It may have developed in response to external forces, but it was never mandated by Scripture. In fact in Scripture you see at the council in Jerusalem a congregational approach to resolving issues.
when Peter died he was succeeded by Linus, who was succeeded by Anacletus, who was succeeded by Clement, etc.
Your list has some gaps and problems with credibility. Also, you do not see in the generations following the Apostles the supernatural powers in these leaders that the Apostles had. Thus you may a lengthy historical lineage, but it is no direct pipe line to GOD.
This was coming into being before the writing of some of the latest New Testament scriptures and certainly before they were codified and declared Holy Scripture (by bishops).
The Scriptures were Holy whether one group of Christians recognized them or not.