe I will finally get my space elevator.


2 posted on 10/12/2013 12:46:36 PM PDT by Straight Vermonter (Posting from deep behind the Maple Curtain)
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To: Straight Vermonter

Maybe, finally, I can get a jock strap that works.


3 posted on 10/12/2013 12:46:44 PM PDT by Jack Hammer (American)
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To: Straight Vermonter

I thought it was unobtainium.


4 posted on 10/12/2013 12:49:55 PM PDT by Tula Git (There IS a coup in America and it's on track and almost complete.)
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To: Straight Vermonter

You know everything you buy will be packaged in this stuff. Try to get that open.


5 posted on 10/12/2013 12:50:31 PM PDT by Starstruck (If my reply offends, you probably don't understand sarcasm or criticism...or do.)
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To: Straight Vermonter
With a 90-degree end-to-end rotation, it becomes a magnetic semiconductor.

Replacement for transistors? Only if better, faster and more heat-resistant.

6 posted on 10/12/2013 12:51:16 PM PDT by jeffc (The U.S. media are our enemy)
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To: Straight Vermonter
Carbyne is a chain of carbon atoms held together by either double or alternating single and triple atomic bonds. That makes it a true one-dimensional material...

Maybe that's what they implanted in Obama's brain!


7 posted on 10/12/2013 12:52:23 PM PDT by COBOL2Java (I'm a Christian, pro-life, pro-gun, Reaganite. The GOP hates me. Why should I vote for them?)
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To: Straight Vermonter

I don’t care what anyone says there ain’t no such thing as a one dimensional chain of anything.Theoretical physicists and their mental masturbatory dreams be damned.


8 posted on 10/12/2013 12:53:26 PM PDT by Cyman (kes the life out of them as they are in the throwsof mutual passion.)
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To: Straight Vermonter
That makes it a true one-dimensional material

That would make it a *point object*, don't think so.

9 posted on 10/12/2013 12:55:03 PM PDT by The Cajun (Sarah Palin, Mark Levin, Ted Cruz......Nuff said.)
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To: Cyman

Not literally one dimensional but about the closest thing possible in the physical world.


10 posted on 10/12/2013 12:55:09 PM PDT by Straight Vermonter (Posting from deep behind the Maple Curtain)
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To: Starstruck

It will become the packaging.


11 posted on 10/12/2013 12:55:49 PM PDT by Jonty30 (What Islam and secularism have in common is that they are both death cults)
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To: Starstruck

I’ll be dead before Graphene is used,now there talking Carbyne,I’ll stick with Duct Tape;)


12 posted on 10/12/2013 1:00:40 PM PDT by mdittmar
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To: Straight Vermonter

great stuff!


13 posted on 10/12/2013 1:00:47 PM PDT by dadfly
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To: The Cajun

One dimension is a line not a point.


14 posted on 10/12/2013 1:01:30 PM PDT by Straight Vermonter (Posting from deep behind the Maple Curtain)
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To: Straight Vermonter

Light weight bullet proof vest?


15 posted on 10/12/2013 1:02:16 PM PDT by Kent1957
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To: Kent1957
Light weight bullet proof vest?

I'm always amazed at how people with different perspectives look at a new technology. That never occurred to me.

16 posted on 10/12/2013 1:06:27 PM PDT by Straight Vermonter (Posting from deep behind the Maple Curtain)
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To: Straight Vermonter

Densest material known to Man.

17 posted on 10/12/2013 1:06:49 PM PDT by martin_fierro (< |:)~)
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To: Straight Vermonter

Sounds like a Sinclair molecule chain.


18 posted on 10/12/2013 1:07:37 PM PDT by philetus (Keep doing what you always do and you'll eventually get what you deserve)
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To: Kent1957
The vest was my first thought. But also the opposite -- some science fiction discusses a weapon created through a mono-molecular sword. It's basically a strong, impossibly thin weapon which simply slices through anything at all.

As a sheet, this stuff could stop any bullet.
As a string, it could cut a steel girder (perhaps).

19 posted on 10/12/2013 1:08:22 PM PDT by ClearCase_guy (21st century. I'm not a fan.)
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To: ClearCase_guy
It's basically a strong, impossibly thin weapon which simply slices through anything at all.

In "Fountains of Paradise" Arthur C. Clarke used the idea of a super-thin, super-strong material that could be used to create a space elevator. At one point the man who wanted to build the elevator slices him thumb off with it.

20 posted on 10/12/2013 1:13:05 PM PDT by Straight Vermonter (Posting from deep behind the Maple Curtain)
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