These people actually get paid to make educated guesses like this? Where can I get a job like that?
By looking at the evidence. The universe obeys physical laws, you know.
These people actually get paid to make educated guesses like this?
No, they get paid to make measurements like this.
Where can I get a job like that?
You start by spending twelve years in college (as I did).
Well, first you start out with an IQ of say 140+, then you matriculate at a first tier university, and major in Physics, or Mathematics, or Astronomy, and after four years of hard work you get your Bachelor's degree; then you apply to grad school and get into an Astronomy/Astrophysics program, and after a couple more years of hard work, you'll have your Master's degree, and then you put in more time doing original research on your doctoral Thesis, which, with a bit of luck and a lot of hard work, might be accepted, and so you eventually get your Ph.D.
Then you go to work, continuing to do original research like these guys did, and by that time you would have come to understand how it is that scientists are able to devise observations that measure the age of the Universe using multiple independent methods, which indicate very similar results.
This has to be the ultimate job --predicting the age of the Universe as one of the "important" tasks of an astronomer. Sorta like the "job" of counting the angels on the head of a pin.
I remember the scientists a few years ago who "discovered" asteroids colliding with the planet Jupiter. They were dancing in the streets. Total contribution to Mankind for this crucial "discovery"? Nada. Zilch. Nothing.
First, you go to college. The catch is that you have to spend most of your time there acutally studying, as opposed to protesting and harassing women like certain ex-POTUSes who shall remain nameless.