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Scientists Put A Working Eyeball On A Tadpole's Tail
Popular Science ^ | 3/1/12 | Emily Elert

Posted on 03/01/2013 12:07:43 PM PST by LibWhacker

It turns out we seriously underestimated the central nervous system.

It's hard to say what's crazier: the fact that Tufts University researchers spent a year cutting out the tiny eyeballs of tadpole embryos and sticking them back on to the tadpoles' tails, or: the fact that, when they hatched, a few of the tadpoles COULD ACTUALLY SEE OUT OF THE EYES ON THEIR TAILS.

As you know, this is not the way vision is supposed to work--your eyeballs are supposed to be connected to a big fat nerve that carries incoming signals back to your brain, which combines the information from both your eyes into a 3D picture of the world in front of you. Without that direct link to the brain, your eyeballs are useless.

At least, that's the way scientists have thought about it for the last several centuries. But over the past few decades, experiments in animals and humans have repeatedly shown that the central nervous system--including the brain and spinal cord--is a lot more flexible and adaptable than people used to think it was. If one part of the brain gets damaged, for instance, the information that used to flow to the damaged sector is often re-routed, and another part of the brain takes on the job of processing it.

So these newer findings got the Tufts University researchers wondering: could the optic nerve really be the only route for incoming visual signals? And could a different part of the nervous system, like the nerves further down the spinal cord, process those signals on their own, without help from the brain?

Tadpoles, they realized, would be a good way to test this question: they would perform surgery at a time when the tadpoles were still developing, so that the transplanted eyes would have time to put down nerve roots that could potentially hook up to the rest of the tadpoles' nervous systems.

The surgeries were painstaking, but the researchers were able to successfully graft eyeballs onto the tails of over 200 tadpole embryos:

When the altered tadpoles hatched, the researchers went to work testing their subjects' vision. Here's the Journal of Experimental Biology's description of the experiment:

They placed their amphibious subjects in a well where half of the dish was illuminated with red light and the other half with blue light, which they inverted at regular intervals. During training sessions, whenever the tadpoles ventured into areas bathed in red light they received a little warning zap of electricity. After a break the tadpoles were tested to see whether they had learnt to associate the red light with electrical punishment and whether they would stick to the blue side of the dish.

While the blind tadpoles never developed a preference for one side of the dish or the other, seven of the tadpoles with transplanted eyes learned to stay in the blue light, demonstrating that they could see through their grafted eyes.

The question was, why only seven?

The answer turned out to have something to do with how the donor eyes sprouted nerves after the transplants. Since they'd labeled the donor eyes with red fluorescent protein, the researchers were able to image the tadpoles and compare the growth of their nerves. In half the subjects, the nerves hadn't grown at all, and in about a quarter of the others, the nerves had grown, but they'd ended up in the tadpoles' stomachs:

But in the other quarter of the subjects--31 tadpoles in total--the nerves extended all the way to the animals' spinal cords; six of the seven seeing tadpoles belonged to this group:

The researchers' findings seem to indicate that the neurons in the spinal cord are capable of doing at least some of the tasks as the brain. If that's true, scientists could someday exploit the spinal cord's smarts for a number of medical treatments, like restoring movement to paralyzed limbs.


TOPICS: Health/Medicine; Science
KEYWORDS: comeigor; eye; eyeball; madscientists; scientists; tadpole; tadpoles; tail; tufts; weirdscience; working
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Lots of pics at the source that I'm too lazy to post.
1 posted on 03/01/2013 12:07:55 PM PST by LibWhacker
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To: LibWhacker

Ah those crazy scientists again..what kind of shenanigans will they be up to next.


2 posted on 03/01/2013 12:12:56 PM PST by bkepley
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To: LibWhacker

I’m not sure how I feel about playing with tiny creatures and Mother nature. There are so many ways it could all go wrong.


3 posted on 03/01/2013 12:13:07 PM PST by lucky american (The Democrats will follow the big "D"even if it means going over a cliff.)
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To: lucky american

and the Tadpole is supposed to have the cognizance of rear view vision?


4 posted on 03/01/2013 12:22:50 PM PST by massgopguy (I owe everything to George Bailey)
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To: LibWhacker

It appears Mary Shelley was a prophet.


5 posted on 03/01/2013 12:24:06 PM PST by Bratch
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To: LibWhacker

Sounds like something out of H.P. Lovecraft.


6 posted on 03/01/2013 12:41:04 PM PST by eCSMaster (Palin was correct!)
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To: LibWhacker

That’s nothing. Democrats can put a mouth on their butt and lie out their ass.


7 posted on 03/01/2013 12:41:04 PM PST by GrandJediMasterYoda (Someday our schools will teach the difference between "lose" and "loose")
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To: LibWhacker

Let’s try this with people. New eyes on back of head. Teachers first - I always knew teachers had eyes on the back of their heads.


8 posted on 03/01/2013 12:43:55 PM PST by I want the USA back
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To: GrandJediMasterYoda

Thank God I had already swallowed that swig of beer before I read that! :-)


9 posted on 03/01/2013 12:44:00 PM PST by LibWhacker
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To: LibWhacker

LOL!!


10 posted on 03/01/2013 12:46:06 PM PST by GrandJediMasterYoda (Someday our schools will teach the difference between "lose" and "loose")
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To: LibWhacker

Nothing yet from PETA?


11 posted on 03/01/2013 12:50:20 PM PST by ken5050 ("One useless man is a shame, two are a law firm, three or more are a Congress".. John Adams)
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To: massgopguy

if that’s all they ever saw their entire life then yes

If you were born with working eyes on your hands you would not know that it was not normal to have them there


12 posted on 03/01/2013 1:06:03 PM PST by Mr. K (There are lies, damned lies, statistics, and democrat talking points.)
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To: LibWhacker

That’s nothing, my mother had eyes in the back of her head!


13 posted on 03/01/2013 1:41:07 PM PST by Kenton
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To: Kenton
my mother had eyes in the back of her head!

That seems to have been fairly common. I had teachers like that.

14 posted on 03/01/2013 1:54:55 PM PST by Alaska Wolf (I)
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To: Mr. K
If you were born with working eyes on your hands you would not know that it was not normal to have them there.

Correction. You would see with your hands that other saw with their heads. You would prove the superiority of your ability by seeing around corners and yourself without mirrors. Certainly you would be unique among your peers.

15 posted on 03/01/2013 2:14:20 PM PST by Louis Foxwell (Better the devil we can destroy than the Judas we must tolerate.)
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To: LibWhacker

The craziest part is someone taking money from working people to pay people to butcher tadpoles.

You would think the socialists could at least work to find effecient ways to waste money. But that would be work, and socialists don’t work.


16 posted on 03/01/2013 2:21:26 PM PST by American in Israel (A wise man's heart directs him to the right, but the foolish mans heart directs him toward the left.)
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To: Louis Foxwell

It would all work grand, till you shook someones hand.


17 posted on 03/01/2013 2:23:13 PM PST by American in Israel (A wise man's heart directs him to the right, but the foolish mans heart directs him toward the left.)
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To: LibWhacker

Watch out, the male contingency of the SSAD (same sex attraction disorder) group will be demanding this be included in their health care plan.

They could then see the point their entire world revolves around.


18 posted on 03/01/2013 2:25:48 PM PST by Wurlitzer (Nothing says "ignorance" like Islam!)
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To: LibWhacker

This sounds like a government funded project.


19 posted on 03/01/2013 2:52:16 PM PST by EricT. (The Second Amendment is Tyrant Control.)
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To: LibWhacker

I would rather see experiments done on liberals than on baby frogs.


20 posted on 03/01/2013 5:21:30 PM PST by SWAMPSNIPER (The Second Amendment, a Matter of Fact, Not a Matter of Opinion)
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