Can they be arrested and tried in our courts if they break our laws? Then they are subject to the jurisdiction of the United States.
Why were indians not given citizenship under the 14th when it was first enacted?
Shirely, they were under the jurisdiction of the U.S.? Right?
That will be the issue for the court or congress.
Can they forced to serve in our military? Enlisted maybe. can they vote in our elections? Sorry, everyone has a law abiding responsibility wherever they are.
The children of diplomats from foreign countries can be arrested here. However, during the debate on the floor of Congress over the Fourteenth Amendment, the author of the Amendment specifically said that those children are not subject to the jurisdiction of the United States. He was fully aware that such children could be arrested, and there is quite a bit of evidence that without that very firm statement the Amendment might never have passed in the first place.
Ive never entered Germany legally as a visitor or refugee - do I currently have all the benefits of German citizenship? Would I if I snuck into the country and started living under a bridge?
Can they seek refuge in another country's embassy or consulate while in the United States, where they are not subject to our jurisdiction?
If they can, then they do not have full and complete allegiance to the United States.
There is no territory inside the United States where you or I can avoid United States jurisdiction, is there?
That doesn't make any sense. If your interpretation is correct, everything following the "and" is completely unnecessary and redundant.