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Who Really Invented the Internet?
The Wall Street Journal ^ | July 23, 2012 | L. GORDON CROVITZ

Posted on 07/23/2012 7:06:51 AM PDT by Pharmboy

Contrary to legend, it wasn't the federal government, and the Internet had nothing to do with maintaining communications during a war.

A telling moment in the presidential race came recently when Barack Obama said: "If you've got a business, you didn't build that. Somebody else made that happen." He justified elevating bureaucrats over entrepreneurs by referring to bridges and roads, adding: "The Internet didn't get invented on its own. Government research created the Internet so that all companies could make money off the Internet."

It's an urban legend that the government launched the Internet. The myth is that the Pentagon created the Internet to keep its communications lines up even in a nuclear strike. The truth is a more interesting story about how innovation happens—and about how hard it is to build successful technology companies even once the government gets out of the way.

For many technologists, the idea of the Internet traces to Vannevar Bush, the presidential science adviser during World War II who oversaw the development of radar and the Manhattan Project....

...by the 1960s technologists were trying to connect separate physical communications networks into one global network—a "world-wide web." The federal government was involved, modestly, via the Pentagon's Advanced Research Projects Agency Network. Its goal was not maintaining communications during a nuclear attack, and it didn't build the Internet. Robert Taylor, who ran the ARPA program in the 1960s, sent an email to fellow technologists in 2004 setting the record straight: "The creation of the Arpanet was not motivated by considerations of war. The Arpanet was not an Internet. An Internet is a connection between two or more computer networks."

If the government didn't invent the Internet, who did?

(Excerpt) Read more at professional.wsj.com ...


TOPICS: Breaking News; Business/Economy; Extended News; Government; Politics/Elections
KEYWORDS: arpanet; braking; darpa; internet; invention; miltech; technology; ucla; usmilitary; xerox
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It wasn't Al Gore.

This is a free piece at The Journal, so click through. Short, with some great facts.

1 posted on 07/23/2012 7:06:55 AM PDT by Pharmboy
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To: Pharmboy

2 posted on 07/23/2012 7:10:19 AM PDT by Copenhagen Smile (What if Jesus comes back like that?)
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To: Pharmboy

well, actually the internet WAS in fact a DOD thing. I remember when we first started using it; I was a Captain in the Army in the early 80s. It was very clunky and weird to use


3 posted on 07/23/2012 7:11:45 AM PDT by yldstrk ( My heroes have always been cowboys)
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To: Copenhagen Smile

HA! I should have anticipated that...that dude’s pic never fails to make me smile.


4 posted on 07/23/2012 7:12:04 AM PDT by Pharmboy (Democrats lie because they must.)
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To: yldstrk

And you can say the DOD was heavily involved in creating the computer itself

But, it was private individuals who made it small enough and powerful enough and fast enought so that you could view porn at home


5 posted on 07/23/2012 7:13:54 AM PDT by Mr. K ("The spread of evil is the symptom of a vacuum [of good]")
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To: Mr. K

Judas Priest, I am a female and a very serious Catholic I am not viewing any porn, unlike most


6 posted on 07/23/2012 7:15:19 AM PDT by yldstrk ( My heroes have always been cowboys)
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To: Pharmboy

“the idea of the Internet traces to Vannevar Bush”

So, in this case we CAN say, “Bush did it.”


7 posted on 07/23/2012 7:17:09 AM PDT by I cannot think of a name
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To: Pharmboy
"Government research created the Internet so that all companies could make money off the Internet."

I love that quote.

One of the top BS lines in history.

8 posted on 07/23/2012 7:17:36 AM PDT by Right Wing Assault (Dick Obama is more inexperienced now than he was before he was elected.)
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To: Mr. K; yldstrk
"But, it was private individuals who made it small enough and powerful enough and fast enought so that you could view porn at home"

I don't watch porn either, but this still made me guffaw. Its probably how many people do think about the 'net.

9 posted on 07/23/2012 7:18:36 AM PDT by Copenhagen Smile (What if Jesus comes back like that?)
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To: yldstrk

Read the article, it really was Bush’s fault!


10 posted on 07/23/2012 7:20:11 AM PDT by jurroppi1
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To: Pharmboy
Of course scientists had envisioned a future of global communications. However, what we think of today as the original DARAPANET was a specific DoD project FOR communications, specifically to allow dissimilar systems to communicate, as well as automatic "healing" of network communications, allowing the systems to "route around" outages. Back in the day, systems from different manufacturers, or even different lines within the same manufacturer could not communicate with each other. In addition to that, the design of the communications networks (what we know today as "layer 2 networks) did not allow for redundancy (until Radia Perlman's invention of "Spanning Tree") without all sorts of problems.

Of course there was no one "inventor" of the Internet, nor a single development that created it, however the original project by DARPA, and the protocols developed by BBN were what morphed into the Internet we all know and Freep by.

Mark

11 posted on 07/23/2012 7:22:34 AM PDT by MarkL (Do I really look like a guy with a plan?)
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To: Pharmboy
The crux of the biscuit:

"It's important to understand the history of the Internet because it's too often wrongly cited to justify big government."

A very interesting read, thanks!

12 posted on 07/23/2012 7:22:44 AM PDT by Slump Tester (What if I'm pregnant Teddy? Errr-ahh -Calm down Mary Jo, we'll cross that bridge when we come to it)
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To: yldstrk
But full credit goes to the company where Mr. Taylor worked after leaving ARPA: Xerox. It was at the Xerox PARC labs in Silicon Valley in the 1970s that the Ethernet was developed to link different computer networks. Researchers there also developed the first personal computer (the Xerox Alto) and the graphical user interface that still drives computer usage today.
This is my understanding of it. I've know about this from other sources for decades.
13 posted on 07/23/2012 7:22:53 AM PDT by samtheman (Obama. Mugabe. Chavez. (Obamugavez))
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To: Mr. K
But, it was private individuals who made it small enough and powerful enough and fast enought so that you could view porn at home

It is amazing at just how many technical innovations and their implementation into common usage have been driven by porn.

And cats.

But mostly porn.

Mark

14 posted on 07/23/2012 7:24:57 AM PDT by MarkL (Do I really look like a guy with a plan?)
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To: yldstrk
It was very clunky and weird to use

AutoVON?

15 posted on 07/23/2012 7:25:21 AM PDT by Roccus
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To: Pharmboy
EVEN if people say the gov made it, who funds the gov? Where does the money to fund said gov come from?

*** Even though we now borrow much of it, in the end, Americans who are private citizens will pay for it. In the end, no matter wht Obama and the Dems say, private citizens pay for gov, through money earned from business. PS- I did read the article...

16 posted on 07/23/2012 7:26:22 AM PDT by PghBaldy (Obama 07/22/12: "we all reflect on how we can do something about some of the senseless violence...")
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To: Pharmboy

SO.......Bush invented the internet....Vannevar Bush.


17 posted on 07/23/2012 7:26:33 AM PDT by hoosiermama (Obama: "Born in Kenya" Lying now or then.)
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To: yldstrk

“In the early 80’s”

Yep, I remember that time. I built my first PC in 1982.

Ran with some really great techs then. Most of them worked for the labs near where I lived in NM.


18 posted on 07/23/2012 7:29:34 AM PDT by Texas Fossil (Government, even in its best state is but a necessary evil; in its worst state an intolerable one)
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To: Pharmboy

In the mid-late 80s, when desktop computers became popular, BBS [Bulletin Board Systems] sprang up in all major cities. They included chat, downloads, forums. BBS’s connected home computers via a BBS center.

The ‘internet’ was not really available to the general public until about 1994. [My first experience on it was in late 1995. My first internet chat — in Fort Worth — was with a guy in Australia. I was in awe to be ‘chatting’ with someone half-way around the world in almost real time.]

ISPs and connection options blossumed during the next few years.

I recall that SWBell in Ft. Worth didn’t want to upgrade their telephone lines [residential Internet was dial-up, because cable TV providers had not entered the market yet]. SWBell official thought the internet was just a passing fad. In a couple of years (late 90s), the phone line connections were crowded — with landline phone, fax, and dial-up.


19 posted on 07/23/2012 7:32:51 AM PDT by TomGuy
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To: Roccus

wow, yes, absolutely!!!!!!! I hadn’t thought about that word in years


20 posted on 07/23/2012 7:33:04 AM PDT by yldstrk ( My heroes have always been cowboys)
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To: Pharmboy
While the Internet may have had roots in government programs it was entrepreneurs who made it into the technological marvel of the millennia. Can you imagine where the Internet would be if the government had controlled and developed it? I am sure it would be at least 20 years behind where it is today or still just a university based curiosity.

However even more key to the Internet is computer technology. Again entrepreneurs and private companies made the first integrated circuits (Fairchild Semiconductor), IBM and Xerox gave us the PC architecture and the basis for a windows graphic users interface and of course Bill Gates and Steven jobs were not government bureaucrats either.

Obama's assertion that the government invented the internet is as bogus as his birth certificate.

21 posted on 07/23/2012 7:33:51 AM PDT by The Great RJ
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To: Right Wing Assault

yeah, the reason for the creation was for government use. That private industry was able to make use of it indicates the creativity of private industry, nothing more. Government doesn’t create things for private industry.


22 posted on 07/23/2012 7:35:20 AM PDT by yldstrk ( My heroes have always been cowboys)
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To: yldstrk

DARPA, wasn’t it?


23 posted on 07/23/2012 7:35:38 AM PDT by carriage_hill (All libs and most dems think that life is just a sponge bath, with a happy ending.)
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To: Pharmboy
Photobucket

This is no different than Dear Leader's WHOPPER that "Ramadan" has been "observed" in the White House since Jefferson held the first "Iftar" dinner 200 years ago and gave the impression that this has been an ongoing "practice" ever since.

Complete and utter Bovine Excrement!!!

Jefferson NEVER held an "Iftar" dinner and it wasn't until our clueless, dupe and naive, "Compassionate Conservative" (Boosh) that the observance of Ramadan in the WH (to prove that Islam was/is a "Religion of Pieces") began as an annual event.

24 posted on 07/23/2012 7:36:26 AM PDT by Conservative Vermont Vet
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To: Pharmboy

If my memory can function, it started out early 80`s, `90`s as it was all BBS`s and newsgroup protocols and using GOPHER archive search engine out of Univ. of Wisconsin at the local library.


25 posted on 07/23/2012 7:36:26 AM PDT by bunkerhill7 (GOPHER was not GOREPHER???? . what??? Who knew? .)
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To: Pharmboy

Too bad the article doesn’t answer the question of exactly who invented the world wide interweb ethernet thingy.


26 posted on 07/23/2012 7:38:55 AM PDT by subterfuge (BUILD MORE NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS NOW!!!)
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To: Copenhagen Smile; Mr. K; yldstrk
...powerful enough and fast enought so that you could view porn at home

Porn was also a driving force in the development of 'colored' monitors -- through CGI, EGA, VGA.

Porn always seems to grab onto new technology and communications methods, from cave paintings to canvas art to photography, TV, computers.
27 posted on 07/23/2012 7:40:18 AM PDT by TomGuy
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To: hoosiermama

Bush did it?


28 posted on 07/23/2012 7:40:53 AM PDT by HereInTheHeartland ("The writing is on the wall - Unions are screwed. reformist2 10:04 PM #27")
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To: Pharmboy

What about Alexander Graham Bell, Marconi and Wernher Von Braugn. Edison and so many others. All of them built the foundation of what we call the internet. Tim Berners-Lee is credited with inventing the world wide web.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tim_Berners-Lee


29 posted on 07/23/2012 7:41:40 AM PDT by Lurkina.n.Learnin (The democratic party is the greatest cargo cult in history.)
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To: yldstrk

For good or evil, porn has driven web innovation like nothing else has. In the early days, mid 90’s, we would log into to porn sites just to see how they were pushing the technology envelope.


30 posted on 07/23/2012 7:41:48 AM PDT by central_va ( I won't be reconstructed and I do not give a damn.)
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To: yldstrk

Do you remember when the internet community chastised a user for trying to sell his computer or something in his messages? The meme back then was powerful: The internet will never be used for commerce of any kind.

:-P


31 posted on 07/23/2012 7:42:24 AM PDT by cuban leaf (Were doomed! Details at eleven.)
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To: central_va

You are making think then, that the internet is evil. I will probably start weaning myself off of it and go back to just using my computer for word processing.


32 posted on 07/23/2012 7:43:55 AM PDT by yldstrk ( My heroes have always been cowboys)
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To: Lurkina.n.Learnin
From the article:

If the government didn't invent the Internet, who did? Vinton Cerf developed the TCP/IP protocol, the Internet's backbone, and Tim Berners-Lee gets credit for hyperlinks.

33 posted on 07/23/2012 7:46:21 AM PDT by Pharmboy (Democrats lie because they must.)
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To: PghBaldy
EVEN if people say the gov made it, who funds the gov? Where does the money to fund said gov come from?

And, who does the government turn to when they actually want something to be built? It's private industry that is contracted to build anything the government uses, whether it be for the armed forces or for the non-military government equipment. In essence, anything that the government does or builds, comes from non-government contractors. The government itself doesn't have the expertise to build what a private company can, and so, the government contracts go to those private companies, where the expertise exists.
34 posted on 07/23/2012 7:46:21 AM PDT by adorno
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To: cuban leaf

AND I remember there was a big debate about free software vs purchased.


35 posted on 07/23/2012 7:46:25 AM PDT by yldstrk ( My heroes have always been cowboys)
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To: Pharmboy

Bflr


36 posted on 07/23/2012 7:48:43 AM PDT by r-q-tek86 ("It doesn't matter how smart you are if you don't stop and think" - Dr. Sowell)
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To: Pharmboy

I was using Prodigy to follow the Persian Gulf War in ‘90-’91. Clunky, slow, but the basics of the internet were all there.


37 posted on 07/23/2012 7:49:13 AM PDT by Oratam
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To: Pharmboy

YDBT!


38 posted on 07/23/2012 7:49:58 AM PDT by the invisib1e hand (If Bill Ayers had a son, he'd look like James Holmes.)
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To: Pharmboy
Its goal was not maintaining communications during a nuclear attack, and it didn't build the Internet. Robert Taylor, who ran the ARPA program in the 1960s, sent an email to fellow technologists in 2004 setting the record straight: "The creation of the Arpanet was not motivated by considerations of war. The Arpanet was not an Internet. An Internet is a connection between two or more computer networks."

I'm calling *BULL$H*T" on Taylor and that statement. Why?

There are word games being played here, DARPA (Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency) developed the network prototype for what would become the Internet not for the purpose of communications DURING a nuclear attack, but AFTER such an attack, should other means of electronic communications be rendered unreliable or unusable due to EMP. The whole concept of 'data packet switching' began with DARPA. It is TRUE that the objective was to develop a reliable means of communication between one or more computers, that is what a network IS.

And if that isn't enough, my late father worked for all of his adult life in the Department of Defense, and his latter years at ERADCOM (Electronics Research And Development Command), and without disclosing any classified data, he made clear to me that DARPA's goals were primarily oriented around preparation and defensive measures to secure and fortify our communications in a time of war.

But of course in the end, Barky is probably right, after all 0bama (P*ss Be Upon Him) speaks nothing but truth, right? ;)
39 posted on 07/23/2012 7:50:24 AM PDT by mkjessup (Romney is to conservatism what Helen Thomas is to a high fashion model walkway.)
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To: yldstrk

Actually, porn was what kick started VCR movie’s. It was porn that kick started computers and CD-Roms. It is porn that was the leading edge of internet commerce.

Porn is huge with men. Back in the mid 1990’s I was considered a “computer guru” by most of the folks in my church (about 1,500 attending members. They would always call on me if they were having computer problems.

Anyway, even with church deacons, it was interesting to sort their internet history by file size and check out the jpg’s. Usually you didn’t even have to open files called “Hotcoedsbambi.jpg” and such to get the idea.

My wife worked at a catholic college in a midwestern state when we were dating. She would comment on how hard the boys worked in the computer lab on their assignments. So I flew out there one day and she was showing me around. We got to the computer lab and I noticed the layout included a string of five or six computers who’s monitors faced the back wall. I asked her if that was where the boys were working until the wee hours of the morning. She said yes.

We walked up to one of them and I showed here the internet temporary files library, sorted by file size. I showed her the file names (See name above for name type) and opened one file. This was in the days where the image slowly paints from top to bottom. We got about halfway down before she told me to close it.

All the files had a time stamp later than 11:00 PM.

The school closed the computer lab after 10:00 after she brought it to their attention.

Men are susceptible to porn. All men who have not been castrated, that is. And the internet has caused porn to become a major factor in the lives of most males over the age of 13. It is having an impact on our culture, but it will get much, MUCH worse, and in ways nobody has anticipated. You can bank on it.


40 posted on 07/23/2012 7:53:22 AM PDT by cuban leaf (Were doomed! Details at eleven.)
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To: cuban leaf

Porn breaks up marriages and hurts women and children. It is of satan


41 posted on 07/23/2012 7:56:14 AM PDT by yldstrk ( My heroes have always been cowboys)
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To: yldstrk

Did you read the article?


42 posted on 07/23/2012 7:57:59 AM PDT by Pharmboy (Democrats lie because they must.)
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To: TomGuy
“The ‘internet’ was not really available to the general public until about 1994”

Actually that is not correct. Four Universities kept it alive and you could dial in (via long distance!) to the system.

(I am painfully aware of this because one of my employees ran up a $93 phone bill in in 1987 doing just that! My wife wanted to fire him but I convinced her to let him pay it back.)

43 posted on 07/23/2012 7:58:00 AM PDT by I cannot think of a name
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To: Pharmboy

“In the Beginning, ARPA created the ARPANET.

And the ARPANET was without form and void.

And darkness was upon the deep.

And the spirit of ARPA moved upon the face of the network and ARPA said, ‘Let there be a protocol,’ and there was a protocol. And ARPA saw that it was good.

And ARPA said, ‘Let there be more protocols,’ and it was so. And ARPA saw that it was good.

And ARPA said, ‘Let there be more networks,’ and it was so.”

— Danny Cohen

This Internet Timeline begins in 1962, before the word ‘Internet’ is invented. The world’s 10,000 computers are primitive, although they cost hundreds of thousands of dollars. They have only a few thousand words of magnetic core memory, and programming them is far from easy.

Domestically, data communication over the phone lines is an AT&T monopoly. The ‘Picturephone’ of 1939, shown again at the New York World’s Fair in 1964, is still AT&T’s answer to the future of worldwide communications.

But the four-year old Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) of the U.S. Department of Defense, a future-oriented funder of ‘high-risk, high-gain’ research, lays the groundwork for what becomes the ARPANET and, much later, the Internet.

By 1992, when this timeline ends,

the Internet has one million hosts
the ARPANET has ceased to exist
computers are nine orders of magnitude faster
network bandwidth is twenty million times greater.


44 posted on 07/23/2012 7:58:58 AM PDT by bmwcyle (Corollary - Electing the same person over and over and expecting a different outcome is insanity)
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To: Pharmboy

I remember accessing university sites in the 70’s via the old phone modems, and continually upgraded modems and chatted all over the world and had email, via a university server, in the early 90’s. All of my work for took place via phones and either interfaced with local BBS types or university for newsgroups and emails.

I don’t actually remember being assigned an IP address until much later.

The first browser I used in the early 90’s stored the graphic symbols on my computer rather and the what was transmitted was instructions and text. I remember the upgrades of loading additional graphics files / symbols. I wish I could remember the name of the “browser”.

What amazes me is how “simple” it all turned out. At the time I started using this and implementing this stuff it was very hard to do reliably.


45 posted on 07/23/2012 8:00:14 AM PDT by mike_9958
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To: TomGuy

Also Celluloid Movies, VCR Video Recorders, MPEG and JPEG compressions, and many other technologies


46 posted on 07/23/2012 8:00:42 AM PDT by Mr. K ("The spread of evil is the symptom of a vacuum [of good]")
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To: Pharmboy

got to admit no


47 posted on 07/23/2012 8:01:48 AM PDT by yldstrk ( My heroes have always been cowboys)
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To: Pharmboy
The Complete History Here
48 posted on 07/23/2012 8:02:34 AM PDT by bmwcyle (Corollary - Electing the same person over and over and expecting a different outcome is insanity)
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To: mkjessup
'data packet switching' began with DARPA.

I heard years ago that DARPA bought the data packet switching idea from someone, I think a university professor.

49 posted on 07/23/2012 8:02:42 AM PDT by maryz
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To: Pharmboy

and the article may be a perspective, but I recall when the DOD did what they did and the article (which I have now read but don’t regard as gospel) leaves the DOD out.


50 posted on 07/23/2012 8:04:49 AM PDT by yldstrk ( My heroes have always been cowboys)
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