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Who Really Invented the Internet?
The Wall Street Journal ^ | July 23, 2012 | L. GORDON CROVITZ

Posted on 07/23/2012 7:06:51 AM PDT by Pharmboy

Contrary to legend, it wasn't the federal government, and the Internet had nothing to do with maintaining communications during a war.

A telling moment in the presidential race came recently when Barack Obama said: "If you've got a business, you didn't build that. Somebody else made that happen." He justified elevating bureaucrats over entrepreneurs by referring to bridges and roads, adding: "The Internet didn't get invented on its own. Government research created the Internet so that all companies could make money off the Internet."

It's an urban legend that the government launched the Internet. The myth is that the Pentagon created the Internet to keep its communications lines up even in a nuclear strike. The truth is a more interesting story about how innovation happens—and about how hard it is to build successful technology companies even once the government gets out of the way.

For many technologists, the idea of the Internet traces to Vannevar Bush, the presidential science adviser during World War II who oversaw the development of radar and the Manhattan Project....

...by the 1960s technologists were trying to connect separate physical communications networks into one global network—a "world-wide web." The federal government was involved, modestly, via the Pentagon's Advanced Research Projects Agency Network. Its goal was not maintaining communications during a nuclear attack, and it didn't build the Internet. Robert Taylor, who ran the ARPA program in the 1960s, sent an email to fellow technologists in 2004 setting the record straight: "The creation of the Arpanet was not motivated by considerations of war. The Arpanet was not an Internet. An Internet is a connection between two or more computer networks."

If the government didn't invent the Internet, who did?

(Excerpt) Read more at professional.wsj.com ...


TOPICS: Breaking News; Business/Economy; Extended News; Government; Politics/Elections
KEYWORDS: arpanet; braking; darpa; internet; invention; miltech; technology; ucla; usmilitary; xerox
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To: yldstrk
I was a TTY repairman for Ma Bell...had to work on the periphery equipment
51 posted on 07/23/2012 8:06:29 AM PDT by Roccus
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To: Pharmboy

Read the book “Where Wizards Stay up Late” and you will actually know the answer:

http://www.amazon.co.uk/Where-Wizards-Stay-Up-Late/dp/0684832674


52 posted on 07/23/2012 8:07:17 AM PDT by bigbob
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To: Pharmboy

It is an excellent article. Note the comments after, though. Some folks are freaking out. I’d like the hear the author follow up on some of the datapoints that others are spilling, though.....

I also loved the factoid about Jobs getting the investment (and the info) from Xerox private capital / equity....a less there, also regarding companies too large to change.


53 posted on 07/23/2012 8:07:44 AM PDT by ConservativeDude
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To: Pharmboy

I think AT&T started digitizing its long distance lines to reduce line loss before ARPA got involved.


54 posted on 07/23/2012 8:11:40 AM PDT by depressed in 06 (6 November, 2012, the day our embarrassment is sent back to Kenya.)
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To: bmwcyle

Thanks, man...great stuff.


55 posted on 07/23/2012 8:11:40 AM PDT by Pharmboy (Democrats lie because they must.)
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To: central_va

we would log into to porn sites just to see how they were pushing the technology envelope.”

And before that, you read the magazine articles just to see how cutting edge the journalism was.....


56 posted on 07/23/2012 8:11:57 AM PDT by ConservativeDude
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To: yldstrk

Well, the DoD certainly had needs and inspired some innovations; no question it was an early user as your history attests. However, the Internet was a collaboration between individuals in private industry and academia, with government employees adding to it, no doubt; but for the president to state that it was a ‘government invention’ is nonsense, and that is what Crovitz was dealing with.


57 posted on 07/23/2012 8:16:37 AM PDT by Pharmboy (Democrats lie because they must.)
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To: maryz; All
I heard years ago that DARPA bought the data packet switching idea from someone, I think a university professor.

I remember hearing something like that myself, but the name eludes me, while I'm thinking of it however, I would put in a plug for a fantastic book (that admittedly some may already have read) 'The Soul of a New Machine' by Tracy Kidder (1981), it details the development of the Data General 'Eagle' mini computer, and it falls into the category of "can't put it down" until you finish it. An excellent read.
58 posted on 07/23/2012 8:21:49 AM PDT by mkjessup (Romney is to conservatism what Helen Thomas is to a high fashion model walkway.)
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To: yldstrk

It is a vicious circle.

Men and women have their own Achilles heel when it comes to sinning, which is why there are more men in prison. The way they hurt tends to be more “verifiable” and physical. And pr0n is not just a male issue. When women let themselves go and have six months headaches, ignoring the biblical “your body is not your own” teaching, men WILL find other avenues.

The older I get (I’m 58 now), the more I see sex as similar to eating: Eating is necessary for physical health and sex is necessary for psychological health. And just as you can ruin yourself with junk food, you can ruin yourself with “junk sex”. And the wife that does not even attempt to meet the husband’s appetite in both areas is playing with fire.

Not that the woman is to blame. Far from it. But once she knows the risk, she may at least try to do her part to nurture a marriage where the risk is at least mitigated. And then the husband has to do his part.


59 posted on 07/23/2012 8:22:40 AM PDT by cuban leaf (Were doomed! Details at eleven.)
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To: TomGuy

Many years before 1994, amateur (ham) radio operators, myself included, were “chatting” with people all around the world in actual real time without using phone lines or satellites.


60 posted on 07/23/2012 8:24:17 AM PDT by broadcastdude (Tagline to be announced later.)
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To: MarkL

“healing” of network communications

Unfortunately the Internet we have to day is nowhere near the robust and self healing network they envisioned.

Take out a few key nodes and it’s worthless.


61 posted on 07/23/2012 8:25:02 AM PDT by DManA
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To: bmwcyle
Domestically, data communication over the phone lines is an AT&T monopoly. The ‘Picturephone’ of 1939, shown again at the New York World’s Fair in 1964, is still AT&T’s answer to the future of worldwide communications.

Don't know about 1939, but by the 60's and 70's, Picturephone was just the right fit. AT&T had control of dial network and the wire. PP allowed for xmit and rec of images and voice over three twisted pair through the dial network. Of course that all changed 1/1/84.

62 posted on 07/23/2012 8:28:06 AM PDT by Roccus
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To: Conservative Vermont Vet

I felt totally compelled to copy the pic you posted in #24, for future use. It truly represents the individual.


63 posted on 07/23/2012 8:31:58 AM PDT by Marine_Uncle (Honor must be earned.)
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To: TomGuy

That’s right. If ‘the Internet’ is going to be defined as the ability for computers to communicate across networks, you’ve really watered it down to something beyond that which we know today. Businesses were looking for and working on such basic interconnection for decades. For example, TCP/IP just happens to be one standard protocol that one out—largely as a ‘beyond IBM’ solution—in no small part because Ethernet cofounder Bob Metcalfe left PARC and in the late ‘70s founded 3Com, which successfully commercialized it.

It really is the ‘world wide web’ as proposed by Timothy Berners-Lee in the late ‘80s and which he commercialized in the early ‘90s that led to the phenomenon we know today.

There were weak attempts, known as ‘value-added networks’, through the ‘80s to provide a consumer-level network service that provided some of the more basic, popular Internet capabilities that spread like wildfire once TBL got netscape cranking.


64 posted on 07/23/2012 8:33:52 AM PDT by 9YearLurker
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To: Pharmboy

This is where I learned who invented the internet when I visited it in the 1990’s.


65 posted on 07/23/2012 8:36:12 AM PDT by bmwcyle (Corollary - Electing the same person over and over and expecting a different outcome is insanity)
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To: mkjessup

The thing about DARPA is there are no “DARPA labs” where things are designed, built, or coded. They essentially develop requirements and fund industry/FFRDCs/college labs to develop things.


66 posted on 07/23/2012 8:41:59 AM PDT by Strategerist
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To: Strategerist
I think they might take issue with your assertion:

http://www.darpa.mil/
67 posted on 07/23/2012 8:45:13 AM PDT by mkjessup (Romney is to conservatism what Helen Thomas is to a high fashion model walkway.)
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To: cuban leaf
Eating is necessary for physical health and sex is necessary for psychological health. And just as you can ruin yourself with junk food, you can ruin yourself with “junk sex”. And the wife that does not even attempt to meet the husband’s appetite in both areas is playing with fire.
Not that the woman is to blame. Far from it. But once she knows the risk, she may at least try to do her part to nurture a marriage where the risk is at least mitigated. And then the husband has to do his part.


I heartily concur. Here is where the wife can 'do her part':

And then any red blooded American male will know what to do with his 'part', err, I mean how to do his part. Right.
68 posted on 07/23/2012 8:52:34 AM PDT by mkjessup (Romney is to conservatism what Helen Thomas is to a high fashion model walkway.)
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To: mkjessup

I’ve worked on multiple DARPA projects (with a private contractor) so I think I know what I’m talking about.

They aren’t “performers” - there’s no DARPA lab where government DARPA employees in white coats are designing death rays or writing code. DARPA headquarters is a small office building where people manage contracts and move money around.

What DARPA does is solicit ideas, generate requests for proposals, choose contractors, fund them, manage programs, and then tries to get the military to transition those projects.

“To fulfill its mission, the Agency relies on diverse performers...”


69 posted on 07/23/2012 8:53:05 AM PDT by Strategerist
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To: MarkL

I can’t verify this anywhere else but in one of Duckie’s ramblings on an NCIS episode he said that photography was invented for porn.


70 posted on 07/23/2012 9:04:18 AM PDT by Hillarys Gate Cult (Liberals make unrealistic demands on reality and reality doesn't oblige them.)
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To: yldstrk
Porn breaks up marriages and hurts women and children. It is of satan

Interest in porn is just a symptom of a man who does not have a satisfying sex life at home.

71 posted on 07/23/2012 9:06:54 AM PDT by PapaBear3625 (If I can't be persuasive, I at least hope to be fun.)
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To: Pharmboy

It should be recognized that the military plays a key role in driving the cutting edge of technology and the future wealth of our country. Military need drove the initial development of nuclear, computer, internet, microwave, jet airplane technology. This process has been true for thousands of years. That’s because the military is usually the first customer for a new technology because only they are willing to pay the initial price. We’re seeing that today in robotics. Technology is the second front in our fight against socialism/big government and the military is on our side. In the future robots will be the first worker class in history that don’t mind having all their work output confiscated. Socialism might finally be sustainable. The race to push technology is very important in the fight to prevent America from being destroyed by leftism. If we continue to defund the military, we our defunding our future.


72 posted on 07/23/2012 9:17:55 AM PDT by Reeses
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To: mkjessup

Heck, the guy doesn’t even understand the protocols he’s talking about. He’s describing Ethernet as a protocol for connecting networks together. This is false. Ethernet is a local area network protocol for creating a network. He does mention TCP/IP, and that’s the important one for connecting networks together. Ethernet just happens to be the protocol which won, but there have been plenty of various LAN protocols over time.

I can remember using ARPANET back in my undergrad days before the internet really got opened to general use. Back then it was restricted mostly to universities, defense and research labs.

It was when Tim Bethers-Lee came up with the html protocol at CERN that the internet exploded. Before that it was limited to email and netnews groups which were just text based forums. I spent a lot of time on those old forums.

I can still remember when the post doc came into the lab to show off Mosaic to demonstrate this new web thing. The software was extremely buggy and there was about nothing to connect to in any case. Amazing how far it has all come.

There is some truth to the contention that the government invented the internet, but only in terms of the DARPA projects as you say, though the guy invented html on CERN’s dime which is government as well. Fully blossoming it into what it is today was a matter of private enterprise and it really does show the value of the free market because the whole internet/web area of commerce was so poorly understood by governments that they didn’t vaguely know how to start regulating it. Thus it was not strangled in infancy.


73 posted on 07/23/2012 9:22:36 AM PDT by drbuzzard (All animals are created equal, but some are more equal than others.)
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To: yldstrk
Judas Priest, I am a female and a very serious Catholic I am not viewing any porn, unlike most

Boy, are YOU missing out. They have soda-machines ******* with zombie donkeys now. This is GOOD STUFF!

74 posted on 07/23/2012 9:23:36 AM PDT by Lazamataz (I hate the Universe, and it hates me.)
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To: Strategerist
I beg to differ ...

75 posted on 07/23/2012 9:23:45 AM PDT by mkjessup (Romney is to conservatism what Helen Thomas is to a high fashion model walkway.)
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To: Pharmboy

“It wasn’t Al Gore. “

But...but...but...he SAID he did!


76 posted on 07/23/2012 9:24:22 AM PDT by Altariel ("Curse your sudden but inevitable betrayal!")
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To: drbuzzard; Lazamataz

***BUMP***

Dr Buzzard, you have indeed nailed it (w/apologies to Laz lol)


77 posted on 07/23/2012 9:26:44 AM PDT by mkjessup (Romney is to conservatism what Helen Thomas is to a high fashion model walkway.)
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To: Pharmboy
Al Gore did not invent the Internet. It was developed by the DOD under the leadership of DARPA to facilitate the management of increasingly complex defense projects run by a far flung network of military planners, defense contractors, government laboratories, electronics manufacturers, and research scientists in Academia and Think Tanks.

Academics at Universities really picked up on the net as way to communicate with colleagues world wide at time when long distance phone calls were very expensive.

Originally the net was tightly controlled by DOD.

In a historic quirk of fate, the the breakdown of the Soviet Union coincided almost perfectly with the development and mass marketing of powerful personal computers to consumers in the general public.

These users of these computers needed a way to link up and network with other users.

Researchers in the Silicone Valley were familiar with the ARPA net because many of them had worked on the development of the system or had been users of the system while in Grad School.

At universities like Stanford, the distinction between official and personal use of the net became blurred in the dynamic, free wheeling academic environment prevailing at the time as personal computer ownership by student and faculty soared and the DOD controls on the net wound down as the Cold War waned.

As a pioneer test case, Stanford University decided to wire the entire campus for networked communications from the dorms to the research labs and gave the project to a small Bay Area company run by a husband and wife team that developed and installed the hardware for the network using the ARPA net protocols as the framework for the system. The husband and wife did an amazing job of designing and building the hardware and even pulled the wire and installed the much of the system themselves. The system and the project was very successful and the husband and wife team went on to form a company known as Cisco Systems to commercialized the technology to the world market.

Stanford was a doable project because it already was extensively wired with infrastructure for the ARPA net, but the only existing infrastructure for a nation wide network was the DOD ARPA net.

At the same time the Cold War was winding down at an increasingly fast pace.

As the Cold War wound down, there were massive defense cuts so the military needs of the ARPA net declined and the DOD was looking for partners to share the enormous costs of keeping the network operating and maintaining it.

They looked to the emerging civilian computer networking industry to provide the necessary support.

Congress passed laws retooling the ARPA net for private use and the the rest is history. In fairness to AL Gore, he did take a lead in pushing this privatization.

78 posted on 07/23/2012 9:29:28 AM PDT by rdcbn
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To: Roccus

No. that a telephone system.


79 posted on 07/23/2012 9:29:50 AM PDT by fremont_steve
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To: bmwcyle

Awesome. And we were here. We were here when there was nothing and here for the beginning. No, not just here, we participated in its birth and guided its infancy. Do we know what have we done? Do we understand what we’ve created? What will we do when it becomes aware? If this shall be created in our own image, perhaps we should be afraid...very afraid.


80 posted on 07/23/2012 9:35:14 AM PDT by GBA (To understand what is happening to America and why, read The Harbinger by Jonathan Cahn)
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To: Roccus

LOL

We used to use those funny keypads installing speed dialers onto phone systems in the 80’s


81 posted on 07/23/2012 9:37:36 AM PDT by Vendome (Don't take life so seriously, you won't live through it anyway)
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To: bmwcyle; All

Thanks for posting this link. Great timeline from 1962 to 1992. Explains the beginning of connecting computers to the visual graphics.

“During the summer, students at NCSA in University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign modify Tim Berners-Lee’s hypertext proposal. In a few weeks MOSAIC is born within the campus. Larry Smarr shows it to Jim Clark, who founds Netscape as a result.

The WWW bursts into the world and the growth of the Internet explodes like a supernova.”


82 posted on 07/23/2012 9:38:30 AM PDT by bobsunshine
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To: Roccus
Of course that all changed 1/1/84.

The Internet was created by Judge Greene. ;-)

83 posted on 07/23/2012 9:39:57 AM PDT by Uri’el-2012 (Psalm 119:174 I long for Your salvation, YHvH, Your law is my delight.)
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To: cuban leaf
Very interesting story! And just to collaborate the veracity of yours, I will add one of my own.

Years ago, I was a contracted private English teacher to a high up Sony executive who had been moved over to a Sony subsidiary and needed to up his English skill level for the new job.

He was a decent, honest man, but more interested in reliving his past contributions to the company than in developing the English skills necessary for his future in the company. This was, in fact, the normal case for people in similar positions.

Anyway, since my Japanese skills were far better than your average contracted private English teacher, we soon developed a friendship. The gentleman was eventually a very useful connection in getting me out of English teaching and into serious corporate work.

One day, he told me he had been deeply involved in the Betamax development. They were smaller, better quality and technologicallty superior to the VHS technology. The Betamax was also on the market first.

While it is true that Sony did make the error of believing the major market for the technology would be people who would record their own television shows rather than a player technology for prerecorded shows, what made the VHS eventually win out was sheer market penetration.

The key reason for this was that Sony had limited prerecorded offerings (software) and refused to get involved in the distribution of pornography. The VHS rival technology did not. As a result of the Betamax loss, Sony bought (and nearly went under financially) Columbia Pictures and became less family friendly.

When Sony took down Toshiba with the Blu-Ray technology over the HD-DVD more recently, they had both the software (Columbia) and the lack of moral restraint against distributing pornography to fight that war to a strategic victory.

84 posted on 07/23/2012 9:42:15 AM PDT by Vigilanteman (Obama: Fake black man. Fake Messiah. Fake American. How many fakes can you fit in one Zer0?)
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To: rdcbn
Researchers in the Silicone Valley

You meant Silicon Valley. Silicone Valley is somewhere near Hollywood.

85 posted on 07/23/2012 9:45:08 AM PDT by Reeses
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To: Mr. K

” it was private individuals who made it small enough and powerful enough and fast enought “

And people think Thomas Edison invented the first electric light bulb. He did not! Not even close! But he improved it, and made it practical. He was also known to be quite an a-hole!

http://inventors.about.com/library/inventors/bllight2.htm


86 posted on 07/23/2012 9:46:26 AM PDT by Dr. Bogus Pachysandra ( Ya can't pick up a turd by the clean end!)
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To: yldstrk
But full credit goes to the company where Mr. Taylor worked after leaving ARPA: Xerox. It was at the Xerox PARC labs in Silicon Valley in the 1970s that the Ethernet was developed to link different computer networks. Researchers there also developed the first personal computer (the Xerox Alto) and the graphical user interface that still drives computer usage today.

The '70's is way before your '80's.

I was using public internet in the '80's. I certainly wouldn't give the DOD the credit.

87 posted on 07/23/2012 9:46:26 AM PDT by raybbr (People who still support Obama are either a Marxist or a moron.)
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To: bunkerhill7

I remember my brothers using TI’s and Commodores in the early 80’s to connect to BBS’ and the money quote that forever haunts me is “Can you imagine being able to connect any library in the world and read every book ever written?”

Told them it was stupid and a waste of time. I also recall those cassettes were, to me, just plain lame.

LOL

And yet, here I sit wasting time and whenever I want I can read just about any book every written....

If I’d only had a little imagination who knows where I’d be today...


88 posted on 07/23/2012 9:46:40 AM PDT by Vendome (Don't take life so seriously, you won't live through it anyway)
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To: yldstrk

Ya had me going until I read you about page and fould you are a lawyer.

Kidding, just kidding, take it easy


89 posted on 07/23/2012 9:48:33 AM PDT by Joe Boucher ((FUBO) Hey Mitt, F-you too pal)
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To: Pharmboy

So BUSH invented the internet!!


90 posted on 07/23/2012 9:49:50 AM PDT by patriot08 (TEXAS GAL- born and bred and proud of it!)
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To: adorno

funny factoid most people don’t know.

ROLM, the first major PBX manufacturer to make Voice Mail work with it’s system was also one of the 1st companies to provide military hardened computers to the military.


91 posted on 07/23/2012 9:49:55 AM PDT by Vendome (Don't take life so seriously, you won't live through it anyway)
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To: mkjessup

Ever see the movie, “Middlement”? It is historically interesting and the opening part is especially fascinating, and dead on.

BTW, those prices look pretty good but it looks like some of that stuff would result in injury. It also looks pretty “racy”!


92 posted on 07/23/2012 9:53:31 AM PDT by cuban leaf (Were doomed! Details at eleven.)
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To: Reeses
Correct. Both NASA and military applications have driven many technological innovations which have spurred the economy forward.

It is not a coincidence that many, if not most, of the key innovations which we enjoy today can trace their ancestry back to one of the following:

  1. The arms race in the 1980's where the Reagan years put our country into deeper debt, but ultimately paid off with bankrupting the Soviet Union.

  2. The space race of the 1960's where the mission of NASA gave us scores of intentions from condensed, freeze dried foods to thin, light termal protection.

  3. The war years of the 1940's which laid the groundwork for the industrial infrastructure to support almost everything since.

93 posted on 07/23/2012 9:55:49 AM PDT by Vigilanteman (Obama: Fake black man. Fake Messiah. Fake American. How many fakes can you fit in one Zer0?)
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To: mike_9958
I remember accessing university sites in the 70’s via the old phone modems, and continually upgraded modems and chatted all over the world and had email, via a university server, in the early 90’s.

My university had an intranet by 1977, with email and chat capabilities. Many of us students received homework assignments, studied graphic presentations of subject matter, communicated with our professors, or submitted assignments through this system. In retrospect it was not all that clunky. Being able to dial up the university from one's home-brew computer and work from the home office was a great convenience and a real thrill.

94 posted on 07/23/2012 9:57:34 AM PDT by ottbmare (The OTTB Mare)
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To: Vigilanteman

When it comes to distributing entertainment media, if you have moral restraints, it will be your undoing. It is quite sad, really. I did not like the prominent display of the 50 shades of gray books in Costco last Saturday.


95 posted on 07/23/2012 9:58:28 AM PDT by cuban leaf (Were doomed! Details at eleven.)
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To: yldstrk

They speak of the world wide web early on, but as I recall the eb came about after the development of the magellen browser that fully enabled HTML and the world wide web.

The Magellan and subsequent Netscape browsers were certainly not government developed so the Messianic claim is yet another indication of his shallow education.


96 posted on 07/23/2012 9:58:28 AM PDT by bert ((K.E. N.P. N.C. +12 ..... Present failure and impending death yield irrational action))
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To: Vigilanteman
The key reason for this was that Sony had limited prerecorded offerings (software) and refused to get involved in the distribution of pornography.

Sony could have/should have been Apple. They had the Walkman decades before mp3 players existed. Now that Apple has a reputation to protect they are becoming more like Sony and won't distribute seedy material. They probably won't make the transition into the coming consumer robotics "dot com II" boom.

97 posted on 07/23/2012 9:58:52 AM PDT by Reeses
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To: Pharmboy

So, the long and short of it: Al Gore & the federal gubmint didn’t invent the internets?


98 posted on 07/23/2012 9:59:58 AM PDT by Minutemen ("It's a Religion of Peace")
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To: Copenhagen Smile
Is such a thing even possible?


99 posted on 07/23/2012 10:00:12 AM PDT by F15Eagle (1 John 5:4-5, 4:15, 5:13; John 3:17-18, 6:69, 11:25, 14:6, 20:31; Rom10:8-11; 1 Tim 2:5; Titus 3:4-5)
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To: Reeses

Researchers in the Silicone Valley

You meant Silicon Valley. Silicone Valley is somewhere near Hollywood.


Yikes, global spell check and global find and replace is not my friend.

Actually, now I can one up Al Gore and say I invented the Silicone Valley.

Sounds pretty impressive does it not?


100 posted on 07/23/2012 10:00:21 AM PDT by rdcbn
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