Since Dec 17, 2002

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"Whereas, in the absence of full compliance by Iraq with its resolutions, the U.N. Security Council in Resolution 678 has authorized member states of the United Nations to use all necessary means, after January 15, 1991, to uphold and implement all relevant Security Council resolutions and to restore international peace and security in the area; …The President is authorized, subject to subsection (b), to use United States Armed Forces pursuant to United Nations Security Council Resolution 678 (1990) in order to achieve implementation of Security Council Resolutions 660, 661, 662, 664, 665, 666, 667, 669, 670, 674, and 677" (Public Law 102-1)

"Resolution 687 required, as a precondition for a formal cease-fire, that Iraq officially notify the United Nations of its acceptance of the provisions of the resolution. These provisions included:
(1) respect for the international boundary as agreed between Iraq and Kuwait in 1963, which the Security Council guaranteed;
(2) the creation of a demilitarized zone along the Iraq-Kuwait border and the deployment of a U.N. observer unit into that zone;
(3) the destruction, removal, or rendering harmless of all chemical and biological weapons, ballistic missiles with a range greater than 150 kilometers, and nuclear-weapons-usable material, together with facilities related to them, and international supervision and inspection to verify compliance;
(4) the creation of a fund, drawn from future Iraqi oil revenues, to pay compensation for losses caused by the Iraqi invasion and occupation of Kuwait;
(5) the continuation of the embargo of all exports of arms to Iraq;
(6) the phased relaxation of certain other aspects of the U.N. sanctions against Iraq as Iraq complies with its obligations under the resolution; and
(7) the renunciation by Iraq of support for international terrorism."

Senate - February 12, 1998, IRAQ, [Congressional Record, Page S708]

Senate - July 30, 1998, USE OF FORCE ACT [Congressional Record, Page S9444]


Public Law No: 105-338, THE IRAQ LIBERATION ACT

Senator Durbin's press releases on attacks on Iraq:

Senator Levin's previous statements on Iraqi WMD

"That the President is authorized to use all necessary and appropriate force against those nations, organizations, or persons he determines planned, authorized, committed, or aided the terrorist attacks that occurred on September 11, 2001, or harbored such organizations or persons, in order to prevent any future acts of international terrorism against the United States by such nations, organizations or persons." (Public Law No: 107-40)

"The President is authorized to use the Armed Forces of the United States as he determines to be necessary and appropriate in order to—
    (1) defend the national security of the United States against the continuing threat posed by Iraq; and
    (2) enforce all relevant United Nations Security Council resolutions regarding Iraq." (Public Law 107-243)

Recalls, in that context, that the Council has repeatedly warned Iraq that it will face serious consequences as a result of its continued violations of its obligations; (UNSC Resolution 1441)

Iraq repeatedly has refused, over a protracted period of time, to respond to diplomatic overtures, economic sanctions and other peaceful means, designed to help bring about Iraqi compliance with its obligations to disarm and to permit full inspection of its weapons of mass destruction and related programmes. The actions that coalition forces are undertaking are an appropriate response. They are necessary steps to defend the United States and the international community from the threat posed by Iraq and to restore international peace and security in the area. Further delay would simply allow Iraq to continue its unlawful and threatening conduct. (Letter dated 20 March 2003 from the Permanent Representative of the United States of America to the United Nations addressed to the President of the Security Council)

Historical practice is also clear that a material breach by Iraq of the conditions for the cease-fire provides a basis for use of force. This was established as early as 1992. The United State, the UK and France have all used force against Iraq on a number of occasions over the past twelve years. Just last November, in resolution 1441, the Council unanimously decided that Iraq has been and remains in material breach of its obligation. 1441 then gave Iraq a "final opportunity" to comply, but stated specifically that violations of the obligations, including the obligation to cooperate fully, under 1441 would constitute a further material breach. Iraq has clearly committed such violations and, accordingly, the authority to use force to address Iraq's material breaches is clear. (Remarks of the Honorable William Howard Taft, IV Legal Adviser, U.S. Department of State Before the National Association of Attorneys General March 20, 2003)

The United States, the United Kingdom and Coalition partners recognize the urgent need to create an environment in which the Iraqi people may freely determine their own political future. To this end, the United States, the United Kingdom and Coalition partners are facilitating the efforts of the Iraqi people to take the first steps towards forming a representative government, based on the rule of law, that affords fundamental freedoms and equal protection and justice under law to the people of Iraq without regard to ethnicity, religion or gender. (May 8, 2003 Letter from the Permanent Representatives of the UK and the US to the UN addressed to the President of the Security Council)

Noting the letter of 8 May 2003 from the Permanent Representatives of the United States of America and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland to the President of the Security Council (S/2003/538) and recognizing the specific authorities, responsibilities, and obligations under applicable international law of these states as occupying powers under unified command (the “Authority”), (UNSC Resolution 1483)

Declassified Iraqi War Crimes

The "Experts" Speak

'Stupid' Intelligence

Running list of Iraq terrorism articles & more...

Saddam link to Bin Laden

Iraq-Bin Laden boat bomb link


Bin Laden and Iraq

Salman Pak and Sabah Khodada

US Government - Bin Laden and Iraq Agreed to Cooperate on Weapons Development

Who did it? Foreign Report presents an alternative view (Janes)

Freeper Resource: Sleuthing The Iraq-Bin Laden Connection (Redone)

Clinton-Era Reports Cited Saddam-bin Laden Ties

Judge Awards $104 Million in 9-11 Case - says plaintiff showed Iraq/Osama bin Laden/al-Qaida ties

France helped Iraq stymie opposition Documents also show link between Baghdad, bin Laden

IRAQ: I sweet-talked my way into dreaded intelligence HQ ( finding link to bin Laden )

Captured Iraqi spy reportedly met with bin Laden


Meanwhile, Saddam's secrets rise from the desert

French secret service 'kept CIA in the dark over Iraq and uranium'

Qusay Hussein coordinated Iraq special operations with bin Laden's terrorist activities


THE GREAT TERROR: In northern Iraq, there is new evidence of Saddam Hussein's genocidal war on the Kurds—and of his possible ties to Al Qaeda. (New Yorker)

Why Can't the CIA Keep Up with the New Yorker?

Khalid Sheikh Mohammed's Account Links 9/11 to '93 WTC Attack

About That Memo . . .

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