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Posts by PeterPrinciple

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  • Christians Are At War With One Another As Americans Leave The Church In Droves

    11/24/2015 6:16:17 PM PST · 124 of 126
    PeterPrinciple to terycarl

    Now wait a minute. If someone can go to heaven ignorant of Roman Catholic Doctrine then there is something else that gets them into heaven. What is it?

  • Biologists induce flatworms to grow heads and brains of other species

    11/24/2015 5:02:33 PM PST · 21 of 21
    PeterPrinciple to Red Badger

    The finding that head shape is not hard-wired by the genome but can be overridden by manipulating electrical synapses in the body suggests that differences in species could be determined in part by the activity of bioelectrical networks.

    and what does this tell us? There is no new genetic information. There are no mutations. There is genetic expression as we learned it in the good old days.........

    And what we use to determine species is pretty superficial.

  • Christians Are At War With One Another As Americans Leave The Church In Droves

    11/24/2015 1:50:53 PM PST · 120 of 126
    PeterPrinciple to terycarl

    Next question: Do only Roman Catholics go to heaven?

  • Christians Are At War With One Another As Americans Leave The Church In Droves

    11/24/2015 1:13:18 PM PST · 118 of 126
    PeterPrinciple to terycarl

    O.K., I’ll buy that...Christ founded a church....the Catholic church....if you reject it, you are rejecting Christ’s authority

    I have a question, are ALL Roman Catholics going to heaven?

  • 1855

    11/24/2015 12:34:11 PM PST · 150 of 153
    PeterPrinciple to EternalVigilance

    Lincoln’s “House Divided” speech

    I would assume that this was not a one time speech? Can you support that?

    It was said that Ronald Reagan gave essentially the same speech through out most of his political career?

  • 1855

    11/24/2015 12:28:31 PM PST · 149 of 153
    PeterPrinciple to EternalVigilance

    “philosophy of reform”

    That is the opening sentence you presented., There was a book that Frederick Douglass may have read as he traveled to England.


    Reform is one of those words that sounds good until you think about it. Mark Twain always helps:

    I have never known, in the case of any petty thief, of a reform that covered the whole ground, after he had once gotten habituated to the feel of the coin in another man’s pocket.
    - Letter to Seymour Eaton, 8 January 1906

    Nothing so needs reforming as other people’s habits.
    - Pudd’nhead Wilson

    The church is always trying to get other people to reform; it might not be a bad idea to reform itself a little, by way of example.
    - A Tramp Abroad

    Reflection is the beginning of reform. There can be no reform without reflection. If you don’t reflect when you commit a crime then that crime is of no use. It might just as well have been committed by someone else.
    - The Watermelon speech, 1907

    That desire which is in us all to better other people’s condition by having them think as we think.
    - What is Man

    In my early manhood and in middle life I used to vex myself with reforms every now and then. And I never had occasion to regret these divergencies for, whether the resulting deprivations were long or short, the rewarding pleasure which I got out of the vice when I returned to it always paid me for all that it cost.
    - Autobiography of Mark Twain

    You can straighten a worm, but the crook is in him and only waiting.
    - More Maxims of Mark, edited by Merle Johnson

    Whenever you find yourself on the side of the majority, it is time to reform (or pause and reflect).
    - Notebook, 1904

    I am jaded as I get older. The quote, “Slaves dream more of being master, than freedom” (which is from a movie I believe) keeps echoing in my head..................

  • 1855

    11/24/2015 7:52:10 AM PST · 140 of 153
    PeterPrinciple to EternalVigilance

    In my opinion, it will not cease, until a crisis shall have been reached, and passed.

    “A house divided against itself cannot stand.”

    I believe this government cannot endure, permanently half slave and half free.

    I do not expect the Union to be dissolved - I do not expect the house to fall - but I do expect it will cease to be divided.

    It will become all one thing or all the other.

    I probably have too much time to think. The above deserves much reflection. The essence of his message was:

    There is going to be a fight, there are going to be winners and losers, but after, we are going to be united again.

    From a Biblical perspective, Jesus came to divide, separate his sheep. He foretold there world be division and he would be the center of the division, the cause and the issue that would divide people. Our tender ears don’t like to hear that. How can He speech of dividing and also peace?

    Luk_12:51 Do you think I have come to bring peace to the earth? No, I have come to divide people against each other!

    As we approach the Christmas season, Many will quote the “peace on earth”. But all the other translation state it slightly differently which changes the meaning.

    Luk 2:14 “Glory to God in highest heaven, and peace on earth to those with whom God is pleased.”

    So, what is the takeaway? would it be first you have division and then peace, or first peace and then division?

    I think Lincoln was very well grounded in his faith (not perfect like us/s) He saw a truth here and didn’t back away from it or change it. He was Honest Abe, said what he meant and meant what he said (how rare today)

    Maybe we should be saying the same today. When we encounter liberals, we might say there is going to be a fight this, a house divided cannot stand.

  • Muslim hoaxer 'Clock Kid' Ahmed Mohamed wants $15 million, written apologies

    11/24/2015 5:49:44 AM PST · 66 of 74
    PeterPrinciple to Trumpinator

    This one would be a good one to go to court with. Lets shine the light..........................

  • 1855

    11/23/2015 6:20:08 PM PST · 136 of 153
    PeterPrinciple to Homer_J_Simpson

    Letter requesting ministers petition Congress against passing the Kansas-Nebraska Bill

    Perception of separation of church and state was different before income tax was established.



    Dear Brethren:

    Upon another page you find a Protest which explains itself. It is sent simultaneously to every Clergyman of every name in New England. It is earnestly hoped that every one of you will append your name to it, and thus furnish to this nation and this age the sublime and influential spectacle of the great Christian body of the North united, as one man, in favor of freedom and of solemn plighted faith. It can hardly be doubted, that if this Protest can go immediately to Washington, carrying upon it the names of the entire Clergy of New England, it will exert there a moral influence of incalculable weight—possibly, in connection with other influences—sufficient in the good Providence of God, to avert the impending evil.

    Permit us, then, to commend the following suggestions to your notice, and, so far as they agree with your own convictions, to your immediate action.

    1. Please tear off, sign, fold, seal and return to us this annexed Protest BY THE NEXT MAIL to this city, directed to “Rev. John Jackson, Boston, Mass.” He will combine all the answers received into one great Protest, which will be immediately forwarded to Congress.

    If you have already—either as a private citizen or as a clergyman—signed any other similar document, PLEASE SIGN THIS ALSO; as it is earnestly desired to embrace in this movement (as far as possible,) the unanimous clerical voice of New England.

    2. If deemed judicious, please exert your influence to get up and send immediately on to your Representative in the House, a similar protest from your own neighborhood. It is believed that a great number of such protests—even if less than one hundred legal voters should sign each one—will be of great consequence in indicating the general arousal of the slumbering sentiment of the North, on this fearfully important subject.

    3. It is respectfully submitted whether the present is not a crisis of sufficient magnitude and imminence of danger to the liberties and integrity of our nation, to warrant and even demand the services of the clergy of all denominations in arousing the masses of the people to its comprehension, through the Press and even the Pulpit.

    4. It is affectionately urged that it find frequent remembrance in all Christian supplications to Him who holds the hearts of all rulers in his hand, and, as the rivers of water, can turn them whithersoever He will.

    Affectionately yours,

    Boston, February 22, 1854.

  • 1855

    11/23/2015 6:11:44 PM PST · 135 of 153
    PeterPrinciple to DBrow

    From your source. Hadn’t realized there was a lot of action beyond just political. There were a lot of grass roots movement.


    This article, published in De Bow’s Review in May of 1854 and written by the Lafayette Emigration Society, was a call to southerners to emigrate to the Kansas territory, particularly those who owned slaves or could vote. Just as northern groups, such as the New England Emigrant Aid Company, sought to send free-soil immigrants to the Kansas territory in order to establish numerical and moral superiority in the territories by importing, as it were, numerous people from Massachusetts and New England, their southern counterparts sought to bring in enough southerners, slaveholders, and slaves to firmly establish slavery in the territory.

    De Bow’s Review was a periodical of “agricultural, commercial, and industrial progress and resources” established in New Orleans in 1846 by James D. B. De Bow (1820-1867). Its articles, largely written by De Bow himself, covered a range of topics including planting and agricultural reform, economics, and politics, all with a heavy emphasis on the South. From 1853 to 1857 he moved the headquarters of the periodical to Washington, D.C., where he was serving as superintendent of the U.S. Census. During this period, his sectionalist arguments in the Review became more fervent and frequent. By the outbreak of the Civil War, De Bow’s Review was the most widely circulated Southern periodical.

    This particular article was published while the Kansas-Nebraska Act was still being debated in Congress, but was already anticipating the increasing tension that would result from the adoption of popular sovereignty. By bringing into Kansas as many southerners and slaveholders who could vote as possible, they hoped to have a solid southern population by the time of the fall elections.

  • 1855

    11/23/2015 5:36:52 PM PST · 134 of 153
    PeterPrinciple to Homer_J_Simpson

    History of the Transcontinental Railroad

    The Railroad has a very interesting part in the Civil War.


    The Route

    None of the bills passed, because a route could not be decided on. Congress was split along geographical lines; northerners wanted a northern route and southerners wanted a southern route. This was because of the issue of slavery in the “New West” [Howard 57]. Since the “New West” really was new, there really wasn’t any slavery there yet. Congress was split over whether slavery should be permitted at all in these new states.

    The railroad surveying teams finished in autumn of 1854. The results of their research was reviewed by the Secretary of War, Jefferson Davis of Mississippi. He concluded that the southern route, running through the newly purchased Gadsden lands, would be the most cost-effective [Howard 84]. Jefferson Davis, of course, who went on to become the president of the Confederate States of America after the secession, had vested Southern interests.

    Because of the bad blood involved, no action was taken on his decision; votes taken went against funding the Southern route, because of the split in Congress between Northern and Southern interests. Then, in 1861, the Southern congressmen left Congress as a precursor to Southern secession, whereupon action and funding progressed immediately to begin work on the Northern route. The North’s final decision on a route, the central route through Nebraska, hinged greatly on analyses of how use of the Railroad would impact the impending Civil War, which had just broken out [Gordon 151].

  • 1855

    11/23/2015 5:29:46 PM PST · 133 of 153
    PeterPrinciple to Homer_J_Simpson

    1954 is an interesting year also:


    two black colleges started.

    republican party started.

    Admiral Perry opens Japan for trade.

    first Lincoln speech?

    several boat wrecks

  • 1855

    11/23/2015 4:59:41 PM PST · 132 of 153
    PeterPrinciple to Homer_J_Simpson

    1855 - US Congress approves $30,000 to test camels for military use

    I think most of us have heard the camel story but there is an interesting twist regarding the civil war. It would appear that Jefferson Davis was a proponent but once he left for another job, the idea began to decline.


    Among the reasons the camel experiment failed was that it was supported by Jefferson Davis, who left the United States to become a rebel and President of the Confederate States of America that the U.S. Army was a horse and mule organization whose soldiers did not have the skills to control a foreign asset.[4]


  • 1855

    11/23/2015 4:43:26 PM PST · 131 of 153
    PeterPrinciple to Homer_J_Simpson

    1855 - Isaac Singer patents sewing machine motor

    The sewing machine profits equipped an infantry regiment for the Union.


    However, Isaac Singer’s machine used the same lockstitch that Howe had patented. Elias Howe sued Isaac Singer for patent infringement and won in 1854. Walter Hunt’s sewing machine also used a lockstitch with two spools of thread and an eye-pointed needle; however, the courts upheld Howe’s patent since Hunt had abandoned his patent.
    If Hunt had patented his invention, Elias Howe would have lost his case and Isaac Singer would have won. Since he lost, Isaac Singer had to pay Elias Howe patent royalties. As a side note: In 1844, Englishmen John Fisher received a patent for a lace making machine that was identical enough to the machines made by Howe and Singer that if Fisher’s patent had not been lost in the patent office, John Fisher would also have been part of the patent battle.

    After successfully defending his right to a share in the profits of his invention, Elias Howe saw his annual income jump from three hundred to more than two hundred thousand dollars a year. Between 1854 and 1867, Howe earned close to two million dollars from his invention. During the Civil War, he donated a portion of his wealth to equip an infantry regiment for the Union Army and served in the regiment as a private.


    Howe contributed much of the money he earned to providing equipment for the 17th Connecticut Volunteer Infantry of the Union Army during the Civil War, in which Howe served as a Private in Company D. Due to his faltering health he performed light duty, often seen walking with the aid of his Shillelagh, and took on the position of Regimental Postmaster, serving out his time riding to and from Baltimore with war news. He’d enlisted August 14, 1862, and then mustered out July 19, 1865.[6][7]

  • 1855

    11/22/2015 10:59:46 AM PST · 119 of 153
    PeterPrinciple to Homer_J_Simpson

    1855 - My Bondage and My Freedom, by Frederick Douglass

    This book is published in 1855. Deserves a read if we are to understand the times.


  • 1855

    11/22/2015 7:19:29 AM PST · 103 of 153
    PeterPrinciple to EternalVigilance

    From your source:

    ............... The title reflects part of the speech’s introduction, “A house divided against itself cannot stand,” a concept familiar to Lincoln’s audience as a statement by Jesus recorded in all three synoptic gospels (Matthew, Mark, Luke).

    Even Lincoln’s friends regarded the speech as too radical for the occasion. His law partner, William H. Herndon, considered Lincoln as morally courageous but politically incorrect. Lincoln read the speech to him before delivering it, referring to the “house divided” language this way: “The proposition is indisputably true ... and I will deliver it as written. I want to use some universally known figure, expressed in simple language as universally known, that it may strike home to the minds of men in order to rouse them to the peril of the times.”

    The speech created many repercussions, giving Lincoln’s political opponent fresh ammunition. Herndon remarked, “when I saw Senator Douglas making such headway against Mr. Lincoln’s house divided speech I was nettled & irritable, and said to Mr. Lincoln one day this — ‘Mr. Lincoln — why in the world do you not say to Mr. Douglas, when he is making capitol out of your speech, — ‘Douglas why whine and complain to me because of that speech. I am not the author of it. God is. Go and whine and complain to Him for its revelation, and utterance.’ Mr. Lincoln looked at me one short quizzical moment, and replied ‘I can’t.’”

    A few thoughts:

    1) would anyone today recognize the source of the house divided?

    2) Why did Lincoln have a quizzical look and reply “I can’t”? (to a perfectly good, political response you and I would encourage him to say)

  • 1855

    11/22/2015 7:01:47 AM PST · 101 of 153
    PeterPrinciple to EternalVigilance

    In my opinion, it will not cease, until a crisis shall have been reached, and passed.

    “A house divided against itself cannot stand.”

    I believe this government cannot endure, permanently half slave and half free.

    I do not expect the Union to be dissolved - I do not expect the house to fall - but I do expect it will cease to be divided.

    It will become all one thing or all the other.

    Can we say that today? Have you heard it?

    In the rules of negotiation, you never want just one point. If negotiation comes to one point (like the price of the car) , then you have a winner and a loser. Our issues are too squishy yet.

    What will be the one issue that requires us to pick a side?

    gun rights?

  • 1855

    11/22/2015 6:46:37 AM PST · 98 of 153
    PeterPrinciple to PeterPrinciple

    The construction and completion of this bridge came to symbolize the larger issues affecting transcontinental commerce and sectional interests. (from the article on the Mississippi bridge in davenport Iowa.)

    The phrase “sectional interests” caught my eye. The growth in power of the federal government began the day we formed our country. It was slowed by many great men. I think the prelude to the civil war was an understanding that power was in Washington DC and that is what was being fought over. But again, not the only issue. There never is just one issue!

    The below regards 1890’s but it is something that was going on prior to the Civil War. And still is................


  • 1855

    11/22/2015 6:17:21 AM PST · 96 of 153
    PeterPrinciple to centurion316

    Claims Court

    An observation would be that as the more involved and active the federal govt became the more liabilities they subjected themselves to.

    So as more complaints arose from the people as to liabilities and process and congress got tired of things, they decided to form a committee. Consequences are separated from decisions for congress and they can do more mischief?

    Interesting that the vets of the Mexican American war brought it to a head?

  • 1855

    11/22/2015 6:07:14 AM PST · 95 of 153
    PeterPrinciple to EternalVigilance

    Wikipedia entry,

    yes, I try to select other sources, but the flavor of the times is there. There was great division then also.

    My current perception of the times with that there was a lot of power playing going on between the south and north. Slavery was part of the issue and the visible issue. There was much moral objection to slavery but also power and practical aspects. Nothing is pure.

    It appears the democrats wanted land expansion and the Whigs more technology?

    Lots of power players influence ; railroad, steamboat, etc.

    Lots of change which destabilizes everything. Very complicated times and very similar to today............

    If we follow this model maybe I should place another order with cheaper than dirt.

  • 1855

    11/21/2015 6:58:16 PM PST · 86 of 153
    PeterPrinciple to Homer_J_Simpson

    Mexican American War was the training ground for the Civil War Officers.


    Impacts on the American Civil War[edit]

    Engraving of young Grant in uniform

    Second lieutenant Ulysses S. Grant, one of the many officers in the U.S. Army in the U.S.-Mexican War to serve in the Civil War

    Many of the military leaders on both sides of the American Civil War were trained at the U.S. Military Academy at West Point and had fought as junior officers in Mexico. This list includes military men fighting for the Union: Ulysses S. Grant, George B. McClellan, William T. Sherman, George Meade, William Rosecrans, and Ambrose Burnside. Military men who joined the Southern secessionists of the Confederate States of America were Robert E. Lee, Stonewall Jackson, James Longstreet, Joseph E. Johnston, Braxton Bragg, Sterling Price, and the future Confederate President Jefferson Davis. Both sides had leaders with significant experience in active combat in strategy and tactics, likely shaping ways the Civil War conflict played out.

    President Ulysses S. Grant, who as a young army lieutenant had served in Mexico under General Taylor, recalled in his Memoirs, published in 1885, that:

    Generally, the officers of the army were indifferent whether the annexation was consummated or not; but not so all of them. For myself, I was bitterly opposed to the measure, and to this day regard the war, which resulted, as one of the most unjust ever waged by a stronger against a weaker nation. It was an instance of a republic following the bad example of European monarchies, in not considering justice in their desire to acquire additional territory.[165]

    Grant also expressed the view that the war against Mexico had brought punishment on the United States in the form of the American Civil War:

    The Southern rebellion was largely the outgrowth of the Mexican war. Nations, like individuals, are punished for their transgressions. We got our punishment in the most sanguinary and expensive war of modern times.[166]

    This view was shared by the philosopher Ralph Waldo Emerson, who towards the end of the war wrote that “The United States will conquer Mexico, but it will be as the man swallows the arsenic, which brings him down in turn. Mexico will poison us.”[167]

    “An Available Candidate: The One Qualification for a Whig President.” Political cartoon about the 1848 presidential election which refers to Zachary Taylor or Winfield Scott, the two leading contenders for the Whig Party nomination in the aftermath of the Mexican–American War. Published by Nathaniel Currier in 1848, digitally restored.
    Despite initial objections from the Whigs and abolitionists, the war would nevertheless unite the U.S. in a common cause and was fought almost entirely by volunteers. The army swelled from just over 6,000 to more than 115,000. The majority of 12-month volunteers in Scott’s army decided that a year’s fighting was enough and returned to the U.S.[168]

    Veterans of the war were often broken men. “As the sick and wounded from Taylor’s and Scott’s campaigns made their way back from Mexico to the United States, their condition shocked the folks at home. Husbands, sons, and brothers returned in broken health, some with missing limbs.”[169]

    For years afterward, U.S. veterans continued to suffer from the debilitating diseases contracted during the campaigns. The casualty rate was thus easily over 25% for the 17 months of the war; the total casualties may have reached 35–40% if later injury- and disease-related deaths are added.[citation needed] In this respect, the war was proportionately the most deadly in American military history.[citation needed] Overall, approximately 1.5% of U.S. soldiers were killed in the fighting and nearly 10% died of disease; another 12% were wounded or discharged because of disease, or both.[citation needed]

    During the war, political quarrels in the U.S. arose regarding the disposition of conquered Mexico. A brief “All-Mexico” movement urged annexation of the entire territory. Veterans of the war who had seen Mexico at first hand were unenthusiastic.[citation needed] Anti-slavery elements opposed that position and fought for the exclusion of slavery from any territory absorbed by the U.S.[170] In 1847 the House of Representatives passed the Wilmot Proviso, stipulating that none of the territory acquired should be open to slavery. The Senate avoided the issue, and a late attempt to add it to the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo was defeated.

    The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo was the result of Nicholas Trist’s unauthorized negotiations. It was approved by the U.S. Senate on March 10, 1848, and ratified by the Mexican Congress on May 25. Mexico’s cession of Alta California and Nuevo México and its recognition of U.S. sovereignty over all of Texas north of the Rio Grande formalized the addition of 1.2 million square miles (3.1 million km2) of territory to the United States. In return the U.S. agreed to pay $15 million and assumed the claims of its citizens against Mexico. A final territorial adjustment between Mexico and the U.S. was made by the Gadsden Purchase in 1853. The sale of this territory was a contributing factor in the final fall of Santa Anna in Mexico for having sold Mexican patrimony.

    As late as 1880, the “Republican Campaign Textbook” by the Republican Congressional Committee[171] described the war as “Feculent, reeking Corruption” and “one of the darkest scenes in our history—a war forced upon our and the Mexican people by the high-handed usurpations of Pres’t Polk in pursuit of territorial aggrandizement of the slave oligarchy.”

    The war was one of the most decisive events for the U.S. in the first half of the 19th century. While it marked a significant waypoint for the nation as a growing military power, it also served as a milestone especially within the U.S. narrative of Manifest Destiny. The resultant territorial gains set in motion many of the defining trends in American 19th-century history, particularly for the American West. The war did not resolve the issue of slavery in the U.S. but rather in many ways inflamed it, as potential westward expansion of the institution took an increasingly central and heated theme in national debates preceding the American Civil War. Furthermore, in doing much to extend the nation from coast to coast, the Mexican–American War was one step in the massive migrations to the West of Anglo Americans, which culminated in transcontinental railroads and the Indian wars later in the same century.

  • 1855

    11/21/2015 6:41:31 PM PST · 80 of 153
    PeterPrinciple to Homer_J_Simpson

    1855 - US Court of Claims forms for cases against government

    What claims were the Mexican American vets making against the govt?

    Now the Mexican American war is another rabbit hold to investigate regarding the civil war. Lincoln was agin it. lots of north south issues in it. that war caused lot of discussion on slavery.


    The Court of Claims was established in 1855 to adjudicate certain claims brought against the United States government by veterans of the Mexican–American War. Initially, the court met at Willard’s Hotel, from May to June of 1855, thereafter moving to the U.S. Capitol.[1] There, the court met in the Supreme Court’s chamber in the basement of the Capitol, until it was given its space to use.[1]

  • 1855

    11/21/2015 5:51:51 PM PST · 75 of 153
    PeterPrinciple to Homer_J_Simpson

    1855 - 1st train crosses Miss River’s 1st bridge, Rock Is Ill-Davenport Ia

    First time Lincoln and Jefferson Davis met as opponents? The railroad made for east/west transportation and reduced the South’s river transportation/power?


    The construction and completion of this bridge came to symbolize the larger issues affecting transcontinental commerce and sectional interests. Backers of a railroad across the country were divided between those who favored a northern route and those who advocated a southern one. The bridge also pitted steamboats against the railroads, and these disagreements were decided in the federal courts.

    Two notable players in the controversy surrounding the bridge were men who would later face each other on a grander stage: Abraham Lincoln and Jefferson Davis. Lincoln was the attorney for the bridge company in litigation brought by the steamship interests. Davis, as secretary of war, took an active role in the contest between northern and southern routes for a transcontinental railroad.

    During the 1850s, a struggle was going on in the Mississippi Valley between those who favored north-south traffic and those who advocated east-west travel across the continent. It was a contest between the old lines of migration and the new; between the South and the East; between the slow and cheap transportation by water and the rapid, but more expensive, transportation by rail. It arrayed St. Louis and Chicago against each other in an intense rivalry. The people of the city of St. Louis and other river interests supported the principle of free navigation for boats, whereas the citizens of Chicago and the railroad interests stood by the right of railroad companies to build a bridge.

    Southerners were opposed to any northern bridge because it would allow the north to settle the west in greater numbers. Davis made no objection at this time because he felt that the progress of the southern route seemed assured. In the spring of 1854, however, as the passage of the Kansas-Nebraska Act heated up sectional rivalries, Davis realized that his southern transcontinental railroad might be delayed. His interest in the Rock Island site grew.

  • 1855

    11/21/2015 5:32:03 PM PST · 73 of 153
    PeterPrinciple to Homer_J_Simpson

    1855 - Indian Wars: In Nebraska, 700 soldiers under American General William S. Harney avenge the Grattan Massacre by attacking a Sioux village, killing 100 men, women, and children.

    It is interesting to see all the background prior to the civil war. This is the first major clash with the Sioux? It is a response to this incident which could have been avoided http://www.legendsofamerica.com/wy-grattanfight.html


    Blue Water/Ash Hollow Battle (1855) - Called the Blue Water Battle or the Ash Hollow Battle, it was the first major clash between U.S. soldiers and the Sioux Indians. In 1855, to punish the Sioux for their depredations following the Grattan Fight near Fort Laramie, Wyoming the previous year, the Army sent out Colonel William S. Harney and an expedition of 600 men from Fort Leavenworth, Kansas Sioux village of Little Thunder in Blue Water Creek Valley, just above the creek’s junction with the North Platte River. By a circuitous route dragoons entered the valley and advanced downstream, while Harney and a force of infantrymen marched up the valley from the Platte. Attacked from two directions on September 3, 1855, the Indians scattered, but not before the troops killed 80 warriors, wounded five, and captured 70 women and children. Four soldiers met death and seven suffered wounds.

    The rest of the Sioux and Northern Cheyenne in the vicinity managed to avoid the troops. The latter moved northwestward to Fort Laramie, Wyoming and marched over the Fort Laramie-Fort Pierre Road through the heart of Sioux country to Fort Pierre, South Dakota on the Missouri River. There, they joined part of the expedition that had come up the Missouri River and spent the winter of 1855-56. For almost a decade most of the Sioux gave no further serious trouble. The site is in privately owned, but the 40-acre Ash Hollow State Historical Park overlooks the battlefield. It is located in Garden County on U.S. Highway 26, 1 ½ miles west of Lewellen, Nebraska.

  • 1855

    11/21/2015 5:15:16 PM PST · 72 of 153
    PeterPrinciple to PeterPrinciple

    1855 - Bessemer steelmaking process patented

    War is coming, this is important. Steel for bridges, railroad, skyscrapers, military


    Sir Henry Bessemer described the origin of his invention in his autobiography written in 1890. During the outbreak of the Crimean War, many English industrialists and inventors became interested in military technology. According to Bessemer, his invention was inspired by a conversation with Napoleon III in 1854 pertaining to the steel required for better artillery. Bessemer claimed that it “was the spark which kindled one of the greatest revolutions that the present century had to record, for during my solitary ride in a cab that night from Vincennes to Paris, I made up my mind to try what I could to improve the quality of iron in the manufacture of guns.”[5] At the time steel was used to make only small items like cutlery and tools, but was too expensive for cannons. Starting in January 1855 he began working on a way to produce steel in the massive quantities required for artillery and by October he filed his first patent related to the Bessemer process. He patented the method a year later in 1856.[5]

  • 1855

    11/21/2015 5:02:58 PM PST · 70 of 153
    PeterPrinciple to Homer_J_Simpson

    1855 - The Portland Rum Riot occurs in Portland, Maine.

    1830 highest per capita consumption of alcohol. lots of reformation besides slavery. I think immigrants were involved in the riots..................


    Current estimations show that per capita consumption of alcohol in America reached its peak in 1830. Its abuse led to violence, spousal and child abuse, loss of work, and sometimes, a night in jail. Drunkenness among children was not uncommon, either

    By mid-century, Portland’s Neal Dow (1804-1897) changed the tactics of the battle against alcohol by adopting a legislative approach. Rather than changing people’s attitudes, Dow’s new reformers would change laws. Rather than preaching moderation, they branded all drinkers as rum dealers. Indeed, Dow left the moderates behind, including wine drinker Governor William King, who founded the first statewide temperance association. In 1851 Dow guided his Maine Law through the legislature and Maine became the first “dry” state. Neighboring states, including Massachusetts, took the law as a model and passed similar anti-liquor reforms. The nation’s eastern-most state seemed to be living up to its motto, “Dirigo” (I lead) and, on paper at least, it stayed dry through National Prohibition. Celebrated as the Napoleon of Temperance, Dow promoted his approach nationally and internationally. In spite of endless adjustments, however, the Maine Law never succeeded in destroying the liquor traffic or public thirst. Dow’s own reputation was severely threatened in 1855 when he ordered the militia to fire on civilians as they descended upon Portland’s City Hall, looking for a stash of liquor they had heard was kept there. One man was killed by Dow’s forces. Portland’s Rum Riot demonstrated the passionate, sometimes irrational, zeal of both factions.

    Maine’s immigrant communities were also noticeably absent from the Maine Law ranks. Irish-Americans, whose younger men tended to embrace the stereotype of public drinking, often seemingly to spite Yankees such as Dow, were now given the brunt of the blame for outbreaks of violence. Portland had a remarkable number of riots in the 1830s, 40s, and 50s, often related to alcohol.

  • 1855

    11/21/2015 4:46:13 PM PST · 69 of 153
    PeterPrinciple to Homer_J_Simpson

    1855 - US adventurer William Walker conquers Nicaragua, reestablishes slavery

    Another individual very much in the news at the time and a part of the major issue. conquered Nicaragua and canceled their antislavery laws. Defeated by Costa Rica.


  • 1855

    11/21/2015 4:21:59 PM PST · 65 of 153
    PeterPrinciple to Homer_J_Simpson

    1855 - The Devil’s Footprints mysteriously appear in southern Devon.

    It was in interesting year. There were reports that church attendance increased.



    The mysterious footprints, which appeared overnight in heavy snowfall in Southern Devon in 1855, have never been adequately explained. According to contemporary reports, they stretched for over a hundred miles, and went through solid walls and haystacks, appearing on the other side as though there was no barrier. The extent of the footprints may have been exaggerated at the time, and they may have been the result of freak atmospheric conditions. But in truth the ‘footprints’, if that is what they were, still remain a complete mystery.

    On the night of the 8th of February 1855, heavy snowfall blanketed the countryside and small villages of Southern Devon. The last snow is thought to have fallen around midnight, and between this time and around 6.00am the following morning, something (or some things) left a myriad of tracks in the snow, stretching for a hundred miles or more, from the River Exe, to Totnes on the River Dart.

    The early risers were the first to find them, strange hoof-shaped prints in straight lines, passing over rooftops, through walls and covering huge areas of land. A set of the prints were even supposed to have bridged a two mile span of the river Exe, continuing on the other side as if the creature had walked over the water.

  • 1855

    11/21/2015 4:11:00 PM PST · 61 of 153
    PeterPrinciple to Homer_J_Simpson

    1855 - NYC regains Castle Clinton, to be used for immigration

    Immigration was a state issue in 1855. I believe the supreme court ruled it a federal issue in 1875, but congress passed no laws or few laws for many years.

    Castle Clinton had an interesting history.


    In the first half of the 19th century, most immigrants arriving in New York City landed at docks on the east side of the tip of Manhattan, around South Street. On August 1, 1855, Castle Clinton became the Emigrant Landing Depot, functioning as the New York State immigrant processing facility (the nation’s first such entity). It was operated by the state until April 18, 1890,[4] when the Federal Government took over control of immigration processing, which subsequently opened the larger and more isolated Ellis Island facility for that purpose on January 2, 1892. Most of Castle Clinton’s immigrant passenger records were destroyed in a fire that consumed the first structures on Ellis Island on 15 June 1897,[5] but it is generally accepted that over 8 million immigrants (and perhaps as many as 12 million) were processed during its operation. Called Kesselgarten by Yiddish-speaking Eastern European Jews, a “Kesselgarten” became a generic term for any situation that was noisy, confusing or chaotic, or where a “babel” of languages were spoken (a reference to the multitude of languages heard spoken by the immigrants from many countries at the site). Prominent persons that were associated with the administration of the immigrant station included Gulian Crommelin Verplanck, Friedrich Kapp, and John Alexander Kennedy.

  • 1855

    11/21/2015 3:23:37 PM PST · 51 of 153
    PeterPrinciple to Homer_J_Simpson

    Iowa Legislation in 1855

    To give us further background. This was the one referendum passed in Iowa in 1855.


    My understanding of history is that the 1830’s, 40’s, 50’s were very bad times, we were almost a cesspool regarding morals and virtue. This began a swing that took us too 1919 national prohibition then then the swing low again. Church Revivals began in the 30’s and 40’s.

  • 1855

    11/21/2015 3:12:05 PM PST · 50 of 153
    PeterPrinciple to centurion316

    And his conclusion may say it best:

    As a private soldier I knew nothing of the plans and motives of our leaders. They were brave men and may have been able, but they certainly proved to be unfortunate. General Lane’s friends called him a clear-headed, heroic champion of our cause; his enemies the reverse. He was and still is, a puzzle. Perhaps there was no one who came in personal contact with him who was not swayed more or less by his subtle influence. Some of that influence lingers with me still, and there is a secret pleasure in the knowledge that I was one of “Jim Lane’s boys.”

    But to a cool, dispassionate judgment this Hickory Point affair yields him little credit. It was a series of abortive attempts culminating in an unfortunate blunder that left Colonel Harvey to fight and suffer defeat alone. On the other hand, had Lane disregarded Governor Geary’s request and gained a victory at Hickory Point, would our cause have been advanced? The nation was seething, and a successful battle might have acted like a spark to a powder magazine, and precipitated our Civil War four years too soon. Most likely all was ordered for the best. For it was ballots and not bullets that finally freed Kansas from the threatened curse of African slavery.

  • 1855

    11/21/2015 2:48:11 PM PST · 48 of 153
    PeterPrinciple to centurion316

    I like the following and imagine things might be similar if we develop into a shooting war:


    Toward night my uncle returned, and his first words were: “Sam, there is going to be a battle to-morrow — do you want to go with the Topeka boys?”

    Boy like, I was only too eager to be off, but I met with strong opposition on the part of the women of the family. My sister was determined I should not go, and when all arguments failed she hid my gun. But I searched until I found it, and soon had my blanket, powderhorn and ammunition pouch gathered together.

  • 1855

    11/21/2015 2:45:02 PM PST · 46 of 153
    PeterPrinciple to centurion316

    The First Day’s Battle at Hickory Point

    This is a diary of personal experience on an issue much like we are experiencing today an issue that divides the country.


    Mr. Reader observed and experienced much of the Kansas Territorial conflict. He was a free-state sympathizer. The community centering at Indianola was largely proslavery. Mr. Reader was by nature a pacifist and for the most part avoided the clashes that often stirred the neighborhood. He became, however, a member of the Second Kansas State Militia and participated in the first day’s fight at Hickory Point. During the Civil War, in 1864 when the Price Raid threatened Kansas, he joined the Topeka contingent that was thrown into the defense. He was captured in the Battle of the Big Blue, but later escaped while being taken as a prisoner to Texas. This ended his military service, for after recovering from the effects of this experience he returned to the farm.

    The battle of Hickory Point occurred on September 13 and 14, 1856, and was one of the many collisions between the free-state and proslavery forces. Gov. John W. Geary had just arrived in the territory, and had issued his proclamation ordering all armed forces to disband. Gen. James H. Lane was at or near Topeka and did not hear of the order to disperse. With a small party of men he was about to start out towards Holton when he was met by messengers from the neighborhood of Osawkie, who informed him that proslavery men were committing outrages in the vicinity, that Grasshopper Falls was burned, and that it was their intention to burn other freestate towns and drive the citizens from the country. Lane marched to Osawkie at once, where his force was recruited from the free-state settlers near there. Learning that a large party of proslavery men was at Hickory Point, Lane marched his men to that place. The proslavery men were under command of Capt. H. A. Lowe, and included about forty South Carolinians.

    Hickory Point consisted of a few buildings on the Ft. Leavenworth-Ft. Riley military road and the Atchison-Topeka stage road. Its location was five and one-half miles north of the present Oskaloosa and about twenty-eight miles northeast of Topeka.

  • 1855

    11/21/2015 2:28:17 PM PST · 44 of 153
    PeterPrinciple to 21twelve

    I think civil war is appropriate.


    A civil war is a war between organized groups within the same state or country,[1] or, less commonly, between two countries created from a formerly united state.[2] The aim of one side may be to take control of the country or a region, to achieve independence for a region or to change government policies.[1] The term is a calque of the Latin bellum civile which was used to refer to the various civil wars of the Roman Republic in the 1st century BC.

    A civil war is a high-intensity conflict, often involving regular armed forces, that is sustained, organized and large-scale. Civil wars may result in large numbers of casualties and the consumption of significant resources.[3] Most modern civil wars involve intervention by outside powers. According to Patrick M. Regan in his book Civil Wars and Foreign Powers (2000) about 2/3rds of the 138 intrastate conflicts between the end of WWII and 2000 saw international intervention, with the United States intervening in 35 of these conflicts.[4]

  • 1855

    11/21/2015 2:19:24 PM PST · 43 of 153
    PeterPrinciple to Homer_J_Simpson

    1855 - The first locomotive runs from the Atlantic Ocean to the Pacific Ocean on the Panama Railway

    We don’t think about the railroad much these days, but it was a big deal back then. We bought the railroad back from the French when we started the canal.


    It was then, with the changing of the North American boundaries when the US came into possession of Oregon, and the war with Mexico giving California to the US, that the attention of North America was properly aroused to the necessity of a shorter route to the almost (at that time) inaccessible possessions.

    There were three routes to California from the East Coast. A man could go across the continent, presumably on his own two feet if he had to. He could take a ship for the long, uncomfortable and dangerous voyage around Cape Horn, or he could make the “pleasant voyage to Panama, stroll across the fifty miles of Isthmus to the Pacific and, after another easy sea voyage, find himself in San Fransisco

    The changes that took place were sparked initially by, of all things, the United States Post Office! Some new way had to be found to carry the growing volume of mail from the East Coast to California, and the Panama route was logical.
    They decided the road could be built in six months at a cost of one million dollars. True, there were swamps, but these could be filled. Crews of men could chop through the jungle and the numerous rivers and streams could be easily bridged. The cordillera, or hump, rose to a modes 300 feet— no height to deter railroad men who were already eyeing the Rockies and Sierra Nevada. To lay several miles of rail a day was commonplace in the States, and so the estimated time and money seemed reasonable for this bit of track which seemed scarcely more than an oversized spur.

    At the end of twenty months, by toil and sweat and back-break, seven precarious miles of track had been laid. The ends of the rails lay on reasonably solid ground at Gatun, on the edge of the Chagres valley. Work came to a halt. The money was all gone and the backers could not understand how it could take anyone, no matter how lazy or what the difficulties, so long to build a measly seven miles of railroad.

    The Panama Railroad is possibly the only line in the world that literally lifted itself up by its own shoelaces. All during the gold rush, miners were taken as far as the end of the road and then continued the journey on foot. The same high fares were in existence for years. Why reduce them? The passengers never complained! By the time the road was finished, nearly a third of its tremendous cost had already been liquidated.

    Notwithstanding all of the difficulties and discouragements, the road was successfully completed in 1855, just five years from the date of the beginning of its construction, at a total expenditure of $7,407,535.00. On January 27,1855, at midnight, in the pitch dark and in pelting rain, lit by sputtering whale oil lamps, the last rail was set in place on pine crossties. Totten himself had driven the last spike with a nine-pound maul. The following day, on January 28, 1855 the world’s first transcontinental train ran from ocean to ocean. The massive project was done!

    Upon completion the road stretched 47 miles (76 km), 3,020 feet (76 km) with a maximum grade of sixty feet to the mile (11.4 m/km or 1.14%). The summit grade, located 37.38 miles (60.16 km) from the Atlantic and 10.2 miles (16.4 km) from the Pacific, was 258.64 feet (78.83 m) above the assumed grade at the Atlantic terminus and 242.7 feet (74.0 m) above that at the Pacific, being 263.9 feet (80.4 m) above the mean tide of the Atlantic Ocean and the summit ridge 287 feet (87 m) above the same level.

  • 1855

    11/21/2015 1:35:26 PM PST · 35 of 153
    PeterPrinciple to Homer_J_Simpson

    The Long, Hard Winter of 1855-56

    A very interesting read, but long. Now that was the year of climate change..........................


    A correspondent in Kentucky has very obligingly sent us the following chronicle of the most remarkable spells of bitter weather known in the old world:
    In the year 301, the cold was so intense in Europe, that the Black Sea was frozen entirely over.
    In 401, the Pontus Sea, and the sea between Constantinople [now Istanbul] and Scutari in Turkey, were entirely frozen over.
    The Danube was frozen over in 462, so that a whole army crossed on the ice.
    The black Sea again frozen over in 765…
    Carriages crossed the Adriatic Sea, or Gulf of Venice, in 859, and in 860 the cold was so intense that cattle froze to death in their stalls. The Mediterranean Sea was so thickly frozen over, that it was passable for carriages and horses, and merchandise was transported across it on the ice.
    1133. This year the River Po, in Italy, was frozen from Cremona to the sea; wine burst the casks containing it, and the trees split with a loud report.
    1216. The River Po was frozen to a depth of sixteen feet.
    1234. The Mediterranean was again frozen over…
    1292. The Rhine was frozen over, and the snow is represented as being of an “enormous depth.”
    1323. The Baltic Sea was frozen over so as to be passable for six weeks.
    1344. All the rivers in Italy were frozen over.
    1349, 1492 [likely 1292] and 1408. The Baltic Sea was frozen over in each of these years.
    1384. The Rhine and Gulf of Venice were frozen over.
    1423, 1426 and 1459. In each of these years the traveling from Lubec to Prussia was performed on the ice.
    1620. The sea between Constantinople and Iskodar was passable on the ice.
    1670. The cold was intense throughout Europe.
    1681. This year the cold was so severe as to split whole forests of oak trees...
    1692. Wolves came into Vienna, and attacked men and women, owing to the intense cold and hunger…
    1776. This year the Danube was frozen over five feet thick below Vienna…

  • 1855

    11/21/2015 1:21:46 PM PST · 33 of 153
    PeterPrinciple to Homer_J_Simpson

    1855 - Clipper Guiding Star disappears in Atlantic, 480 dead

    Again lots of movement going on. Gold. Australia


    Owned by Miller & Thompson (Golden Line), Liverpool and built in 1853 by W. & R. Wright, St. John, Nova Scotia; 2,013 tons; 233x38x22.1 ft;

    The large clipper GUIDING STAR, owned by Miller & Thompson’s Golden Line completed her first round trip to Melbourne in 1854. On January 9th 1855, GUIDING STAR departed Liverpool to Australia with 62 crew and officers and 481 passengers on board, mostly emigrants. She was insured for £12,000, a huge amount at that time.

    She was last seen in the Southern Ocean by the American Ship MERCURY, on 12th February 1855. On 19th February, large icebergs were seen and narrowly avoided by the ship GEORGE MARSHALL, on the same route of GUIDING STAR, which at that time was about 36 hours behind the George Marshall.

    Ever since never was heard of the Guiding star. It is thought that she was embayed in a huge icefield that had boundaries extending from 44°S-28°W to 40°S-20°W.

    Many emigrant ships, including the GUIDING STAR promised a fast passage and they did that by going as far as possible South to catch up with favourable winds towards Australia.

  • 1855

    11/21/2015 1:12:36 PM PST · 31 of 153
    PeterPrinciple to Homer_J_Simpson

    1955 - US Congress authorizes registered mail

    The background is interesting as major issues are going on. The postal system was the internet of it’s day. The panama rail road cut 3 weeks off a mail to the west coast. 3/4 of all federal civilian workers were in the postal system. Note the effect on politicians..............

    The registered mail thing deserves a little thinking as the importance of it use for confidential documents?


    The postal system played a crucial role in national expansion. It facilitated expansion into the West by creating an inexpensive, fast, convenient communication system. Letters from early settlers provided information and boosterism to encourage increased migration to the West, helped scattered families stay in touch and provide assistance, assisted entrepreneurs in finding business opportunities, and made possible regular commercial relationships between merchants in the west and wholesalers and factories back east. The postal service likewise assisted the Army in expanding control over the vast western territories. The widespread circulation of important newspapers by mail, such as the New York Weekly Tribune, facilitated coordination among politicians in different states. The postal service helped integrate established areas with the frontier, creating a spirit of nationalism and providing a necessary infrastructure.[17]

    The Post Office in the 19th century was a major source of federal patronage. Local postmasterships were rewards for local politicians—often the editors of party newspapers. About 3/4 of all federal civilian employees worked for the Post Office. In 1816 it employed 3341 men, and in 1841, 14,290. The volume of mail expanded much faster than the population, as it carried annually 100 letters and 200 newspapers per 1000 white population in 1790, and 2900 letters and 2700 newspapers per thousand in 1840.[18]


    An Act of Congress provided for the issuance of stamps on March 3, 1847, and the Postmaster General immediately let a contract to the New York City engraving firm of Rawdon, Wright, Hatch, and Edson. The first stamp issue of the U.S. was offered for sale on July 1, 1847, in New York City, with Boston receiving stamps the following day and other cities thereafter. The 5-cent stamp paid for a letter weighing less than 1 oz (28 g) and traveling less than 300 miles, the 10-cent stamp for deliveries to locations greater than 300 miles, or twice the weight deliverable for the 5-cent stamp.

    Rail cars designed to sort and distribute mail while rolling were soon introduced.[20] RMS employees sorted mail “on-the-fly” during the journey, and became some of the most skilled workers in the postal service. An RMS sorter had to be able to separate the mail quickly into compartments based on its final destination, before the first destination arrived, and work at the rate of 600 pieces of mail an hour. They were tested regularly for speed and accuracy.[24]


    In 1855, William Henry Aspinwall completed the Panama Railway, providing rail service across the Isthmus and cutting to three weeks the transport time for the mails, passengers and goods to California. This remained an important route until the completion of the transcontinental railroad in 1869. Railroad companies greatly expanded mail transport service after 1862, and the Railway Mail Service was inaugurated in 1869.[20


    U.S. certified mail began in 1955 after the idea was originated by Assistant U.S. Postmaster General Joseph Cooper.[10] It is also acceptable to send U.S. Government classified information at the Confidential level using the Certified Mail service.

  • 1855

    11/21/2015 12:47:24 PM PST · 24 of 153
    PeterPrinciple to Homer_J_Simpson

    1855 - Soldiers shoot Jewish families in Coro, Venezuela

    World wide immigration going on. Money, taxation and corrupt governemtn as usual.


    In 1827, a group of Jews emigrated from the tiny island of Curacao to the nearby mainland port city of Coro, Venezuela. Twenty-eight years later, violent rioting drove the entire Jewish population – 168 individuals – back to Curacao. It was the first time that Jews had been driven out of an independent nation in South America.

    The hostility directed at Coro’s Jews was in part economic in nature. Venezuela’s banking system was in chaos, its government corrupt and unemployment rampant. Xenophobia – resentment of foreigners – was running high.

    Starting in the 1840s, the municipal government of Coro and the local military garrison asked the Jewish community for loans as advances against their taxes. These were made interest free, and at times were simply “voluntary” contributions as it became clear that the loans would not be repaid. Aizenberg notes, “With the passing of time these payments became not a financial resource which the government could tap in case of urgent need, but a regular source of funds which it came to expect as a matter of course.”

  • 1855

    11/21/2015 12:30:05 PM PST · 22 of 153
    PeterPrinciple to Homer_J_Simpson

    1855 - Abraham Gesner patents kerosene


    Gesner had been trying to organize a company to manufacture and sell the new lamp fuel. One of his first actions, around 1850 or so, was to coin a name for it. As one residue of the distillation was a kind of wax, Gesner decided to call his lamp fuel wax-oil, and combining the Greek words for wax and oil came up with “keroselain” and “keroselene” before finally settling on kerosene as neater and more analogous with such established names as benzene and camphene.

    In June 1854, Gesner obtained U.S. patent numbers 11,203, 11,204, and 11,205 for “improvement in kerosene burning fluids.” The three patents are essentially the same in text, but cover respectively what Gesner called “A,” “C,” and “B” kerosene. Under Gesner’s guidance, the Asphalt Mining and Kerosene Gas Company set up a factory at Newtown Creek on Long Island, changing its name to the North American Kerosene Gas Light Company.

    By 1857, kerosene was being advertised as an illuminant and lubricant throughout the United States and the British American provinces and Gesner’s company prospered, allowing him a comfortable life in Brooklyn, where he became a prominent figure in the local church and community.

    Unknown to Gesner, however, a Scottish chemist working in England in 1848 had distilled boghead coal to produce a light oil that when purified, made an excellent lamp fuel. He obtained a British patent for “paraffine-oil” in 1850 and an American patent two years later, fully two years before Gesner received his kerosene patents. Gesner’s Kerosene Company was eventually forced to pay a royalty to the Scottish chemist to continue manufacturing kerosene.

    By 1859, commercial production of petroleum had begun in northwestern Pennsylvania and southern Ontario, and by converting to petroleum as their raw material-a switch made easy by Gesner’s flexible design-the kerosene factories were able to produce the illuminant at about one-quarter of its former cost. The age of the kerosene lamp and the petroleum industry was launched but Gesner benefited little. He had made his contribution to refining technology and was replaced as the chemist of the Kerosene Company.

  • 1855

    11/21/2015 12:03:42 PM PST · 17 of 153
    PeterPrinciple to Homer_J_Simpson

    Historical Events for Year 1855

    Interesting year, lots of rabbit holes to investigate:


    Jan 9th - Clipper Guiding Star disappears in Atlantic, 480 dead

    Jan 23rd - The first bridge over the Mississippi River opens in what is now Minneapolis, Minnesota, a crossing made today by the Father Louis Hennepin Bridge.

    Jan 28th - The first locomotive runs from the Atlantic Ocean to the Pacific Ocean on the Panama Railway.

    Jan 31st - Western railroads blocked by snow

    Feb 3rd - Wisconsin Supreme Coutt declares US Fugitive Slave Law unconstitutional

    Feb 4th - Soldiers shoot Jewish families in Coro, Venezuela

    Feb 5th - British government of Palmerston forms

    Feb 8th - The Devil’s Footprints mysteriously appear in southern Devon.

    Feb 10th - US citizenship laws amended; all children of US parents born abroad granted US citizenship

    Feb 11th - Kassa Hailu is crowned Tewodros II, Emperor of Ethiopia, by Abuna Salama III in a ceremony at the church of Derasge Maryam.

    Feb 12th - Michigan State University was established.

    Feb 14th - Texas is linked by telegraph to the rest of the United States, with the completion of a connection between New Orleans and Marshall, Texas.

    Feb 24th - US Court of Claims forms for cases against government

    Mar 2nd - Aleksandr Romanov becomes tsar of Russia

    Mar 3rd - US Congress approves $30,000 to test camels for military use

    Mar 3rd - US Congress authorizes registered mail

    Mar 6th - Gustave Flaubert writes goodbye to Louise Colet

    Mar 7th - 17th Grand National: John Hanlon aboard Wanderer IRE wins

    Mar 8th - 1st train crosses 1st US railway suspension bridge, Niagara Falls

    Mar 15th - Louisiana establishes 1st health board to regulate quarantine

    Mar 24th - Manhattan Kansas founded as New Boston Kansas
    Physician and Geologist Abraham GesnerPhysician and Geologist Abraham Gesner

    Mar 27th - Abraham Gesner patents kerosene

    Apr 21st - 1st train crosses Miss River’s 1st bridge, Rock Is Ill-Davenport Ia

    Apr 26th - Composer Gioacchino Rossini leaves Italy

    Apr 28th - 1st veterinary college in US incorporated in Boston

    May 3rd - Antwerp-Rotterdam railway opens

    May 5th - NYC regains Castle Clinton, to be used for immigration

    Jun 1st - US adventurer William Walker conquers Nicaragua, reestablishes slavery

    Jun 2nd - The Portland Rum Riot occurs in Portland, Maine.

    Jun 5th - Anti-foreign anti-Roman Catholic Know-Nothing Party’s 1st convention

    Jun 13th - Opera “Les Vêpres Sicilenne” is produced (Paris)

    Jun 17th - Heavy French/British bombing of Sebastopol, Crimea: 2,000+ killed

    Jun 20th - Commissioners appointed to lay out SF streets west of Larkin

    Jun 28th - The Sigma Chi Fraternity was founded at Miami University

    Jul 4th - In Brooklyn, New York, the first edition of Walt Whitman’s book of poems, titled Leaves of Grass, is published.

    Jul 20th - 1st train from Rotterdam to Utrecht in Netherlands

    Jul 31st - Hottest July in Stockholm since at least 1756 (21.4°C avg)

    Aug 1st - Castle Clinton in NYC opens as 1st US receiving station for immigrants

    Aug 3rd - Rotterdam-Gouda railway opens

    Aug 4th - John Bartlett publishes “Familiar Quotations”

    Aug 9th - Battle of Acapulco during Mexican Liberal uprising

    Sep 3rd - Indian Wars: In Nebraska, 700 soldiers under American General William S. Harney avenge the Grattan Massacre by attacking a Sioux village, killing 100 men, women, and children.

    Sep 8th - Crimean war - assault of Malakof Tower under Patrice de Mac-Mahon, Duke of Magenta

    Sep 8th - British and French troops capture Sevastopol from the Russians, effectively ending the Crimean War.

    Sep 27th - George F Bristow’s “Rip Van Winkle”, 2nd American opera, opens in NYC

    Oct 9th - Isaac Singer patents sewing machine motor

    Oct 9th - Joshua Stoddard of Worcester, Massachusetts, patents first calliope

    Oct 17th - Bessemer steelmaking process patented
    Composer/Pianist Franz LisztComposer/Pianist Franz Liszt

    Oct 18th - Franz Liszt’s “Prometheus,” premieres

    Nov 17th - David Livingstone becomes the first European to see Victoria Falls in what is now Zambia and Zimbabwe.

  • The Roots of American Prosperity

    11/21/2015 11:40:32 AM PST · 14 of 15
    PeterPrinciple to Rurudyne

    Nitwittery leads to the Invisible Hand? (eventually)

  • Goldman eyes $20 oil as glut overwhelms storage sites

  • God Is Unchanging; Believe It

    11/20/2015 8:20:34 AM PST · 4 of 7
    PeterPrinciple to I want the USA back

    The definition of a good book is one that you can read over and over again and still learn something.

    The Bible is a Good Book. I am constantly finding it doesn’t say what I thought it said and it says a lot of things that are offensive to my human ears.

  • Hillary: Muslims 'Have Nothing Whatsoever To Do With Terrorism'

    11/20/2015 8:05:47 AM PST · 17 of 78
    PeterPrinciple to Kaslin

    She isn’t reading the reports either. I have posted this link a few times now.


  • The Roots of American Prosperity

    11/20/2015 7:54:15 AM PST · 8 of 15
    PeterPrinciple to econjack

    The Wealth of Nations is more of a philosophy, than a prescription. That is why it is not liked today. It requires thinking.

    The thought of an uncontrollable “Invisible Hand” is an anathema to modern thinking. Heck, we can control the climate now.

  • The Roots of American Prosperity

    11/20/2015 7:46:59 AM PST · 7 of 15
    PeterPrinciple to Fiddlstix

    It is a hard read but a good read. The are some very good audios:



    Surprisingly there is a comment at the youtube site that Adam Smith would support Bernie Sanders. I do not think the kid has reading and comprehensive skills.

    “because economic growth is inhibited by government spending for unproductive labor, it is better to have less government and, consequently, lower taxes on the capitalists so that they may accumulate more capital.”

  • Attkisson: Obama Doesn’t Even READ Reports From Intel Experts On Terrorist Groups

    11/20/2015 6:46:15 AM PST · 61 of 61
    PeterPrinciple to markomalley

    Here is an intelligence report that he doesn’t read:


  • Back to Bleating About Christian Terrorism

    11/20/2015 6:36:43 AM PST · 11 of 13
    PeterPrinciple to markomalley

    misdirection. Muslims sites will compare themselves to the Irish Republic also.

    But in their comparison, they NEVER disavow the terrorism done in the name of Islam. Nearest I can tell the Catholic church did disavow the Irish Republic. Watch the details folks, develop reading and thinking skills.

  • 'Where's yours?' Muslim Marine is swamped with support

    11/20/2015 6:28:13 AM PST · 56 of 97
    PeterPrinciple to Kartographer

    This is interesting. Please all read before responding. No wonder Zero does not read the intelligence reports.


    With suicide bombings spreading from Iraq to Afghanistan, the Pentagon has tasked intelligence analysts to pinpoint what’s driving Muslim after Muslim to do the unthinkable.

    Their preliminary finding is politically explosive: it’s their “holy book” the Quran after all, according to intelligence briefings obtained by WND [World Net Daily].